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H8627 Sigma

Hydroxyurea

98%, powder

Synonym: Hydroxycarbamide

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Properties

Related Categories Antitumor Agents, Apoptosis and Cell Cycle, Bioactive Small Molecule Alphabetical Index, Bioactive Small Molecules, Cancer Research,
assay   98%
form   powder
color   white
solubility   H2O: soluble50 mg/mL
storage temp.   2-8°C
Gene Information   human ... CA1(759), CA2(760), CYP1A2(1544), RRM1(6240)

Description

Packaging

1, 5, 10, 25, 100 g in poly bottle

Biochem/physiol Actions

Anti-neoplastic. Inactivates ribonucleoside reductase by forming a free radical nitroxide that binds a tyrosyl free radical in the active site of the enzyme. This blocks the synthesis of deoxynucleotides, which inhibits DNA synthesis and induces synchronization or cell death in S-phase.

Features and Benefits

This compound is also offered as part of Sigma′s Library of Pharmacologically Active Compounds (LOPAC®,1280), a biologically annotated collection of high-quality, ready-to-screen compounds. Click here to learn more.

Legal Information

LOPAC is a registered trademark of Sigma-Aldrich Co. LLC

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Safety & Documentation

Safety Information

Symbol 
GHS08  GHS08
Signal word 
Danger
Hazard statements 
Precautionary statements 
Hazard Codes (Europe) 
T
Risk Statements (Europe) 
Safety Statements (Europe) 
53-36/37-45
WGK Germany 
3
RTECS 
YT4900000

Protocols & Articles

Articles

Discover Bioactive Small Molecules for Apoptosis

Apoptosis, or programmed cell death (PCD), is a selective process for the removal of unnecessary, infected or transformed cells in various biological systems. As it plays a role in the homeostasis of...
Keywords: Apoptosis, Bioactive small molecules, Cancer, Clinical, Diseases, Ligands, Neurodegenerative Diseases

Peer-Reviewed Papers

References

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TOR Complex 2 Controls Gene Silencing, Telomere Length Maintenance, And Survival Under DNA-damaging Conditions. Schonbrun, M., et al. Mol. Cell. Biol. 29, 4584-94, (2009)

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Cell Cycle-dependent Phosphorylation And Ubiquitination Of A G Protein {alpha} Subunit. Torres, M.P., et al. J. Thorac. Cardiovasc. Surg. 286, 20208-16, (2011)

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Mus81, Rhp51(Rad51), And Rqh1 Form An Epistatic Pathway Required For The S-phase DNA Damage Checkpoint. Willis, N., and Rhind, N. Mol. Biol. Cell 20, 819-33, (2009)

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Differential effects of hydroxyurea upon deoxyribonucleoside triphosphate poolsanalyzed with vaccinia virus ribonucleotide reductase. Hendricks, S.P., and Mathews, C.K. J. Biol. Chem. 273, 29519-29523, (1998)

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The apoptosis of HEL cells induced by hydroxyurea. Gui, C.Y., et al. Cell Res. 7, 91-97, (1997)

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Mechanism of action of hydroxyurea. Yarbro, J.W. Semin. Oncol. 19, 1-10, (1992)

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EPR stopped-flow studies of the reaction of the tyrosyl radical of protein R2 from ribonucleotide reductase with hydroxyurea. Lassmann, G., et al. Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 188, 879-887, (1992)

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Wild-type P53-induced Phosphatase 1 Dephosphorylates Histone Variant Gamma-H2AX And Suppresses DNA Double Strand Break Repair. Moon, S.H., et al. J. Thorac. Cardiovasc. Surg. 285, 12935-47, (2010)

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Phototherapy Promotes Cell Migration In The Presence Of Hydroxyurea. Zungu, I.L., et al. Langmuir 24, 144-50, (2009)

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The Fission Yeast Rad32(Mre11)-Rad50-Nbs1 Complex Acts Both Upstream And Downstream Of Checkpoint Signaling In The S-phase DNA Damage Checkpoint. Willis, N., and Rhind, N. Genetics 184, 887-97, (2010)

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Differential Expression Of The Klf6 Tumor Suppressor Gene Upon Cell Damaging Treatments In Cancer Cells. Gehrau, R.C., et al. Mol. Cell. 707, 15-23, (2011)

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Hydroxyurea for sickle cell disease: a systematic review for efficacy and toxicity in children. Strouse JJ, Lanzkron S, Beach MC, et al. Pediatrics 122(6), 1332-42, (2008)

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miR-19 is a key oncogenic component of mir-17-92. Olive V, Bennett MJ, Walker JC, et al. Genes Dev. 23(24), 2839-49, (2009)

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Chemical genetics reveals a complex functional ground state of neural stem cells Diamandis, P., et. al. Nat. Chem. Biol. 3(5), 268-273, (2007)

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Cheminformatics analysis of assertions mined from literature that describe drug-induced liver injury in different species. Denis Fourches et al Chem. Res. Toxicol. 23, 171-83, (2010)

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Hydroxyurea for the treatment of sickle cell disease: efficacy, barriers, toxicity, and management in children. Strouse JJ and Heeney MM Pediatr. Blood Cancer 59(2), 365-71, (2012)

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DNA damage induces reactive oxygen species generation through the H2AX-Nox1/Rac1 pathway. Kang MA, So EY, Simons AL, et al. Cell Death Dis. 3, e249, (2012)

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HMGA2 inhibits apoptosis through interaction with ATR-CHK1 signaling complex in human cancer cells. Natarajan S, Hombach-Klonisch S, Dröge P, et al. Neoplasia 15(3), 263-80, (2013)

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Genetic modifiers of HbF and response to hydroxyurea in sickle cell disease. Green NS and Barral S Pediatr. Blood Cancer 56(2), 177-81, (2011)

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A unified definition of clinical resistance and intolerance to hydroxycarbamide in polycythaemia vera and primary myelofibrosis: results of a European LeukemiaNet (ELN) consensus process. Barosi G, Birgegard G, Finazzi G, et al. Br. J. Haematol. 148(6), 961-3, (2010)

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A homozygous nonsense CEP250 mutation combined with a heterozygous nonsense C2orf71 mutation is associated with atypical Usher syndrome. Khateb S, Zelinger L, Mizrahi-Meissonnier L, et al. J. Med. Genet. 51(7), 460-9, (2014)

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A predictive ligand-based Bayesian model for human drug-induced liver injury. Sean Ekins et al Drug Metab. Dispos. 38, 2302-8, (2010)

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Hydroxyurea for children with sickle cell disease. Heeney MM and Ware RE Hematol. Oncol. Clin. North Am. 24(1), 199-214, (2010)

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A phase II study of Givinostat in combination with hydroxycarbamide in patients with polycythaemia vera unresponsive to hydroxycarbamide monotherapy. Finazzi G, Vannucchi AM, Martinelli V, et al. Br. J. Haematol. 161(5), 688-94, (2013)

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14-3-3 Proteins regulate exonuclease 1-dependent processing of stalled replication forks. Engels K, Giannattasio M, Muzi-Falconi M, et al. PLoS Genet. 7(4), e1001367, (2011)

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Modeling, synthesis and biological evaluation of potential retinoid X receptor (RXR) selective agonists: novel analogues of 4-[1-(3,5,5,8,8-pentamethyl-5,6,7,8-tetrahydro-2-naphthyl)ethynyl]benzoic acid (bexarotene). Carl E Wagner et al J. Med. Chem. 52, 5950-66, (2009)

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Identification of C18:1-phytoceramide as the candidate lipid mediator for hydroxyurea resistance in yeast. Matmati N, Metelli A, Tripathi K, et al. J. Biol. Chem. 288(24), 17272-84, (2013)

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Physicochemical space for optimum oral bioavailability: contribution of human intestinal absorption and first-pass elimination. Manthena V S Varma et al J. Med. Chem. 53, 1098-108, (2010)

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Physicochemical determinants of human renal clearance. Manthena V S Varma et al J. Med. Chem. 52, 4844-52, (2009)

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Ruxolitinib versus standard therapy for the treatment of polycythemia vera. Vannucchi AM, Kiladjian JJ, Griesshammer M, et al. N. Engl. J. Med. 372(5), 426-35, (2015)

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Polycythemia vera and essential thrombocythemia: 2015 update on diagnosis, risk-stratification and management. Tefferi A and Barbui T Am. J. Hematol. 90(2), 162-73, (2015)

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Management of patients with sickle cell disease. Klings ES, Kato GJ, and Gladwin MT JAMA 313(1), 91, (2015)

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Management of patients with sickle cell disease. Pollack S JAMA 313(1), 90-1, (2015)

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From infancy to adolescence: fifteen years of continuous treatment with hydroxyurea in sickle cell anemia. Hankins JS, Aygun B, Nottage K, et al. Medicine (Baltimore.) 93(28), e215, (2014)

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Fixing the price of the orphan drug Siklos: the Council of State takes over the decision. Murteira S, El Hammi E, and Toumi M Eur. J. Health Law 21(5), 505-15, (2014)

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Reproductive issues in sickle cell disease. Smith-Whitley K Blood 124(24), 3538-43, (2014)

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Medication adherence among pediatric patients with sickle cell disease: a systematic review. Walsh KE, Cutrona SL, Kavanagh PL, et al. Pediatrics 134(6), 1175-83, (2014)

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Prophylaxis and management of venous thromboembolism in patients with myeloproliferative neoplasms: consensus statement of the Haemostasis Working Party of the German Society of Hematology and Oncology (DGHO), the Austrian Society of Hematology and Oncology (ÖGHO) and Society of Thrombosis and Haemostasis Research (GTH e.V.). Kreher S, Ochsenreither S, Trappe RU, et al. Ann. Hematol. 93(12), 1953-63, (2014)

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Update on the use of hydroxyurea therapy in sickle cell disease. Wong TE, Brandow AM, Lim W, et al. Blood 124(26), 3850-7; quiz 4004, (2014)

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Polycythemia vera disease burden: contributing factors, impact on quality of life, and emerging treatment options. Stein BL, Moliterno AR, and Tiu RV Ann. Hematol. 93(12), 1965-76, (2014)

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Mast cell activation syndrome as a significant comorbidity in sickle cell disease. Afrin LB Am. J. Med. Sci. 348(6), 460-4, (2014)

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Hydroxycarbamide treatment in sickle cell disease: estimates of possible leukaemia risk and of hospitalization survival benefit. Castro O, Nouraie M, and Oneal P Br. J. Haematol. 167(5), 687-91, (2014)

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Hyperfiltration is associated with the development of microalbuminuria in patients with sickle cell anemia. Vazquez B, Shah B, Zhang X, et al. Am. J. Hematol. 89(12), 1156-7, (2014)

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Essential differences in clinical and bone marrow features in BCR/ABL-positive thrombocythemia compared to thrombocythemia in the BCR/ABL-negative myeloproliferative neoplasms essential thrombocythemia and polycythemia vera. Michiels JJ, Pich A, De Raeve H, et al. Acta Haematol. 133(1), 52-5, (2015)

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Interferon α-2b gains high sustained response therapy for advanced essential thrombocythemia and polycythemia vera with JAK2V617F positive mutation. Huang BT, Zeng QC, Zhao WH, et al. Leuk. Res. 38(10), 1177-83, (2014)

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Response to hydroxycarbamide in pediatric β-thalassemia intermedia: 8 years' follow-up in Egypt. El-Beshlawy A, El-Ghamrawy M, EL-Ela MA, et al. Ann. Hematol. 93(12), 2045-50, (2014)

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Clinical reasoning: a 69-year-old man with leukocytosis and hemorrhagic brain lesions. Scott KM, Gardner FP, Eidelman BH, et al. Neurology 83(1), e1-5, (2014)

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Busulfan in patients with polycythemia vera or essential thrombocythemia refractory or intolerant to hydroxyurea. Alvarez-Larrán A, Martínez-Avilés L, Hernández-Boluda JC, et al. Ann. Hematol. 93(12), 2037-43, (2014)

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A rare disorder in an orphan disease: Kikuchi-Fujimoto disease in a young-adult patient with sickle cell anemia. Vencato E, Manfredi R, Zamò A, et al. Am. J. Hematol. 89(12), 1151-2, (2014)

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Re-evaluation of cytostatic therapies for meningiomas in vitro. Wilisch-Neumann A, Pachow D, Wallesch M, et al. J. Cancer Res. Clin. Oncol. 140(8), 1343-52, (2014)

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Bullet 'manicure': does lead prevent hydroxyurea-induced cutaneous toxicity? Falchi L and Quintás-Cardama A Jpn. J. Clin. Oncol. 44(5), 512, (2014)

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[Hydroxyurea (hydroxycarbamide)-induced hepatic dysfunction confirmed by drug-induced lymphocyte stimulation test]. Shimizu T, Mori T, Karigane D, et al. Rinsho. Ketsueki. 55(1), 125-9, (2014)

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Bilateral proliferative retinopathy as the initial presentation of chronic myeloid leukemia. Macedo MS, Figueiredo AR, Ferreira NN, et al. Middle East Afr. J. Ophthalmol. 20(4), 353-6, (2013)

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Stroke recurrence in Nigerian children with sickle cell disease treated with hydroxyurea. Lagunju IA, Brown BJ, and Sodeinde OO Niger. Postgrad. Med. J. 20(3), 181-7, (2013)

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Genetic and biochemical markers of hydroxyurea therapeutic response in sickle cell anemia. Silva DG, Belini Junior E, Carrocini GC, et al. BMC Med. Genet. 14, 108, (2013)

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Sickle cell anemia: time for personalized prescription of hydroxyurea? Focus on "Organic anion transporting polypeptide 1B transporters modulate hydroxyurea pharmacokinetics". Thornburg CD Am. J. Physiol. Cell Physiol. 305(12), C1209-10, (2013)

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[Pseudo-hyperkalemia and hyperleukocytosis]. Goubella A, Thooft A, Antoine P, et al. Rev. Med. Brux. 34(3), 179-80, (2013)

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Medical management of beta-thalassaemia without blood transfusion: a myth or a reality? Shamsi T and Ansari S J. Pak. Med. Assoc. 63(3), 304-5, (2013)

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Cutaneous involvement by post-polycythemia vera myelofibrosis. Pecci A, Croci G, Balduini CL, et al. Am. J. Hematol. 89(4), 448, (2014)

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The effect of hydroxcarbamide therapy on survival of children with sickle cell disease. Lobo CL, Pinto JF, Nascimento EM, et al. Br. J. Haematol. 161(6), 852-60, (2013)

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[Expression of 5-lipoxygenase in hippocampal CA1 neuronal damage following global cerebral ischemia in rats]. Chen W, Li C, Zhao J, et al. Zhejiang Da Xue Xue Bao. Yi Xue Ban 42(1), 61-6, (2013)

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Isogenic human mammary epithelial cell lines: novel tools for target identification and validation. Comprehensive characterization of an isogenic human mammary epithelial cell model provides evidence for epithelial-mesenchymal transition. Ulbricht U, Sommer A, Beckmann G, et al. Breast Cancer Res. Treat. 138(2), 437-56, (2013)

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Dysplasia of all granulocyte lineages in myelodysplastic evolution of essential thrombocythemia. Bain BJ, Garnett C, Deplano S, et al. Am. J. Hematol. 88(5), 426, (2013)

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The tRNA thiolation pathway modulates the intracellular redox state in Escherichia coli. Nakayashiki T, Saito N, Takeuchi R, et al. J. Bacteriol. 195(9), 2039-49, (2013)

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Comparative efficacy of hydroxyurea and methotrexate in treating psoriasis. Mahbub MS, Khondker L, Khan SI, et al. Mymensingh Med. J. 22(1), 116-30, (2013)

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Effects of ribavirin and hydroxyurea on oral infection of Aedes aegypti (L.) with dengue virus. Lee HL, Phong TV, and Rohani A Southeast Asian J. Trop. Med. Public Health 43(6), 1358-64, (2012)

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What is the evidence for using hydroxyurea for secondary stroke prevention? Lebensburger JD, DeBaun MR, and Thompson AA Hematology Am. Soc. Hematol. Educ. Program 2011, 440-2, (2011)

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Hydroxyurea for children with sickle cell disease: are we starting too late? Mueller BU Pediatr. Blood Cancer 56(1), 3-4, (2011)

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Advances in the use of hydroxyurea. Ware RE and Aygun B Hematology Am. Soc. Hematol. Educ. Program, 62-9, (2009)

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Hydroxyurea in the management of thalassemia intermedia. Karimi M Hemoglobin 33 Suppl 1, S177-82, (2009)

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Hydroxyurea is associated with lower costs of care of young children with sickle cell anemia. Wang WC, Oyeku SO, Luo Z, et al. Pediatrics 132(4), 677-83, (2013)

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Identification of new functional inhibitors of acid sphingomyelinase using a structure-property-activity relation model. Johannes Kornhuber et al J. Med. Chem. 51, 219-37, (2008)

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A phase 2 trial of azacitidine and gemtuzumab ozogamicin therapy in older patients with acute myeloid leukemia. Nand S, Othus M, Godwin JE, et al. Blood 122(20), 3432-9, (2013)

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FDA-approved drug labeling for the study of drug-induced liver injury. Minjun Chen et al Drug Discov. Today 16, 697-703, (2011)

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How I use hydroxyurea to treat young patients with sickle cell anemia. Ware RE Blood 115(26), 5300-11, (2010)

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Does increased red blood cell deformability raise the risk for osteonecrosis in sickle cell anemia? Lemonne N, Lamarre Y, Romana M, et al. Blood 121(15), 3054-6, (2013)

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Fission yeast SWI/SNF and RSC complexes show compositional and functional differences from budding yeast. Monahan BJ Nat. Struct. Mol. Biol. 15(8), 873-80, (2008)

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Evidence review of hydroxyurea for the prevention of sickle cell complications in low-income countries. Mulaku M, Opiyo N, Karumbi J, et al. Arch. Dis. Child. 98(11), 908-14, (2013)

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Quantitative structure-activity relationship and complex network approach to monoamine oxidase A and B inhibitors. Lourdes Santana et al J. Med. Chem. 51, 6740-51, (2008)

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Small molecules that delay S phase suppress a zebrafish bmyb mutant. Howard M Stern et al Nat. Chem. Biol. 1, 366-70, (2005)

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Trend analysis of a database of intravenous pharmacokinetic parameters in humans for 670 drug compounds. R Scott Obach et al Drug Metab. Dispos. 36, 1385-405, (2008)

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Hydroxycarbamide: a user's guide for chronic myeloproliferative disorders. Spivak JL and Hasselbalch H Expert Rev. Anticancer Ther. 11(3), 403-14, (2011)

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Multi-target spectral moment QSAR versus ANN for antiparasitic drugs against different parasite species. Francisco J Prado-Prado et al Bioorg. Med. Chem. 18, 2225-31, (2010)

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Developing structure-activity relationships for the prediction of hepatotoxicity. Nigel Greene et al Chem. Res. Toxicol. 23, 1215-22, (2010)

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Hydroxyurea for sickle cell anemia: what have we learned and what questions still remain? McGann PT and Ware RE Curr. Opin. Hematol. 18(3), 158-65, (2011)

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Genomic variation in the MAP3K5 gene is associated with β-thalassemia disease severity and hydroxyurea treatment efficacy. Tafrali C, Paizi A, Borg J, et al. Pharmacogenomics 14(5), 469-83, (2013)

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Nit1 and Fhit tumor suppressor activities are additive. Sun J J. Cell. Biochem. 107(6), 1097-106, (2009)

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Synthesis and evaluation of anti-Toxoplasma gondii and antimicrobial activities of thiosemicarbazides, 4-thiazolidinones and 1,3,4-thiadiazoles. André P Liesen et al Eur. J. Med. Chem. 45, 3685-91, (2010)

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Synthesis, anti-Toxoplasma gondii and antimicrobial activities of benzaldehyde 4-phenyl-3-thiosemicarbazones and 2-[(phenylmethylene)hydrazono]-4-oxo-3-phenyl-5-thiazolidineacetic acids. Thiago M de Aquino et al Bioorg. Med. Chem. 16, 446-56, (2008)

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Treatment target in polycythemia vera. McMullin MF, Harrison CN, and Kiladjian JJ N. Engl. J. Med. 368(16), 1554-5, (2013)

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Polycythemia vera: current pharmacotherapy and future directions. Hensley B, Geyer H, and Mesa R Expert Opin. Pharmacother. 14(5), 609-17, (2013)

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Efficacy and safety of deferasirox compared with deferoxamine in sickle cell disease: two-year results including pharmacokinetics and concomitant hydroxyurea. Vichinsky E, Torres M, Minniti CP, et al. Am. J. Hematol. 88(12), 1068-73, (2013)

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Hydroxyurea and hydroxamic acid derivatives as antitumor drugs. Saban N and Bujak M Cancer Chemother. Pharmacol. 64(2), 213-21, (2009)

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Deoxyhypusine hydroxylase from Plasmodium vivax, the neglected human malaria parasite: molecular cloning, expression and specific inhibition by the 5-LOX inhibitor zileuton. Atemnkeng VA, Pink M, Schmitz-Spanke S, et al. PLoS ONE 8(3), e58318, (2013)

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Evaluation of a published in silico model and construction of a novel Bayesian model for predicting phospholipidosis inducing potential. Dennis J Pelletier et al J. Chem. Inf. Model. 47, 1196-205, (2007)

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Design, synthesis, and pharmacological evaluation of novel hybrid compounds to treat sickle cell disease symptoms. Jean Leandro dos Santos et al J. Med. Chem. 54, 5811-9, (2011)

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Hydroxyurea treatment in β-thalassemia patients: to respond or not to respond? Banan M Ann. Hematol. 92(3), 289-99, (2013)

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Urea and carbamate derivatives of primaquine: synthesis, cytostatic and antioxidant activities. M Simunovi? et al Bioorg. Med. Chem. 17, 5605-13, (2009)

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Exploring barriers and facilitators to clinical trial enrollment in the context of sickle cell anemia and hydroxyurea. Lebensburger JD, Sidonio RF, Debaun MR, et al. Pediatr. Blood Cancer 60(8), 1333-7, (2013)

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Hydroxyurea: a key player in cancer chemotherapy. Madaan K, Kaushik D, and Verma T Expert Rev. Anticancer Ther. 12(1), 19-29, (2012)

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N-hydroxyurea--a versatile zinc binding function in the design of metalloenzyme inhibitors. Claudia Temperini et al Bioorg. Med. Chem. Lett. 16, 4316-20, (2006)

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The yeast copper response is regulated by DNA damage. Dong K, Addinall SG, Lydall D, et al. Mol. Cell. Biol. 33(20), 4041-50, (2013)

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Activity of hydroxyurea against Leishmania mexicana. Hugo Martinez-Rojano et al Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 52, 3642-7, (2008)

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Carbonic anhydrase inhibitors: inhibition of cytosolic/tumor-associated isoforms I, II, and IX with iminodiacetic carboxylates/hydroxamates also incorporating benzenesulfonamide moieties. M Amelia Santos et al Bioorg. Med. Chem. Lett. 17, 1538-43, (2007)

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Genetic predisposition to molecular response in patients with myeloproliferative neoplasms treated with hydroxycarbamide. Angona A, Bellosillo B, Alvarez-Larrán A, et al. Leuk. Res. 37(8), 917-21, (2013)

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Treatment target in polycythemia vera. Marchioli R, Vannucchi AM, and Barbui T N. Engl. J. Med. 368(16), 1556, (2013)

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The Arf/p53 protein module, which induces apoptosis, down-regulates histone H2AX to allow normal cells to survive in the presence of anti-cancer drugs. Atsumi Y, Inase A, Osawa T, et al. J. Biol. Chem. 288(19), 13269-77, (2013)

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Treatment options for hydroxyurea-refractory disease complications in myeloproliferative neoplasms: JAK2 inhibitors, radiotherapy, splenectomy and transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt. Mishchenko E and Tefferi A Eur. J. Haematol. 85(3), 192-9, (2010)

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National trends in hospitalizations for sickle cell disease in the United States following the FDA approval of hydroxyurea, 1998-2008. Okam MM, Shaykevich S, Ebert BL, et al. Med. Care 52(7), 612-8, (2014)

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A young adult Jehovah's Witness with severe anemia. Ukachi N, Morrison W, Vanhorn S, et al. Pediatrics 132(3), 547-51, (2013)

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Synthesis and ribonucleotide reductase inhibitory activity of thiosemicarbazones. Kesavan Krishnan et al Bioorg. Med. Chem. Lett. 18, 6248-50, (2008)

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Complex subclone structure that responds differentially to therapy in a patient with essential thrombocythemia and chronic myeloid leukemia. Grisouard J, Ojeda-Uribe M, Looser R, et al. Blood 122(22), 3694-6, (2013)

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Vaso-occlusion in sickle cell disease: pathophysiology and novel targeted therapies. Manwani D and Frenette PS Blood 122(24), 3892-8, (2013)

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Hemichorea in a patient with JAK2V617F blood cells. Lew J, Frucht SJ, Kremyanskaya M, et al. Blood 121(7), 1239-40, (2013)

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Hydroxyurea-induced hematological response in transfusion-independent beta-thalassemia intermedia: case series and review of literature. Ehsani MA, Hedayati-Asl AA, Bagheri A, et al. Pediatr. Hematol. Oncol. 26(8), 560-5, (2009)

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A small-molecule blocking ribonucleotide reductase holoenzyme formation inhibits cancer cell growth and overcomes drug resistance. Zhou B, Su L, Hu S, et al. Cancer Res. 73(21), 6484-93, (2013)

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Telomere shortening in Ph-negative chronic myeloproliferative neoplasms: a biological marker of polycythemia vera and myelofibrosis, regardless of hydroxycarbamide therapy. Ruella M, Salmoiraghi S, Risso A, et al. Exp. Hematol. 41(7), 627-34, (2013)

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A replication-inhibited unsegregated nucleoid at mid-cell blocks Z-ring formation and cell division independently of SOS and the SlmA nucleoid occlusion protein in Escherichia coli. Cambridge J, Blinkova A, Magnan D, et al. J. Bacteriol. 196(1), 36-49, (2014)

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Pre-activation of the genome integrity checkpoint increases DNA damage tolerance. Tsaponina O and Chabes A Nucleic Acids Res. 41(22), 10371-8, (2013)

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Hydroxyurea induces a hypersensitive apoptotic response in mouse embryonic stem cells through p38-dependent acetylation of p53. Heo SH, Cha Y, and Park KS Stem Cells Dev. 23(20), 2435-42, (2014)

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JNK suppression is essential for 17β-Estradiol inhibits prostaglandin E2-Induced uPA and MMP-9 expressions and cell migration in human LoVo colon cancer cells. Hsu HH, Hu WS, Lin YM, et al. J. Biomed. Sci. 18, 61, (2011)

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Clofarabine in combination with a standard remission induction regimen (cytosine arabinoside and idarubicin) in patients with previously untreated intermediate and bad-risk acute myelogenous leukemia (AML) or high-risk myelodysplastic syndrome (HR-MDS): phase I results of an ongoing phase I/II study of the leukemia groups of EORTC and GIMEMA (EORTC GIMEMA 06061/AML-14A trial). Willemze R, Suciu S, Muus P, et al. Ann. Hematol. 93(6), 965-75, (2014)

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Paediatric essential thrombocythaemia: clinical and molecular features, diagnosis and treatment. Fu R, Zhang L, and Yang R Br. J. Haematol. 163(3), 295-302, (2013)

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Low flow nocturnal oxygen therapy does not suppress haemoglobin levels or increase painful crises in sickle cell disease. Ip H, Kesse-Adu R, Howard J, et al. Br. J. Haematol. 161(3), 455-6, (2013)

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A pilot study of electronic directly observed therapy to improve hydroxyurea adherence in pediatric patients with sickle-cell disease. Creary SE, Gladwin MT, Byrne M, et al. Pediatr. Blood Cancer 61(6), 1068-73, (2014)

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Pain characteristics and age-related pain trajectories in infants and young children with sickle cell disease. Dampier C, Ely B, Brodecki D, et al. Pediatr. Blood Cancer 61(2), 291-6, (2014)

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A retrospective study to assess the utility of frequent laboratory monitoring of pediatric patients with sickle cell disease on hydroxyurea. Nevin J, Myers L, Osunkwo I, et al. J. Pediatr. Hematol. Oncol. 36(3), e180-4, (2014)

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Synthesis, aerobic cytotoxicity, and radiosensitizing activity of novel 2,4-dinitrophenylamine tethered 5-fluorouracil and hydroxyurea. Ali Khalaj et al Bioorg. Med. Chem. Lett. 16, 6034-8, (2006)

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Emerging drugs for polycythemia vera. Tibes R and Mesa RA Expert Opin. Emerg. Drugs 18(3), 393-404, (2013)

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Akt switches TopBP1 function from checkpoint activation to transcriptional regulation through phosphoserine binding-mediated oligomerization. Liu K, Graves JD, Scott JD, et al. Mol. Cell. Biol. 33(23), 4685-700, (2013)

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Synthesis of thiosemicarbazone and 4-thiazolidinone derivatives and their in vitro anti-Toxoplasma gondii activity. Rômulo P Tenório et al Bioorg. Med. Chem. Lett. 15, 2575-8, (2005)

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Spectrophotometric determination of drugs with iodine. Karuna T, et al. J. Sci. Ind. Res. 65(10), 808, (2006)

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Inhibitor of 5-lipoxygenase, zileuton, suppresses prostate cancer metastasis by upregulating E-cadherin and paxillin. Meng Z, Cao R, Yang Z, et al. Urology 82(6), 1452.e7-14, (2013)

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Hydroxycarbamide: clinical aspects. Ware RE C R Biol. 336(3), 177-82, (2013)

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Organic anion transporting polypeptide 1B transporters modulate hydroxyurea pharmacokinetics. Walker AL, Lancaster CS, Finkelstein D, et al. Am. J. Physiol. Cell Physiol. 305(12), C1223-9, (2013)

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Hydroxycarbamide modulates components involved in the regulation of adenosine levels in blood cells from sickle-cell anemia patients. Silva-Pinto AC, Dias-Carlos C, Saldanha-Araujo F, et al. Ann. Hematol. 93(9), 1457-65, (2014)

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Hydroxycarbamide decreases sickle reticulocyte adhesion to resting endothelium by inhibiting endothelial lutheran/basal cell adhesion molecule (Lu/BCAM) through phosphodiesterase 4A activation. Chaar V, Laurance S, Lapoumeroulie C, et al. J. Biol. Chem. 289(16), 11512-21, (2014)

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Optimizing Hydroxyurea use in children with sickle cell disease: low dose regimen is effective. Sharef SW, Al-Hajri M, Beshlawi I, et al. Eur. J. Haematol. 90(6), 519-24, (2013)

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Loss of Smu1 function de-represses DNA replication and over-activates ATR-dependent replication checkpoint. Ren L, Liu Y, Guo L, et al. Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 436(2), 192-8, (2013)

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Hydroxyurea induced dermatomyositis-like eruption. Zappala TM, Rodins K, and Muir J Australas. J. Dermatol. 53(3), e58-60, (2012)

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Modulation of gamma globin genes expression by histone deacetylase inhibitors: an in vitro study. Ronzoni L, Sonzogni L, Fossati G, et al. Br. J. Haematol. 165(5), 714-21, (2014)

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[Ulcers following therapy with hydroxyurea. Three case reports and review of the literature]. Boneberger S, Rupec RA, and Ruzicka T Hautarzt 61(7), 598-602, (2010)

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Hydroxycarbamide reduces eosinophil adhesion and degranulation in sickle cell anaemia patients. Pallis FR, Conran N, Fertrin KY, et al. Br. J. Haematol. 164(2), 286-95, (2014)

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Drugs and cancer: an analysis of the French Pharmacovigilance Database. Durrieu G, Mazau B, Jégu J, et al. Therapie. 68(3), 149-54, (2013)

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Complex karyotype in a polycythemia vera patient with a novel SETD1B/GTF2H3 fusion gene. Tiziana Storlazzi C, Pieri L, Paoli C, et al. Am. J. Hematol. 89(4), 438-42, (2014)

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Second malignancies in philadelphia-negative myeloproliferative neoplasms-single-center experience. Kissova J, Ovesna P, Penka M, et al. Anticancer Res. 34(5), 2489-96, (2014)

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Practice patterns of stroke screening and hydroxyurea use in children with sickle cell disease: a survey of health care providers. Madden NA, Jones GL, Kalpatthi R, et al. J. Pediatr. Hematol. Oncol. 36(6), e382-6, (2014)

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The effect of hydroxyurea on compound heterozygotes for sickle cell-hemoglobin D-Punjab--a single centre experience in eastern India. Patel S, Purohit P, Mashon RS, et al. Pediatr. Blood Cancer 61(8), 1341-6, (2014)

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Hydroxyurea-induced leg ulceration in a patient with a homozygous MTHFR polymorphism misdiagnosed as pyoderma gangrenosum. Crittenden SC, Gilbert JE, and Callen JP JAMA Dermatol. 150(7), 780-1, (2014)

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HbSD-Punjab: clinical and hematological profile of a rare hemoglobinopathy. Oberoi S, Das R, Trehan A, et al. J. Pediatr. Hematol. Oncol. 36(3), e140-4, (2014)

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Neuropathic pain in patients with sickle cell disease. Brandow AM, Farley RA, and Panepinto JA Pediatr. Blood Cancer 61(3), 512-7, (2014)

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Treating sickle cell anaemia with hydroxycarbamide. Pollack S Br. J. Haematol. 164(2), 296-7, (2014)

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Two replication fork maintenance pathways fuse inverted repeats to rearrange chromosomes. Hu L, Kim TM, Son MY, et al. Nature 501(7468), 569-72, (2013)

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Treatment target in polycythemia vera. Leone G N. Engl. J. Med. 368(16), 1555, (2013)

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Combination chemotherapy for primary treatment of high-risk gestational trophoblastic tumour. Deng L, Zhang J, Wu T, et al. Cochrane Database Syst. Rev. 1, CD005196, (2013)

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What is the evidence that hydroxyurea improves health-related quality of life in patients with sickle cell disease? Darbari DS and Panepinto JA Hematology Am. Soc. Hematol. Educ. Program 2012, 290-1, (2012)

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Merck 14,4848

Beil. 3,IV,170

Corp MSDS 1, 1967:B / FT-IR 1 (1), 801:C / FT-IR 2 (1), 1360:A / IR-Spectra (2), 421:E / IR-Spectra (3), 475:C / NMR-Reference 2 (1), 671:D / RegBook 1 (1), 941:B / Sax 6, 1600 / Sigma FT-IR 1 (2), 648:A / Structure Index 1, 146:B:4

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