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I1891 Sigma

Pyrophosphatase, Inorganic from baker's yeast (S. cerevisiae)

≥90% (HPLC), lyophilized powder, ≥1,000 units/mg protein (BCA)

Synonym: Inorganic Pyrophosphatase, Pyrophosphate phosphohydrolase

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Description

Preparation Note

HPLC purified; Prepared from I1643

Unit Definition

One unit will liberate 1.0 μmole of inorganic orthophosphate per min at pH 7.2 at 25 °C.

Physical form

lyophilized powder containing 90% buffer salts

Application

Inorganic pyrophosphatase (PPase) is a ubiquitous enzyme catalyzing the reaction PPi + H2O → 2Pi.
It plays an important role in protein, RNA, and DNA synthesis.

General description

Molecular Weight: 71 kDa (homodimer consisting of two equal subunits of molecular weight 32-35 kDa)
Extinction Coefficient: E1% = 14.5 (280 nm)
pI: 4.75
This ubiquitous enzyme serves to drive metabolic reactions that produce pyrophosphate, since these reactions typically have equilibrium constants near unity. The catalytic mechanism has been described in the literature. Inorganic pyrophosphatase is a metalloprotease that requires Mg2+ for maximal activity. Although the hydrolysis of inorganic pyrophosphate is specific in the presence of Mg2+, both ADP and ATP can be hydrolyzed if zinc is present.

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Safety & Documentation

Safety Information

WGK Germany 
3

Protocols & Articles

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Peer-Reviewed Papers

References

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18O enrichment in phosphorus pools extracted from soybean leaves. Pfahler V, Dürr-Auster T, Tamburini F, et al. New Phytol. 197(1), 186-93, (2013)

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Crystal structure of a membrane-embedded H+-translocating pyrophosphatase. Lin SM, Tsai JY, Hsiao CD, et al. Nature 484(7394), 399-403, (2012)

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High inorganic triphosphatase activities in bacteria and mammalian cells: identification of the enzymes involved. Kohn G, Delvaux D, Lakaye B, et al. PLoS ONE 7(9), e43879, (2012)

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[Alteration of transport activity of proton pumps in coleoptile cells during early development stages of maize seedlings]. Shishova MF, Tankeliun OV, Rudashevskaia EL, et al. Ontogenez 43(6), 413-24, (2012)

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Manipulating expression of tonoplast transporters. Li Z, Zhou M, Hu Q, et al. Methods Mol. Biol. 913, 359-69, (2012)

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[The action of adaptogenic preparations on vacuolar proton pumps activity in corn root cells under salt stress conditions]. Rybchenko ZhI and Palladina TO Ukr. Biokhim. Zh. 84(3), 88-94, (2012)

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Regulation of pyrophosphate levels by H+-PPase is central for proper resumption of early plant development. Ferjani A, Segami S, Horiguchi G, et al. Plant Signal Behav. 7(1), 38-42, (2012)

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Genetic manipulation of a "vacuolar" H(+)-PPase: from salt tolerance to yield enhancement under phosphorus-deficient soils. Gaxiola RA, Sanchez CA, Paez-Valencia J, et al. Plant Physiol. 159(1), 3-11, (2012)

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Membrane-integral pyrophosphatase subfamily capable of translocating both Na+ and H+. Luoto HH, Baykov AA, Lahti R, et al. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U. S. A. 110(4), 1255-60, (2013)

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Autocatalytic aptazymes enable ligand-dependent exponential amplification of RNA. Lam BJ Nat. Biotechnol. 27(3), 288-92, (2009)

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Expression of wheat Na(+)/H(+) antiporter TNHXS1 and H(+)- pyrophosphatase TVP1 genes in tobacco from a bicistronic transcriptional unit improves salt tolerance. Gouiaa S, Khoudi H, Leidi EO, et al. Plant Mol. Biol. 79(1-2), 137-55, (2012)

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Arabidopsis sodium dependent and independent phenotypes triggered by H⁺-PPase up-regulation are SOS1 dependent. Undurraga SF, Santos MP, Paez-Valencia J, et al. Plant Sci. 183, 96-105, (2012)

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Enhanced proton translocating pyrophosphatase activity improves nitrogen use efficiency in Romaine lettuce. Paez-Valencia J, Sanchez-Lares J, Marsh E, et al. Plant Physiol. 161(3), 1557-69, (2013)

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A novel non-radioactive primase-pyrophosphatase activity assay and its application to the discovery of inhibitors of Mycobacterium tuberculosis primase DnaG. Biswas T, Resto-Roldán E, Sawyer SK, et al. Nucleic Acids Res. 41(4), e56, (2013)

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Squeezing at entrance of proton transport pathway in proton-translocating pyrophosphatase upon substrate binding. Huang YT, Liu TH, Lin SM, et al. J. Biol. Chem. 288(27), 19312-20, (2013)

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Efficient one-pot multienzyme synthesis of UDP-sugars using a promiscuous UDP-sugar pyrophosphorylase from Bifidobacterium longum (BLUSP). Muthana MM, Qu J, Li Y, et al. Chem. Commun. (Camb.) 48(21), 2728-30, (2012)

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Semi-rolled leaf1 encodes a putative glycosylphosphatidylinositol-anchored protein and modulates rice leaf rolling by regulating the formation of bulliform cells. Xiang JJ, Zhang GH, Qian Q, et al. Plant Physiol. 159(4), 1488-500, (2012)

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Homotypic vacuole fusion in yeast requires organelle acidification and not the V-ATPase membrane domain. Coonrod EM, Graham LA, Carpp LN, et al. Dev. Cell 27(4), 462-8, (2013)

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Chalk5 encodes a vacuolar H(+)-translocating pyrophosphatase influencing grain chalkiness in rice. Li Y, Fan C, Xing Y, et al. Nat. Genet. 46(4), 398-404, (2014)

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Copper transport and compartmentation in grape cells. Martins V, Hanana M, Blumwald E, et al. Plant Cell Physiol. 53(11), 1866-80, (2012)

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In Nicotiana species, an artificial microRNA corresponding to the virulence modulating region of Potato spindle tuber viroid directs RNA silencing of a soluble inorganic pyrophosphatase gene and the development of abnormal phenotypes. Eamens AL, Smith NA, Dennis ES, et al. Virology 450-451, 266-77, (2014)

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Membrane Na+-pyrophosphatases can transport protons at low sodium concentrations. Luoto HH, Nordbo E, Baykov AA, et al. J. Biol. Chem. 288(49), 35489-99, (2013)

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Continuous enzyme-coupled assay of phosphate- or pyrophosphate-releasing enzymes. Suárez AS, Stefan A, Lemma S, et al. Biotechniques 53(2), 99-103, (2012)

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Changes in expression of soluble inorganic pyrophosphatases of Phaseolus vulgaris under phosphate starvation. Hernández-Domíguez EE, Valencia-Turcotte LG, and Rodríguez-Sotres R Plant Sci. 187, 39-48, (2012)

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Transgenic tobacco plants expressing ectopically wheat H⁺-pyrophosphatase (H⁺-PPase) gene TaVP1 show enhanced accumulation and tolerance to cadmium. Khoudi H, Maatar Y, Gouiaa S, et al. J. Plant Physiol. 169(1), 98-103, (2012)

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A luminol chemiluminescence method for sensing histidine and lysine using enzyme reactions. Kugimiya A, Fukada R, and Funamoto D Anal. Biochem. 443(1), 22-6, (2013)

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Identification of the inorganic pyrophosphate metabolizing, ATP substituting pathway in mammalian spermatozoa. Yi YJ, Sutovsky M, Kennedy C, et al. PLoS ONE 7(4), e34524, (2012)

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Identification of direct forkhead box O1 targets involved in palmitate-induced apoptosis in clonal insulin-secreting cells using chromatin immunoprecipitation coupled to DNA selection and ligation. Lin HY, Yin Y, Zhang JX, et al. Diabetologia 55(10), 2703-12, (2012)

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Inorganic pyrophosphatase defects lead to cell cycle arrest and autophagic cell death through NAD+ depletion in fermenting yeast. Serrano-Bueno G, Hernández A, López-Lluch G, et al. J. Biol. Chem. 288(18), 13082-92, (2013)

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Pyrophosphatase overexpression is associated with cell migration, invasion, and poor prognosis in gastric cancer. Jeong SH, Ko GH, Cho YH, et al. Tumour Biol. 33(6), 1889-98, (2012)

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Inorganic pyrophosphatase crystals from Thermococcus thioreducens for X-ray and neutron diffraction. Hughes RC, Coates L, Blakeley MP, et al. Acta Crystallogr. Sect. F Struct. Biol. Cryst. Commun. 68(Pt 12), 1482-7, (2012)

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Constant enthalpy change value during pyrophosphate hydrolysis within the physiological limits of NaCl. Wakai S, Kidokoro S, Masaki K, et al. J. Biol. Chem. 288(41), 29247-51, (2013)

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Biochemical characterization of C4 protein of Cotton leaf curl Kokhran Virus-Dabawali. Guha D, Poornima Priyadarshini CG, Purakayastha A, et al. Biochim. Biophys. Acta 1830(6), 3734-44, (2013)

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Overexpression of the halophyte Kalidium foliatum H⁺-pyrophosphatase gene confers salt and drought tolerance in Arabidopsis thaliana. Yao M, Zeng Y, Liu L, et al. Mol. Biol. Rep. 39(8), 7989-96, (2012)

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Fast kinetics of nucleotide binding to Clostridium perfringens family II pyrophosphatase containing CBS and DRTGG domains. Jämsen J, Baykov AA, and Lahti R Biochemistry. (Mosc.) 77(2), 165-70, (2012)

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Purification and properties of yeast pyrophosphatase. Bailey K and Webb EC Biochem. J. 38(5), 394-8, (1944)

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Crystalline inorganic pyrophosphatase isolated from baker's yeast. KUNITZ M J. Gen. Physiol. 35(3), 423-50, (1952)

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Pyrophosphate metabolism in liver mitochondria. RAFTER GW J. Biol. Chem. 235, 2475-7, (1960)

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