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M9274 Sigma

Murashige and Skoog Basal Medium

plant cell culture tested, with sucrose and agar

Synonym: MS Basal Medium



Related Categories Culture Media, Salts and Vitamin Mixes, Molecular Biology, Plant Biotechnology, Plant Tissue Culture
suitability   plant cell culture tested
Featured Industry   Agriculture
storage temp.   2-8°C


Frequently Asked Questions

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Formula variant

With the macro- and micronutrients, vitamins, sucrose and agar as described by Murashige and Skoog (1962).

Media Formulation


Formulated to contain 42.4 grams of powder per liter of medium.


Murashige and Skoog medium is a widely used plant tissue culture growth medium. M&S Basal Medium contains macronutrients that include high levels of nitrate and organic additives such as agar, sugars, vitamins and growth regulators. Important growth regulators frequently added to M&S include IAA (auxin/morphogen) and the Kinetin (cytokinin/cell division promoter).Murashige and Skoog medium can be reconstituted from powder or by combining products that are major components of complete M&S medium, such as macronutrient mixtures and vitamin mixtures. Murashige and Skoog medium (M9274) contains the micronutrients and vitamins of the original classic formulation plus sucrose and agar. It can be supplemented with auxins (IAA) and cytokinins (Kinetin) to generate a complete medium for growth plant tissue culture.

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Safety & Documentation

Safety Information

Signal word 
Hazard statements 
UN 1477 5.1 / PGII
WGK Germany 
Protocols & Articles


Murashige Skoog - Plant Tissue Culture Protocol

M5524 – Murashige and Skoog basal salt mixture (MS) M0654 – Murashige and Skoog basal salt macronutrient solution M0529 – Murashige and Skoog basal salt micronutrient solution M2909 – Murashige and S...
Keywords: Mass spectrometry, Vitamins

Peer-Reviewed Papers


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A revised medium for rapid growth and bioassays with tobacco tissue cultures. Murashige, T., and Skoog, F. Physiol. Plant. 15, 473-497, (1962)


Influence of growth regulators and elicitors on cell growth and α-tocopherol and pigment productions in cell cultures of Carthamus tinctorius L. Chavan SP, Lokhande VH, et. al. Appl. Microbiol. Biotechnol. 89, 1701-1707, (2011)


Increased Drought Tolerance through the Suppression of ESKMO1 Gene and Overexpression of CBF-Related Genes in Arabidopsis. Xu F, Liu Z, Xie H, et al. PLoS ONE 9(9), e106509, (2014)


Ectopic expression of class 1 KNOX genes induce adventitious shoot regeneration and alter growth and development of tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum L) and European plum (Prunus domestica L). Srinivasan C, Liu Z, Scorza R. Plant Cell Rep. 30, 655-664, (2011)


In vitro adventitious shoot regeneration via indirect organogenesis from petiole explants of Cassia angustifolia Vahl.-a potential medicinal plant. Siddique I, Anis M, Aref IM. Appl. Biochem. Biotechnol. 162, 2067-2074, (2010)


Effect of medium composition and light on root and rhinacanthin formation in Rhinacanthus nasutus cultures. Panichayupakaranant P, Meerungrueang W. Pharm. Biol. 48, 1192-1197, (2010)


Vitrification-based cryopreservation of Grammatophyllum speciosum protocorm. Sopalun K, Kanchit K, Ishikawa K. Cryo. Letters 31, 347-357, (2010)


Assessment of factors affecting micropropagation and ex vitro acclimatization of Nyctanthes arbor-tristis L. Jahan AA, Anis M, Aref IM. Acta Biol. Hung. 62, 45-56, (2011)


Arabidopsis ribosomal proteins RPL23aA and RPL23aB are differentially targeted to the nucleolus and are disparately required for normal development. Rory F. Degenhardt et al Plant Physiol. 147, 128-42, (2008)


In vitro cultures and regeneration of Bienertia sinuspersici (Chenopodiaceae) under increasing concentrations of sodium chloride and carbon dioxide. Rosnow J, Offermann S, Park J, et al. Plant Cell Rep., (2011)

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