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M2912 Sigma

Microcystin LR from Microcystis aeruginosa

≥95% (HPLC), solid film

Synonym: 5-L-Arginine-microcystin LA

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Properties

assay   ≥95% (HPLC)
form   solid film
solubility   ethanol: soluble1 mg/mL
  DMSO: soluble
storage temp.   −20°C

Description

Biochem/physiol Actions

Potent inhibitor of protein phosphatase Types 1 and 2A; has no effect on protein kinase. Hepatic tumor promoter in experimental animal model.1

Other Notes

Hepatotoxic cyclic heptapeptide.

Reconstitution

Stock solutions can be diluted in 50 mM Tris-HCl, pH 7.0, containing 0.03% Brij 35; phosphatase inhibition will be retained for up to 1 month when stored at concentrations up to 0.01 nM.

Price and Availability

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Safety & Documentation

Safety Information

Symbol 
GHS06  GHS06
Signal word 
Danger
Hazard statements 
RIDADR 
UN 2811PIH 6.1 / PGI
WGK Germany 
3
RTECS 
GT2810000

Documents

Certificate of Analysis

Certificate of Origin

Protocols & Articles

Articles

Carcinogenesis and Epigenetics

Cancer research has revealed that the classical model of carcinogenesis, a three step process consisting of initiation, promotion, and progression, is not complete. The expansion of the carcinogenesi...
Vicki Caligur
BioFiles 2008, 3.5, 18.
Keywords: Acetylations, Adhesion, Alkylations, Apoptosis, Biofiles, Cancer, Carcinogens, Cell division, Cell proliferation, Cell signaling, DNA microarrays, Drug discovery, Environmental, Epigenetics, Events, Gene expression, Genetic, Hormones, Metabolism, Methylations, Microarray Analysis, Mutagens, PAGE, Recombination, Reductions, Sequences, Transcription, Type, transformation

Peer-Reviewed Papers

References

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1. Chronic Microcystin Exposure Induces Hepatocyte Proliferation with Increased Expression of Mitotic and Cyclin-associated Genes in P53-deficient Mice. Clark, S. P., et al. Toxicol. Pathol., (2008)

Molecular mechanisms underlying inhibition of protein phosphatases by marine toxins. Dawson, et al. Front. Biosci. 4, D646-D658, (1999)

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Cyanobacterial microcystin-LR is a potent and specific inhibitor of protein phosphatases 1 and 2A from both mammals and higher plants. MacKintosh, C., et al. FEBS Lett. 264, 187-192, (1990)

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Importance of the beta12-beta13 loop in protein phosphatase-1 catalytic subunit for inhibition by toxins and mammalian protein inhibitors. Connor, et al. J. Biol. Chem. 274, 22366-22372, (1999)

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Hepatic oxidative stress following prolonged sublethal microcystin LR exposure. Guzman, et al. Toxicol. Pathol. 27, 582-588, (1999)

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Removal of microcystin-LR and microcystin-RR by graphene oxide: adsorption and kinetic experiments. Pavagadhi S, Tang AL, Sathishkumar M, et al. Water Res. 47(13), 4621-9, (2013)

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Microcystin-LR induces anoikis resistance to the hepatocyte uptake transporter OATP1B3-expressing cell lines. Takano H, Takumi S, Ikema S, et al. Toxicology 326, 53-61, (2014)

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Electrochemical immunosensor for ultrasensitive detection of microcystin-LR based on graphene-gold nanocomposite/functional conducting polymer/gold nanoparticle/ionic liquid composite film with electrodeposition. Ruiyi L, Qianfang X, Zaijun L, et al. Biosens. Bioelectron. 44, 235-40, (2013)

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Fabrication of a novel and simple microcystin-LR photoelectrochemical sensor with high sensitivity and selectivity. Chen K, Liu M, Zhao G, et al. Environ. Sci. Technol. 46(21), 11955-61, (2012)

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Microcystin-LR promotes melanoma cell invasion and enhances matrix metalloproteinase-2/-9 expression mediated by NF-κB activation. Zhang XX, Fu Z, Zhang Z, et al. Environ. Sci. Technol. 46(20), 11319-26, (2012)

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The interactive effects of cytoskeleton disruption and mitochondria dysfunction lead to reproductive toxicity induced by microcystin-LR. Chen L, Zhang X, Zhou W, et al. PLoS ONE 8(1), e53949, (2013)

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Colloidal graphene as a transducer in homogeneous fluorescence-based immunosensor for rapid and sensitive analysis of microcystin-LR. Liu M, Zhao H, Chen S, et al. Environ. Sci. Technol. 46(22), 12567-74, (2012)

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Oxidative damage and apoptosis induced by microcystin-LR in the liver of Rana nigromaculata in vivo. Zhang H, Cai C, Fang W, et al. Aquat. Toxicol. 140-141, 11-8, (2013)

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In situ assembly of porous Au-paper electrode and functionalization of magnetic silica nanoparticles with HRP via click chemistry for Microcystin-LR immunoassay. Ge S, Liu W, Ge L, et al. Biosens. Bioelectron. 49, 111-7, (2013)

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The role of apoptosis in MCLR-induced developmental toxicity in zebrafish embryos. Zeng C, Sun H, Xie P, et al. Aquat. Toxicol. 149, 25-32, (2014)

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Toxic effects of microcystin-LR on the reproductive system of male Rana nigromaculata in vitro. Zhang H, Cai C, Wu Y, et al. Aquat. Toxicol. 126, 283-90, (2013)

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Degradation of microcystin-LR in water by glow discharge plasma oxidation at the gas-solution interface and its safety evaluation. Zhang H, Huang Q, Ke Z, et al. Water Res. 46(19), 6554-62, (2012)

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Photocatalytic degradation of microcystin-LR in aqueous solutions. Jacobs LC, Peralta-Zamora P, Campos FR, et al. Chemosphere 90(4), 1552-7, (2013)

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A graphene and multienzyme functionalized carbon nanosphere-based electrochemical immunosensor for microcystin-LR detection. Zhao H, Tian J, and Quan X Colloids Surf. B Biointerfaces 103, 38-44, (2013)

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Determination of microcystin-LR in water by a label-free aptamer based electrochemical impedance biosensor. Lin Z, Huang H, Xu Y, et al. Talanta 103, 371-4, (2013)

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Physiological responses of Xenopus laevis tadpoles exposed to cyanobacterial biomass containing microcystin-LR. Ziková A, Lorenz C, Lutz I, et al. Aquat. Toxicol. 128-129, 25-33, (2013)

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Metabolic response to oral microcystin-LR exposure in the rat by NMR-based metabonomic study. He J, Chen J, Wu L, et al. J. Proteome Res. 11(12), 5934-46, (2012)

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Longitudinal surface plasmon resonance assay enhanced by magnetosomes for simultaneous detection of Pefloxacin and Microcystin-LR in seafoods. Sun X, Wu L, Ji J, et al. Biosens. Bioelectron. 47, 318-23, (2013)

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Involvement of endoplasmic reticulum and autophagy in microcystin-LR toxicity in Vero-E6 and HepG2 cell lines. Menezes C, Alverca E, Dias E, et al. Toxicol. In Vitro 27(1), 138-48, (2013)

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Global effects of subchronic treatment of microcystin-LR on rat splenetic protein levels. Li G, Yan W, Qiao Q, et al. J. Proteomics 77, 383-93, (2012)

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Multiplex competitive microbead-based flow cytometric immunoassay using quantum dot fluorescent labels. Yu HW, Kim IS, Niessner R, et al. Anal. Chim. Acta 750, 191-8, (2012)

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Combined exposure to 3-chloro-4-dichloromethyl-5-hydroxy-2(5H)-furanone and microsytin-LR increases genotoxicity in Chinese hamster ovary cells through oxidative stress. Wang S, Tian D, Zheng W, et al. Environ. Sci. Technol. 47(3), 1678-87, (2013)

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Microcystin-LR degradation by solar photo-Fenton, UV-A/photo-Fenton and UV-C/H2O2: a comparative study. de Freitas AM, Sirtori C, Lenz CA, et al. Photochem. Photobiol. Sci. 12(4), 696-702, (2013)

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Toxic effects of microcystin-LR on the HepG2 cell line under hypoxic and normoxic conditions. Zhang X, Xie P, Zhang X, et al. J. Appl. Toxicol. 33(10), 1180-6, (2013)

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Sensitive detection of microcystin-LR by using a label-free electrochemical immunosensor based on Au nanoparticles/silicon template/methylene blue nanocomposite. Fu X, Feng Y, Niu S, et al. J. Nanosci. Nanotechnol. 13(12), 8245-52, (2013)

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Microcystin-LR exposure to adult zebrafish (Danio rerio) leads to growth inhibition and immune dysfunction in F1 offspring, a parental transmission effect of toxicity. Liu W, Qiao Q, Chen Y, et al. Aquat. Toxicol. 155, 360-7, (2014)

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Damage and recovery of the ovary in female zebrafish i.p.-injected with MC-LR. Hou J, Li L, Xue T, et al. Aquat. Toxicol. 155, 110-8, (2014)

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Endocrine-disrupting effects and reproductive toxicity of low dose MCLR on male frogs (Rana nigromaculata) in vivo. Jia X, Cai C, Wang J, et al. Aquat. Toxicol. 155, 24-31, (2014)

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Cellular transport of microcystin-LR in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) across the intestinal wall: possible involvement of multidrug resistance-associated proteins. Bieczynski F, De Anna JS, Pirez M, et al. Aquat. Toxicol. 154, 97-106, (2014)

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Mechanistic considerations of photosensitized transformation of microcystin-LR (cyanobacterial toxin) in aqueous environments. Yan S, Zhang D, and Song W Environ. Pollut. 193, 111-8, (2014)

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Hyperphosphorylation of intermediate filament proteins is involved in microcystin-LR-induced toxicity in HL7702 cells. Chen DN, Zeng J, Wang F, et al. Toxicol. Lett. 214(2), 192-9, (2012)

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Toxic risk associated with sporadic occurrences of Microcystis aeruginosa blooms from tidal rivers in marine and estuarine ecosystems and its impact on Artemia franciscana nauplii populations. D'ors A, Bartolomé MC, and Sánchez-Fortún S Chemosphere 90(7), 2187-92, (2013)

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Microcystin-LR stabilizes c-myc protein by inhibiting protein phosphatase 2A in HEK293 cells. Fan H, Cai Y, Xie P, et al. Toxicology 319, 69-74, (2014)

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Electrochemical removal of microcystin-LR from aqueous solution in the presence of natural organic pollutants. Tran N and Drogui P J. Environ. Manage. 114, 253-60, (2013)

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The suppression of hematopoiesis function in Balb/c mice induced by prolonged exposure of microcystin-LR. Zhou W, Zhang X, Xie P, et al. Toxicol. Lett. 219(2), 194-201, (2013)

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Mn-doped carbon xerogels as catalyst in the removal of microcystin-LR by water-surface discharge plasma. Xin Q, Zhang Y, and Wu KB J. Environ. Sci. Health. A. Tox. Hazard. Subst. Environ. Eng. 48(3), 293-9, (2013)

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A multi-technique approach for the quantification of Microcystis aeruginosa FACHB-905 biomass during high algae-laden periods. Sun F, Pei HY, Hu WR, et al. Environ. Technol. 33(13-15), 1773-9, (2012)

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Bioacumulation of cyanotoxins in Hypophthalmichthys molitrix (silver carp) in Paranoá Lake, Brasilia-DF, Brazil. Oliveira NB, Schwartz CA, Bloch C, et al. Bull. Environ. Contam. Toxicol. 90(3), 308-13, (2013)

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Evaluation of usefulness of Microbial Assay for Risk Assessment (MARA) in the cyanobacterial toxicity estimation. Sieroslawska A Environ. Monit. Assess. 186(7), 4629-36, (2014)

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Histological, cytological and biochemical alterations induced by microcystin-LR and cylindrospermopsin in white mustard (Sinapis alba L.) seedlings. Máthé C, Vasas G, Borbély G, et al. Acta Biol. Hung. 64(1), 71-85, (2013)

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