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F8775 Sigma

Formaldehyde solution

for molecular biology, 36.5-38% in H2O

Synonym: Formalin

Purchase

Properties

Related Categories Core Bioreagents, General Reagents, Life Science Reagents for DNA/RNA Electrophoresis, Life Science Reagents for Northern and Southern Blotting, Life Science Reagents for Protein Electrophoresis,
grade   for molecular biology
vapor density   1.03 (vs air)
vapor pressure   52 mmHg ( 37 °C)
autoignition temp.   572 °F
contains   10-15% methanol
concentration   36.5-38% in H2O
density   1.09 g/mL at 25 °C(lit.)

Description

Analysis Note

Tested for use in formaldehyde-agarose gel electrophoresis of RNA.

Application

Formaldehyde is used as a denaturant in formaldehyde-agarose gel electrophoresis of RNA. A gel concentration of 2.2 M formaldehyde is typically used. The formaldehyde concentration as supplied is approximately 13.3M.

Packaging

25, 500 mL in poly bottle

Price and Availability

Suggested Laboratory Gloves


Laboratory GlovesThis substance has been tested against several types of hand protection for CE compliance. Click below to find the recommended gloves for handling this product.





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Acetic acid

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histological tissue fixative

Methanol
322415Methanol

anhydrous, 99.8%

Paraformaldehyde

reagent grade, crystalline

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Formaldehyde solution

ACS reagent, 37 wt. % in H2O, contains 10-15% Methanol as stabilizer (to prevent polymerization)

Formaldehyde solution

contains 10-15% methanol as stabilizer, 37 wt. % in H2O

Formaldehyde solution

37 wt. % in H2O

Formaldehyde solution

for molecular biology, BioReagent, ≥36.0% in H2O (T)

histological tissue fixative

Safety & Documentation

Safety Information

Symbol 
Signal word 
Danger
Hazard Codes (Europe) 
T
Risk Statements (Europe) 
Safety Statements (Europe) 
53-26-36/37/39-45
RIDADR 
UN 2209 8 / PGIII
WGK Germany 
2
RTECS 
LP8925000
Flash Point(F) 
147.2 °F
Flash Point(C) 
64 °C

Protocols & Articles

Articles

Determination of Water Content in Formaldehyde Using Karl Fischer Titration

Aldehydes have a tendency to form acetals. At the same time water is formed. Water is bound in the bisulfite addition. Short chain aldehydes show a strong tendency to acetal formation, aromatic aldeh...
Keywords: Size-exclusion chromatography, Titrations

Determination of Water Content in Formaldehyde, free water Using Karl Fischer Titration

Aldehydes have a tendency to form acetals. At the same time water is formed. Water is bound in the bisulfite addition. Short chain aldehydes show a strong tendency to acetal formation, aromatic aldeh...
Keywords: Titrations

Determination of Water Content in Formaldehyde, total water Using Karl Fischer Titration

Aldehydes have a tendency to form acetals. At the same time water is formed. Water is bound in the bisulfite addition. Short chain aldehydes show a strong tendency to acetal formation, aromatic aldeh...
Keywords: Titrations

Protocols

Chromatin Immunoprecipitation Kit CHP1 Protocol

Product Description Storage/Stability Workflow Preparation Instructions Procedure Analysis Troubleshooting Guide Frequently Asked Questions Materials References Poster & Application Note

Peer-Reviewed Papers

References

Set your institution to view full text papers.

Specific interactions between Smad proteins and AP-1 components determine TGFβ-induced breast cancer cell invasion. Sundqvist A, Zieba A, Vasilaki E, et al. Oncogene 32(31), 3606-15, (2013)

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RNA molecular weight determinations by gel electrophoresis under denaturing conditions, a critical reexamination. Lehrach, H., et al. Biochemistry 16, 4743-4751, (1977)

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Deficiency of Th17 cells in hyper IgE syndrome due to mutations in STAT3. Ma CS J. Exp. Med. 205(7), 1551-7, (2008)

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Evaluating the repair of DNA derived from formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tissues prior to genomic profiling by SNP-CGH analysis. Hosein AN, Song S, McCart Reed AE, et al. Lab. Invest. 93(6), 701-10, (2013)

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Formaldehyde induces hyperphosphorylation and polymerization of Tau protein both in vitro and in vivo. Lu J, Miao J, Su T, et al. Biochim. Biophys. Acta 1830(8), 4102-16, (2013)

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Heme degradation by Staphylococcus aureus IsdG and IsdI liberates formaldehyde rather than carbon monoxide. Matsui T, Nambu S, Ono Y, et al. Biochemistry 52(18), 3025-7, (2013)

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Contribution of condensed tannins and mimosine to the methane mitigation caused by feeding Leucaena leucocephala. Soltan YA, Morsy AS, Sallam SM, et al. Arch. Anim. Nutr. 67(3), 169-84, (2013)

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Adult granulosa cell tumours (GCT): clinicopathological outcomes including FOXL2 mutational status and expression. Rosario R, Wilson M, Cheng WT, et al. Gynecol. Oncol. 131(2), 325-9, (2013)

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The effects of under 6 hours of formalin fixation on hormone receptor and HER2 expression in invasive breast cancer: a systematic review. Kalkman S, Barentsz MW, and van Diest PJ Am. J. Clin. Pathol. 142(1), 16-22, (2014)

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Multicolor microRNA FISH effectively differentiates tumor types. Renwick N, Cekan P, Masry PA, et al. J. Clin. Invest. 123(6), 2694-702, (2013)

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A tissue quality index: an intrinsic control for measurement of effects of preanalytical variables on FFPE tissue. Neumeister VM, Parisi F, England AM, et al. Lab. Invest. 94(4), 467-74, (2014)

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Monoclonal antibody selectively reactive with myelin sheaths of the peripheral nervous system in paraffin-embedded material. van Dijk WR, van Haperen MJ, Stefanko SZ, et al. Acta Neuropathol. 71(3-4), 311-5, (1986)

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Structural and molecular interrogation of intact biological systems. Chung K, Wallace J, Kim SY, et al. Nature 497(7449), 332-7, (2013)

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Loss of heterozygosity at the CYP2D6 locus in breast cancer: implications for tamoxifen pharmacogenetic studies. Johnson JA, Hamadeh IS, and Langaee TY J. Natl. Cancer Inst. 107(2), doi:10.1093/jnci/dju437, (2015)

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Hidden formaldehyde in e-cigarette aerosols. Jensen RP, Luo W, Pankow JF, et al. N. Engl. J. Med. 372(4), 392-4, (2015)

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Retentiveness of various luting agents used with implant-supported prosthesis: an in vitro study. Garg P, Pujari M, Prithviraj DR, et al. J. Oral Implantol. 40(6), 649-54, (2014)

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Loss of heterozygosity at the CYP2D6 locus in breast cancer: implications for germline pharmacogenetic studies. Goetz MP, Sun JX, Suman VJ, et al. J. Natl. Cancer Inst. 107(2), doi:10.1093/jnci/dju401, (2015)

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Quantification of the effect of Lipo-PGE1 on angiogenesis. Eo S, Kwon C, Lee H, et al. J. Plast. Reconstr. Aesthet. Surg. 68(1), 104-12, (2015)

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Central adenosine A1 and A2A receptors mediate the antinociceptive effects of neuropeptide S in the mouse formalin test. Holanda AD, Asth L, Santos AR, et al. Life Sci. 120, 8-12, (2015)

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Sequence artifacts in DNA from formalin-fixed tissues: causes and strategies for minimization. Do H and Dobrovic A Clin. Chem. 61(1), 64-71, (2015)

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Does topology drive fiber polymerization? Huang L, Hsiao JP, Powierza C, et al. Biochemistry 53(49), 7824-34, (2014)

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Chromosome-wide aneuploidy study of cultured circulating myeloid progenitor cells from workers occupationally exposed to formaldehyde. Lan Q, Smith MT, Tang X, et al. Carcinogenesis 36(1), 160-7, (2015)

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Test of four colon cancer risk-scores in formalin fixed paraffin embedded microarray gene expression data. Di Narzo AF, Tejpar S, Rossi S, et al. J. Natl. Cancer Inst. 106(10), doi:10.1093/jnci/dju247, (2014)

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Analysis of biological and technical variability in gene expression assays from formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded classical Hodgkin lymphomas. Vera-Lozada G, Scholl V, Barros MH, et al. Exp. Mol. Pathol. 97(3), 433-9, (2014)

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Textile industry manufacturing by-products induce human melanoma cell proliferation via ERK1/2 activation. Rizzi M, Cravello B, and Renò F Cell Prolif. 47(6), 578-86, (2014)

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Combining immunodetection with histochemical techniques: the effect of heat-induced antigen retrieval on picro-Sirius red staining. Gadd VL J. Histochem. Cytochem. 62(12), 902-6, (2014)

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Rapid real-time PCR for detection of Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex DNA in formalin-fixed paraffin embedded tissues: 16% of histological 'sarcoid' may contain such DNA. Surat G, Wallace WA, Laurenson IF, et al. J. Clin. Pathol. 67(12), 1084-7, (2014)

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Risk assessment of population inhalation exposure to volatile organic compounds and carbonyls in urban China. Du Z, Mo J, and Zhang Y Environ. Int. 73, 33-45, (2014)

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MicroRNA expression signatures for the prediction of BRCA1/2 mutation-associated hereditary breast cancer in paraffin-embedded formalin-fixed breast tumors. Tanic M, Yanowski K, Gómez-López G, et al. Int. J. Cancer 136(3), 593-602, (2015)

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[Tissue fixation in clinical practice: the 120-year-old formalin]. Méhes G and Beke L Orv. Hetil. 155(14), 550-3, (2014)

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Study on analgesic and anti-inflammatory properties of Cordia myxa fruit hydro-alcoholic extract. Ranjbar M, Varzi HN, Sabbagh A, et al. Pak. J. Biol. Sci. 16(24), 2066-9, (2013)

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Reply by authors. J. Urol. 191(5), 1474, (2014)

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MicroRNA in situ hybridization for formalin fixed kidney tissues. Kriegel AJ and Liang M J. Vis. Exp. (81), doi:10.3791/50785, (2013)

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Lymphatic and nerve distribution throughout the parametrium. Bonneau C, Cortez A, Lis R, et al. Gynecol. Oncol. 131(3), 708-13, (2013)

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[Advantages and disadvantages of zink-ethanol-formaldehyde as a fixative for immunocytochemistry and confocal laser microscopy]. Korzhevskiĭ DE, Sukhorukova EG, Gilerovich EG, et al. Morfologiia. 143(2), 81-5, (2013)

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Bacteria detected on surfaces of formalin fixed anatomy cadavers. Tabaac B, Goldberg G, Alvarez L, et al. Ital. J. Anat. Embryol. 118(1), 1-5, (2013)

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[Methods for extraction of exopolymeric complex in plankton and biofilm growth mode of Stenotrophomonas maltophilia 22M]. Boretskaia MA and Suslova OS Mikrobiol. Z. 75(2), 45-9, (2013)

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Sealing ability of various restorative materials as coronal barriers between endodontic appointments. Tapsir Z, Aly Ahmed HM, Luddin N, et al. J. Contemp. Dent. Pract. 14(1), 47-50, (2013)

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[Ionic conjugates of sulfate carboxymethyl cellulose with dialkylaminomethyl derivatives of 2-isobornyl-4-methylphenol: synthesis and study of anti-inflammatory and analgesic activity]. Chukicheva IIu, Buravlev EV, Torlopov MA, et al. Bioorg. Khim. 38(6), 729-33, (2012)

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A detailed protocol for formaldehyde-assisted isolation of regulatory elements (FAIRE). Simon JM, Giresi PG, Davis IJ, et al. Curr. Protoc. Mol. Biol. Chapter 21, Unit21.26, (2013)

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Extracellular microRNAs activate nociceptor neurons to elicit pain via TLR7 and TRPA1. Park CK, Xu ZZ, Berta T, et al. Neuron 82(1), 47-54, (2014)

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Discrimination of complete hydatidiform mole from its mimics by immunohistochemistry of the paternally imprinted gene product p57KIP2. Castrillon DH, Sun D, Weremowicz S, et al. Am. J. Surg. Pathol. 25(10), 1225-30, (2001)

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Cheminformatics analysis of assertions mined from literature that describe drug-induced liver injury in different species. Denis Fourches et al Chem. Res. Toxicol. 23, 171-83, (2010)

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Comprehensive genomic profiling of relapsed and metastatic adenoid cystic carcinomas by next-generation sequencing reveals potential new routes to targeted therapies. Ross JS, Wang K, Rand JV, et al. Am. J. Surg. Pathol. 38(2), 235-8, (2014)

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Voltage-gated sodium channel in grasshopper mice defends against bark scorpion toxin. Rowe AH, Xiao Y, Rowe MP, et al. Science 342(6157), 441-6, (2013)

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A small molecule cell-impermeant Hsp90 antagonist inhibits tumor cell motility and invasion. Tsutsumi S Oncogene 27(17), 2478-87, (2008)

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Brief fixation does not affect assessment of hormone receptor expression in invasive breast carcinoma biopsies: paving the road for same-day tissue diagnostics. Kalkman S, Barentsz MW, Witkamp AJ, et al. Am. J. Surg. Pathol. 38(8), 1071-8, (2014)

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Elevated Skp2 protein expression in human prostate cancer: association with loss of the cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor p27 and PTEN and with reduced recurrence-free survival. Yang G, Ayala G, De Marzo A, et al. Clin. Cancer Res. 8(11), 3419-26, (2002)

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Dioxygenases catalyze O-demethylation and O,O-demethylenation with widespread roles in benzylisoquinoline alkaloid metabolism in opium poppy. Farrow SC and Facchini PJ J. Biol. Chem. 288(40), 28997-9012, (2013)

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Hepatocyte proliferation in chronic hepatitis C: correlation with degree of liver disease and serum alpha-fetoprotein. Wilfredo Canchis P, Gonzalez SA, Isabel Fiel M, et al. Liver Int. 24(3), 198-203, (2004)

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Exposure to low doses of formaldehyde during pregnancy suppresses the development of allergic lung inflammation in offspring. Maiellaro M, Correa-Costa M, Vitoretti LB, et al. Toxicol. Appl. Pharmacol. 278(3), 266-74, (2014)

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NRAS mutations are more prevalent than KIT mutations in melanoma of the female urogenital tract--a study of 24 cases from the Netherlands. van Engen-van Grunsven AC, Küsters-Vandevelde HV, De Hullu J, et al. Gynecol. Oncol. 134(1), 10-4, (2014)

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Retrograde adenoviral vector targeting of nociresponsive pontospinal noradrenergic neurons in the rat in vivo. Howorth PW, Teschemacher AG, and Pickering AE J. Comp. Neurol. 512(2), 141-57, (2009)

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High miR-21 expression from FFPE tissues is associated with poor survival and response to adjuvant chemotherapy in colon cancer. Oue N, Anami K, Schetter AJ, et al. Int. J. Cancer 134(8), 1926-34, (2014)

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Formaldehyde-based whole-mount in situ hybridization method for planarians. Bret J. Pearson et al Dev. Dyn. 238, 443-50, (2009)

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Reliable PCR quantitation of estrogen, progesterone and ERBB2 receptor mRNA from formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tissue is independent of prior macro-dissection. Tramm T, Hennig G, Kyndi M, et al. Virchows Arch. 463(6), 775-86, (2013)

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[Simplified, low-cost gene expression profiling for the prediction of outcome in breast cancer based on routine histologic specimens]. Szász AM, Ács B, Ágoston E, et al. Orv. Hetil. 154(16), 627-32, (2013)

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The implausibility of leukemia induction by formaldehyde: a critical review of the biological evidence on distant-site toxicity. Heck Hd and Casanova M Regul Toxicol Pharmacol 40(2), 92-106, (2004)

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The influenza virus M2 protein cytoplasmic tail interacts with the M1 protein and influences virus assembly at the site of virus budding. Chen BJ J. Virol. 82(20), 10059-70, (2008)

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Pak1 and Pak2 mediate tumor cell invasion through distinct signaling mechanisms. Coniglio SJ, Zavarella S, and Symons MH Mol. Cell. Biol. 28(12), 4162-72, (2008)

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Role of nasal packing in surgical outcome for chronic rhinosinusitis with polyposis. Verim A, Seneldir L, Naiboğlu B, et al. Laryngoscope 124(7), 1529-35, (2014)

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A comparison of CMV detection in gastrointestinal mucosal biopsies using immunohistochemistry and PCR performed on formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tissue. Mills AM, Guo FP, Copland AP, et al. Am. J. Surg. Pathol. 37(7), 995-1000, (2013)

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Molecular fixative enables expression microarray analysis of microdissected clinical cervical specimens. Li G, van Niekerk D, Miller D, et al. Exp. Mol. Pathol. 96(2), 168-77, (2014)

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Measuring chromatin interaction dynamics on the second time scale at single-copy genes. Poorey K, Viswanathan R, Carver MN, et al. Science 342(6156), 369-72, (2013)

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Ammonia and formaldehyde participate in the formation of 2-amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5-b]pyridine (PhIP) in addition to creati(ni)ne and phenylacetaldehyde. Zamora R, Alcón E, and Hidalgo FJ Food Chem. 155, 74-80, (2014)

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Impact of Schwartz enhanced visualization solution on staging colorectal cancer and clinicopathological features associated with lymph node count. Chapman B, Paquette C, Tooke C, et al. Dis. Colon Rectum 56(9), 1028-35, (2013)

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Gene-gun particle with pro-opiomelanocortin cDNA produces analgesia against formalin-induced pain in rats. Lu CY, Chou AK, Wu CL, et al. Gene Ther. 9(15), 1008-14, (2002)

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Matching maternal isodisomy in mucinous carcinomas and associated ovarian teratomas provides evidence of germ cell derivation for some mucinous ovarian tumors. Kerr SE, Flotte AB, McFalls MJ, et al. Am. J. Surg. Pathol. 37(8), 1229-35, (2013)

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Argon plasma coagulation therapy versus topical formalin for intractable rectal bleeding and anorectal dysfunction after radiation therapy for prostate carcinoma. Yeoh E, Tam W, Schoeman M, et al. Int. J. Radiat. Oncol. Biol. Phys. 87(5), 954-9, (2013)

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Chip calorimetry for fast and reliable evaluation of bactericidal and bacteriostatic treatments of biofilms. F Buchholz et al Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 54, 312-9, (2010)

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Roles of DacB and spm proteins in clostridium perfringens spore resistance to moist heat, chemicals, and UV radiation. Daniel Paredes-Sabja et al Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 74, 3730-8, (2008)

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Mitotane has an estrogenic effect on sex hormone-binding globulin and corticosteroid-binding globulin in humans. Nader N, Raverot G, Emptoz-Bonneton A, et al. J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab. 91(6), 2165-70, (2006)

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An immortalization-dependent switch in integrin function up-regulates MMP-9 to enhance tumor cell invasion. Lamar JM, Pumiglia KM, and DiPersio CM Cancer Res. 68(18), 7371-9, (2008)

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The X-inactivation trans-activator Rnf12 is negatively regulated by pluripotency factors in embryonic stem cells. Navarro P, Moffat M, Mullin NP, et al. Hum. Genet. 130(2), 255-64, (2011)

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Elevated expression of IL2 is associated with increased infiltration of CD8+ T cells in biliary atresia. Shinkai M, Shinkai T, Puri P, et al. J. Pediatr. Surg. 41(2), 300-5, (2006)

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DNA copy number profiling reveals extensive genomic loss in hereditary BRCA1 and BRCA2 ovarian carcinomas. Kamieniak MM, Muñoz-Repeto I, Rico D, et al. Br. J. Cancer 108(8), 1732-42, (2013)

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Environmental triggers of nocturnal dry cough in infancy: new insights about chronic domestic exposure to formaldehyde in the PARIS birth cohort. Roda C, Guihenneuc-Jouyaux C, and Momas I Environ. Res. 123, 46-51, (2013)

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Formaldehyde exposure impairs the function and differentiation of NK cells. Kim EM, Lee HY, Lee EH, et al. Toxicol. Lett. 223(2), 154-61, (2013)

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Inhaled formaldehyde induces DNA-protein crosslinks and oxidative stress in bone marrow and other distant organs of exposed mice. Ye X, Ji Z, Wei C, et al. Environ. Mol. Mutagen. 54(9), 705-18, (2013)

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Mutation analysis of the EGFR gene and downstream signalling pathway in histologic samples of malignant pleural mesothelioma. Mezzapelle R, Miglio U, Rena O, et al. Br. J. Cancer 108(8), 1743-9, (2013)

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Effects of tissue fixation on coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering images of brain. Galli R, Uckermann O, Koch E, et al. J. Biomed. Opt. 19(7), 071402, (2014)

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Different role of spinal 5-HT(hydroxytryptamine)7 receptors and descending serotonergic modulation in inflammatory pain induced in formalin and carrageenan rat models. Yang J, Bae HB, Ki HG, et al. Br. J. Anaesth. 113(1), 138-47, (2014)

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Detection of chlamydial bodies and antigens in the central nervous system of patients with multiple sclerosis. Sriram S, Ljunggren-Rose A, Yao SY, et al. J. Infect. Dis. 192(7), 1219-28, (2005)

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Opposing roles of corticotropin-releasing factor and neuropeptide Y within the dorsolateral bed nucleus of the stria terminalis in the negative affective component of pain in rats. Ide S, Hara T, Ohno A, et al. J. Neurosci. 33(14), 5881-94, (2013)

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Novel immunohistochemical localization of 28,000 molecular-weight (Mr) calcium binding protein (calbindin-D28k) in enterochromaffin cells of the human appendix and neuroendocrine tumors (carcinoids and small-cell carcinomas) of the midgut and foregut. Katsetos CD, Jami MM, Krishna L, et al. Arch. Pathol. Lab. Med. 118(6), 633-9, (1994)

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Molecular characterization of feline immunodeficiency virus budding. Benjamin G. Luttge et al J. Virol. 82, 2106-19, (2008)

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An improved design of water-soluble propofol prodrugs characterized by rapid onset of action. Lang BC, Yang J, Wang Y, et al. Anesth. Analg. 118(4), 745-54, (2014)

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qPCR increases sensitivity to detect cytomegalovirus in formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tissue of gastrointestinal biopsies. McCoy MH, Post K, Sen JD, et al. Hum. Pathol. 45(1), 48-53, (2014)

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IL-13 induces a bronchial epithelial phenotype that is profibrotic. Malavia NK Respir. Res. 9, 27, (2008)

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The neurovascular relationships and the blood supply of the trochlear nerve: surgical anatomy of its cisternal segment. Marinković S, Gibo H, Zelić O, et al. Neurosurgery 38(1), 161-9, (1996)

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A model of human nasal epithelial cells adapted for direct and repeated exposure to airborne pollutants. Bardet G, Achard S, Loret T, et al. Toxicol. Lett. 229(1), 144-9, (2014)

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Formaldehyde induces micronuclei in mouse erythropoietic cells and suppresses the expansion of human erythroid progenitor cells. Ji Z, Li X, Fromowitz M, et al. Toxicol. Lett. 224(2), 233-9, (2014)

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Attenuation of subchronic formaldehyde inhalation toxicity with oral administration of glutamate, glycine and methionine. Katsnelson BA, Degtyareva TD, Privalova LI, et al. Toxicol. Lett. 220(2), 181-6, (2013)

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Formaldehyde exposure and leukemia: critical review and reevaluation of the results from a study that is the focus for evidence of biological plausibility. Gentry PR, Rodricks JV, Turnbull D, et al. Crit. Rev. Toxicol. 43(8), 661-70, (2013)

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Enhanced neuronal Met signalling levels in ALS mice delay disease onset. M Genestine et al Cell Death Dis. 2, e130, (2011)

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Semi-automated liquid chromatography-mass spectrometric imaging platform for enhanced detection and improved data analysis of complex peptides. Zhang Z, Jiang S, and Li L J. Chromatogr. A 1293, 44-50, (2013)

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Rac1-mediated signaling plays a central role in secretion-dependent platelet aggregation in human blood stimulated by atherosclerotic plaque. Dwivedi S, Pandey D, Khandoga AL, et al. J. Transl. Med. 8, 128, (2010)

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TRP and ASIC channels mediate the antinociceptive effect of citronellyl acetate. Rios ER, Rocha NF, Carvalho AM, et al. Chem. Biol. Interact. 203(3), 573-9, (2013)

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Supratentorial primitive neuroectodermal tumours of the brain: multidirectional differentiation does not influence prognosis. A clinicopathological report of 18 patients. Visée S, Soltner C, Rialland X, et al. Histopathology 46(4), 403-12, (2005)

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Direct Transcriptional Control of a p38 MAPK Pathway by the Circadian Clock in Neurospora crassa. Teresa M. Lamb et al PLoS ONE 6, e27149, (2011)

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Effect of formaldehyde inactivation on poliovirus. Wilton T, Dunn G, Eastwood D, et al. J. Virol. 88(20), 11955-64, (2014)

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Recruitment of CREB1 and histone deacetylase 2 (HDAC2) to the mouse Ltbp-1 promoter regulates its constitutive expression in a dioxin receptor-dependent manner. Gomez-Duran A J. Mol. Biol. 380(1), 1-16, (2008)

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Immunocytochemistry performed on the cell-transferred direct smears of the fine-needle aspirates: a comparison study with the corresponding formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tissue. Wu HH, Jones KJ, and Cramer HM Am. J. Clin. Pathol. 139(6), 754-8, (2013)

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Impact of tissue processing, archiving and enrichment techniques on DNA methylation yield in rectal carcinoma. Leong KJ, James J, Wen K, et al. Exp. Mol. Pathol. 95(3), 343-9, (2013)

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The protective effect of geniposide on human neuroblastoma cells in the presence of formaldehyde. Sun P, Chen JY, Li J, et al. BMC Complement Altern. Med. 13, 152, (2013)

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Postmortem distribution of sildenafil in histological material. Pagani S, Mirtella D, Mencarelli R, et al. J. Anal. Toxicol. 29(4), 254-7, (2005)

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Formalin-inactivated Coxiella burnetii phase I vaccine-induced protection depends on B cells to produce protective IgM and IgG. Zhang G, Peng Y, Schoenlaub L, et al. Infect. Immun. 81(6), 2112-22, (2013)

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Alcohol fat clearing increases lymph node yield after surgery for colorectal cancer. Duldulao M, Booth C, Denham L, et al. Am. Surg. 80(10), 1054-8, (2014)

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Is conservative management expedient in the treatment of Zargar's grade 3b gastric injuries after formalin ingestion? Virgilio E, Aurello P, Sirimarco D, et al. Am. Surg. 79(9), e294-5, (2013)

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Diffusion-controlled toluene reference material for VOC emissions testing: international interlaboratory study. Howard-Reed C, Liu Z, Cox S, et al. J. Air Waste Manag. Assoc. 64(4), 468-80, (2014)

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Detection of the epidermal growth factor receptor, amphiregulin and epiregulin in formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded human placenta tissue by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry imaging. Mahmoud K, Cole LM, Newton J, et al. Eur. J. Mass Spectrom. (Chichester, Eng.) 19(1), 17-28, (2013)

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Radical precursors and related species from traffic as observed and modeled at an urban highway junction. Rappenglück B, Lubertino G, Alvarez S, et al. J. Air Waste Manag. Assoc. 63(11), 1270-86, (2013)

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Diagnostic utility of targeted next-generation sequencing in problematic cases. Sehn JK, Hagemann IS, Pfeifer JD, et al. Am. J. Surg. Pathol. 38(4), 534-41, (2014)

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Identification of epithelial stromal interaction 1 as a novel effector downstream of Krüppel-like factor 8 in breast cancer invasion and metastasis. Li T, Lu H, Shen C, et al. Oncogene, doi:10.1038/onc.2013.415, (2013)

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Combined multi-gene analysis at the RNA and protein levels in single FFPE tissue sections. Ostalecki C, Konrad A, Thurau E, et al. Exp. Mol. Pathol. 95(1), 1-6, (2013)

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Role of 5-HT₁B/₁D receptors in the reduction of formalin-induced nociception and secondary allodynia/hyperalgesia produced by antimigraine drugs in rats. Godínez-Chaparro B, López-Santillán FJ, Argüelles CF, et al. Life Sci. 92(22), 1046-54, (2013)

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Thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura causing rapid unexpected death: value of CD61 immunohistochemical staining in diagnosis. Burke AP, Mont E, Kolodgie F, et al. Cardiovasc. Pathol. 14(3), 150-5, (2005)

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Nine human sparganosis cases in Thailand with molecular identification of causative parasite species. Boonyasiri A, Cheunsuchon P, Suputtamongkol Y, et al. Am. J. Trop. Med. Hyg. 91(2), 389-93, (2014)

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Use of the platelet reactivity index by Grotemeyer, platelet function analyzer, and retention test Homburg to monitor therapy with antiplatelet drugs. Koscielny J, Aslan T, Meyer O, et al. Semin. Thromb. Hemost. 31(4), 464-9, (2005)

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Spatial distribution of histone methylation during MHC class II expression. Chou SD Mol. Immunol. 45(4), 971-80, (2008)

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Identification of N,N-dimethylamphetamine formed by methylation of methamphetamine in formalin-fixed liver tissue by multistage mass spectrometry. Shakleya DM, Kraner JC, Kaplan JA, et al. Forensic Sci. Int. 157(2-3), 87-92, (2006)

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Quantitative analysis of ERG expression and its splice isoforms in formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded prostate cancer samples: association with seminal vesicle invasion and biochemical recurrence. Hagen RM, Adamo P, Karamat S, et al. Am. J. Clin. Pathol. 142(4), 533-40, (2014)

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Brief formalin fixation and rapid tissue processing do not affect the sensitivity of ER immunohistochemistry of breast core biopsies. Sujoy V, Nadji M, and Morales AR Am. J. Clin. Pathol. 141(4), 522-6, (2014)

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Determination of formaldehyde in urine by headspace gas chromatography. Takeuchi A, Takigawa T, Abe M, et al. Bull. Environ. Contam. Toxicol. 79(1), 1-4, (2007)

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Evaluation of RNA quality in fixed and unembedded mouse embryos by different methods. Mu Y, Zhou H, Li W, et al. Exp. Mol. Pathol. 95(2), 206-12, (2013)

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A M-MLV reverse transcriptase with reduced RNaseH activity allows greater sensitivity of gene expression detection in formalin fixed and paraffin embedded prostate cancer samples. Hagen RM, Rhodes A, Oxley J, et al. Exp. Mol. Pathol. 95(1), 98-104, (2013)

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Molecular characterization of gallbladder cancer using somatic mutation profiling. Javle M, Rashid A, Churi C, et al. Hum. Pathol. 45(4), 701-8, (2014)

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Human dendritic cells infected with an adenoviral vector suppress proliferation of autologous and allogeneic T cells. Newton KR Immunology 125(4), 469-79, (2008)

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Lymph node revealing solutions in colorectal cancer: should they be used routinely? Horne J, Bateman AC, Carr NJ, et al. J. Clin. Pathol. 67(5), 383-8, (2014)

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Growth of carbon nanofibers using resol-type phenolic resin and cobalt(II) catalyst. Kim T, Mees K, Park HS, et al. J. Nanosci. Nanotechnol. 13(11), 7337-48, (2013)

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Immunohistochemical detection of NRSA on small cell lung cancer with a monoclonal antibody (MAG-1) that recognizes the carboxyl terminus of provasopressin. North WG, Memoli VA, and Keegan BP Appl. Immunohistochem. Mol. Morphol. 13(4), 363-6, (2005)

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TRK-380, a novel selective human β3-adrenoceptor agonist, ameliorates formalin-induced pollakiuria in rats and carbachol-induced bladder contraction in dogs. Kanie S, Otsuka A, Yoshikawa S, et al. Urology 82(4), 975.e7-975.e12, (2013)

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Feconomics®; a new and more convenient method, the routine diagnosis of intestinal parasitic infections. Koltas IS, Akyar I, Elgun G, et al. Parasitol. Res. 113(7), 2503-8, (2014)

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Meloxicam-loaded nanocapsules have antinociceptive and antiedematogenic effects in acute models of nociception. Villalba BT, Ianiski FR, Wilhelm EA, et al. Life Sci. 115(1-2), 36-43, (2014)

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Naloxone blocks the beneficial effects of aqueous extract of Murraya koenigii (L.) Spreng leaves in models of pain. Gupta R, Gupta LK, and Bhattacharya SK Eur. Rev. Med. Pharmacol. Sci. 17(13), 1748-51, (2013)

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p53 protein expression in chronic hepatitis C; effect of interferon alpha 2b therapy. Panasiuk A, Prokopowicz D, and Dzieciol J Hepatogastroenterology. 52(64), 1176-9, (2005)

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The use of mouse models of breast cancer and quantitative image analysis to evaluate hormone receptor antigenicity after microwave-assisted formalin fixation. Engelberg JA, Giberson RT, Young LJ, et al. J. Histochem. Cytochem. 62(5), 319-34, (2014)

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Long-term cytotoxic effects of contemporary root canal sealers. Silva EJ, Santos CC, and Zaia AA J. Appl. Oral Sci. 21(1), 43-7, (2013)

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Validated spectrofluorimetric method for determination of sulpiride in commercial formulations using Hantzsch condensation reaction. Shah J, Jan MR, Khan MN, et al. Pak. J. Pharm. Sci. 26(5), 921-8, (2013)

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Prefixation of neutrophils for neutrophil antibody testing. Shim YJ and Won DI Lab. Med. 45(2), 120-31, (2014)

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Molecular subtype classification of formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded diffuse large B-cell lymphoma samples on the ICEPlex® system. Collie AM, Nölling J, Divakar KM, et al. Br. J. Haematol. 167(2), 281-5, (2014)

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Re: formalin disinfection of biopsy needle minimizes the risk of sepsis following prostate biopsy: M. M. Issa, U. A. Al-Qassab, J. Hall, C. W. M. Ritenour, J. A. Petros and J. W. Sullivan J Urol 2013;190:1769-1775. Singh I and Garg G J. Urol. 191(5), 1473-4, (2014)

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Molecular classification of mature aggressive B-cell lymphoma using digital multiplexed gene expression on formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded biopsy specimens. Masqué-Soler N, Szczepanowski M, Kohler CW, et al. Blood 122(11), 1985-6, (2013)

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Reply to the comment of Drs Goldman and Vollmer. Nietner T, Jarutat T, and Mertens A Virchows Arch. 463(4), 611, (2013)

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Sambrook, J., et al. Molecular Cloning: A Laboratory Manual Plainview, NY , (1989), 7.43-7.45

Merck 14,4235

Beil. 1,IV,3017

Fieser 1,397 / Fieser 2,200 / Fieser 4,238 / Fieser 5,312 / Fieser 6,264 / Fieser 7,158 / Fieser 8,231 / Fieser 9,224 / Fieser 10,186 / Fieser 11,240 / Fieser 12,232 / Fieser 13,136 / Fieser 14,168 / Fieser 15,161 / Fieser 16,171

Corp MSDS 1 (1), 1733:C / FT-IR 2 (1), 730:A / FT-IR 1 (1), 465:A / IR-Spectra (2), 248:A / IR-Spectra (3), 276:A / RegBook 1 (1), 509:A / Sax 6, 1451 / Structure Index 1, 73:A:1 / Vapor Phase 3, 572:B

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