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M0404 Sigma

Murashige and Skoog Basal Medium

powder, plant cell culture tested, with Gamborg′s vitamins

Synonym: MS Basal Medium, Murashige and Skoog (Gamborg Modified) Basal Media



Related Categories Culture Media, Salts and Vitamin Mixes, Molecular Biology, Plant Biotechnology, Plant Tissue Culture
form   powder
suitability   plant cell culture tested
Featured Industry   Agriculture
storage temp.   2-8°C


Formula variant

With the macro- and micronutrients as described by Murashige and Skoog (1962) and the vitamins as described by Gamborg, et al. (1968).

Media Formulation

Preparation Note

Murashige and Skoog medium can be reconstituted from powder or by combining products that are major components of complete M&S medium, such as macronutrient, micronutrient and vitamin mixtures.
Murashige and Skoog medium (M0404) contains the macro- and micronutrients of M&S basal medium as described by Gamborg, et al (1968). It can be supplemented with organics and with auxins (IAA) and cytokinins (Kinetin) to generate a complete medium for growth plant tissue culture.


Formulated to contain 4.4 grams of powder per liter of medium.

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Safety & Documentation

Safety Information

Signal word 
Hazard statements 
UN 1477 5.1 / PGII
WGK Germany 

Protocols & Articles

Peer-Reviewed Papers


Set your institution to view full text papers.

A revised medium for rapid growth and bioassays with tobacco tissue cultures. Murashige, T., and Skoog, F. Physiol. Plant. 15, 473-497, (1962)


Influence of growth regulators and elicitors on cell growth and α-tocopherol and pigment productions in cell cultures of Carthamus tinctorius L. Chavan SP, Lokhande VH, et. al. Appl. Microbiol. Biotechnol. 89, 1701-1707, (2011)


Ectopic expression of class 1 KNOX genes induce adventitious shoot regeneration and alter growth and development of tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum L) and European plum (Prunus domestica L). Srinivasan C, Liu Z, Scorza R. Plant Cell Rep. 30, 655-664, (2011)


In vitro adventitious shoot regeneration via indirect organogenesis from petiole explants of Cassia angustifolia Vahl.-a potential medicinal plant. Siddique I, Anis M, Aref IM. Appl. Biochem. Biotechnol. 162, 2067-2074, (2010)


Effect of medium composition and light on root and rhinacanthin formation in Rhinacanthus nasutus cultures. Panichayupakaranant P, Meerungrueang W. Pharm. Biol. 48, 1192-1197, (2010)


Vitrification-based cryopreservation of Grammatophyllum speciosum protocorm. Sopalun K, Kanchit K, Ishikawa K. Cryo. Letters 31, 347-357, (2010)


Assessment of factors affecting micropropagation and ex vitro acclimatization of Nyctanthes arbor-tristis L. Jahan AA, Anis M, Aref IM. Acta Biol. Hung. 62, 45-56, (2011)


Nutrient requirements of suspension cultures of soybean root cells. Gamborg, O.L., et al. Exp. Cell Res. 50, 151-158, (1968)


Arabidopsis ribosomal proteins RPL23aA and RPL23aB are differentially targeted to the nucleolus and are disparately required for normal development. Rory F. Degenhardt et al Plant Physiol. 147, 128-42, (2008)


In vitro cultures and regeneration of Bienertia sinuspersici (Chenopodiaceae) under increasing concentrations of sodium chloride and carbon dioxide. Rosnow J, Offermann S, Park J, et al. Plant Cell Rep., (2011)

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