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N4766 Sigma

N-Nitroso-N-methylurea

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Synonym: MNU, N-Methyl-N-nitrosourea

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Properties

Related Categories Cancer Research, Carcinogens, Cell Biology More...
contains   aqueous acetic acid as stabilizer
storage temp.   2-8°C

Description

Biochem/physiol Actions

DNA alkylating agent that is carcinogenic in many animal species. Although it can induce benign and malignant tumors in most organs, MNU is most often used to model mammary tumor initiation and progression.

Packaging

25, 100 g in glass bottle

Weight on dry basis.

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Safety & Documentation

Safety Information

Documents

Certificate of Analysis

Certificate of Origin

Protocols & Articles

Articles

Carcinogenesis and Epigenetics

Cancer research has revealed that the classical model of carcinogenesis, a three step process consisting of initiation, promotion, and progression, is not complete. The expansion of the carcinogenesi...
Vicki Caligur
BioFiles 2008, 3.5, 18.
Keywords: Acetylations, Adhesion, Alkylations, Apoptosis, Biofiles, Cancer, Carcinogens, Cell division, Cell proliferation, Cell signaling, DNA microarrays, Drug discovery, Environmental, Epigenetics, Events, Gene expression, Genetic, Hormones, Metabolism, Methylations, Microarray Analysis, Mutagens, PAGE, Recombination, Reductions, Sequences, Transcription, Type, transformation

DNA Damage and Repair

Damage to cellular DNA is involved in mutagenesis and the development of cancer. The DNA in a human cell undergoes several thousand to a million damaging events per day, generated by both external (e...
BioFiles 2007, 2.4, 20.
Keywords: AGE, Alkylations, Apoptosis, Applications, Biochemistry, Cancer, Carcinogens, Catalysis, Clinical, DNA replication, Deaminations, Environmental, Error, Events, Gene expression, Metabolites, Methylations, Mutagens, Oxidations, Polymorphisms, Rearrangements, Recombination, Sequences, Substitutions, Transcription, Type

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Peer-Reviewed Papers

References

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A comparative study on the effect of MNU on human lymphocyte cultures in vitro evaluated by O6-mdG formation, micronuclei and sister chromatid exchanges induction. Stephanou, G., et al. Cancer Lett. 109, 109-114, (1996)

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Role of DNA repair in carcinogen-induced ras mutation. Engelbergs, J., et al. Mutat. Res. 450, 139-153, (2000)

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Tumorigenesis of rat mammary epithelial cells by N-nitroso-N-methylurea in an in vitro system: characterization of the microtumors. Laduca, J.R., and Sinha, D.K. Cancer Lett. 32, 204-210, (1996)

N-nitroso-n-methylurea. IARC Monogr. Eval. Carcinog. Risk Chem. Man 17, 227-55, (1978)

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The mutational landscapes of genetic and chemical models of Kras-driven lung cancer. Westcott PM, Halliwill KD, To MD, et al. Nature 517(7535), 489-92, (2015)

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Melatonin potentiates the anti-tumour effect of pravastatin in rat mammary gland carcinoma model. Orendáš P, Kubatka P, Bojková B, et al. Int. J. Exp. Pathol. 95(6), 401-10, (2014)

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[Genetic effects of root extracts of Glycyrrhiza glabra L. on different test-systems]. Agabeĭli RA Tsitol. Genet. 46(5), 43-9, (2012)

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[Neoplastic effect of indomethacin in N-methyl-N-nitrosourea induced mammary carcinogenesis in female rats]. Kubatka P, Kalická K, Bojková B, et al. Klin. Onkol. 25(5), 359-63, (2012)

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Mouse models of Helicobacter-induced gastric cancer: use of cocarcinogens. Ferrero RL, Wilson JE, and Sutton P Methods Mol. Biol. 921, 157-73, (2012)

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[Mechanisms of radioresistance in terminally differentiated cells of mature retina]. Tronov VA, Vinogradova IuV, Loginova MIu, et al. Tsitologiia 54(3), 261-9, (2012)

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N-methylnitrosourea aggravates gastrointestinal polyposis in Lkb1+/- mice. Udd L, Gao Y, Ristimäki AP, et al. Carcinogenesis 34(10), 2409-14, (2013)

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Protection by Salvia extracts against oxidative and alkylation damage to DNA in human HCT15 and CO115 cells. Ramos AA, Pedro D, Collins AR, et al. J. Toxicol. Environ. Health A 75(13-15), 765-75, (2012)

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Identification of a molecular signature underlying inhibition of mammary carcinoma growth by dietary N-3 fatty acids. Jiang W, Zhu Z, McGinley JN, et al. Cancer Res. 72(15), 3795-806, (2012)

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Curcumin attenuates gastric cancer induced by N-methyl-N-nitrosourea and saturated sodium chloride in rats. Sintara K, Thong-Ngam D, Patumraj S, et al. J. Biomed. Biotechnol. 2012, 915380, (2012)

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Molecular analysis of point mutations in a barley genome exposed to MNU and gamma rays. Kurowska M, Labocha-Pawłowska A, Gnizda D, et al. Mutat. Res. 738-739, 52-70, (2012)

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The role of LEF1 in endometrial gland formation and carcinogenesis. Shelton DN, Fornalik H, Neff T, et al. PLoS ONE 7(7), e40312, (2012)

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N -methyl- N -nitrosourea-induced retinal degeneration in mice. Chen YY, Liu SL, Hu DP, et al. Exp. Eye Res. 121, 102-13, (2014)

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Quantitative assessment of the dose-response of alkylating agents in DNA repair proficient and deficient ames tester strains. Tang L, Guérard M, and Zeller A Environ. Mol. Mutagen. 55(1), 15-23, (2014)

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Intraductal administration of a polymeric nanoparticle formulation of curcumin (NanoCurc) significantly attenuates incidence of mammary tumors in a rodent chemical carcinogenesis model: Implications for breast cancer chemoprevention in at-risk populations. Chun YS, Bisht S, Chenna V, et al. Carcinogenesis 33(11), 2242-9, (2012)

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Protective effect of γ-tocopherol-enriched diet on N-methyl-N-nitrosourea-induced epithelial dysplasia in rat ventral prostate. Sanches LD, Santos SA, Carvalho JR, et al. Int. J. Exp. Pathol. 94(6), 362-72, (2013)

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A new proposed rodent model of chemically induced prostate carcinogenesis: distinct time-course prostate cancer progression in the dorsolateral and ventral lobes. Gonçalves BF, de Campos SG, Zanetoni C, et al. Prostate 73(11), 1202-13, (2013)

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Erufosine suppresses breast cancer in vitro and in vivo for its activity on PI3K, c-Raf and Akt proteins. Dineva IK, Zaharieva MM, Konstantinov SM, et al. J. Cancer Res. Clin. Oncol. 138(11), 1909-17, (2012)

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Chemopreventive and anti-angiogenic effects of dietary phenethyl isothiocyanate in an N-methyl nitrosourea-induced breast cancer animal model. Aras U, Gandhi YA, Masso-Welch PA, et al. Biopharm. Drug Dispos. 34(2), 98-106, (2013)

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Base excision DNA repair defect in thioredoxin-1 (Trx1)-deficient cells. Kim HL, Koedrith P, Lee SM, et al. Mutat. Res. 751-752, 1-7, (2013)

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Arachidonic acid supplementation during gestational, lactational and post-weaning periods prevents retinal degeneration induced in a rodent model. Yoshizawa K, Sasaki T, Kuro M, et al. Br. J. Nutr. 109(8), 1424-32, (2013)

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The identification of a novel gene, MAPO2, that is involved in the induction of apoptosis triggered by O⁶-methylguanine. Fujikane R, Sanada M, Sekiguchi M, et al. PLoS ONE 7(9), e44817, (2012)

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Effects of limiting energy availability via diet and physical activity on mammalian target of rapamycin-related signaling in rat mammary carcinomas. Jiang W, Zhu Z, and Thompson HJ Carcinogenesis 34(2), 378-87, (2013)

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Effect of an extract of Withania somnifera root on estrogen receptor-positive mammary carcinomas. Khazal KF, Samuel T, Hill DL, et al. Anticancer Res. 33(4), 1519-23, (2013)

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Influence of omega-3 fatty acids on Tamoxifen-induced suppression of rat mammary carcinogenesis. Manni A, Richie JP, Xu H, et al. Int. J. Cancer 134(7), 1549-57, (2014)

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N-methyl-N-nitrosourea during late gestation results in concomitant but reversible progenitor cell reduction and delayed neurogenesis in the hippocampus of rats. Itahashi M, Wang L, Shiraki A, et al. Toxicol. Lett. 226(3), 285-93, (2014)

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Maternal single injection of N-methyl-N-nitrosourea to cause microcephaly in offspring induces transient aberration of hippocampal neurogenesis in mice. Takimoto N, Wang L, Itahashi M, et al. Toxicol. Lett. 226(1), 20-7, (2014)

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Very early effect of DMBA and MNU on microRNA expression. Juhász K, Gombos K, Szirmai M, et al. In Vivo 27(1), 113-7, (2013)

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Chloroethylating and methylating dual function antineoplastic agents display superior cytotoxicity against repair proficient tumor cells. Zhu R, Baumann RP, Patridge E, et al. Bioorg. Med. Chem. Lett. 23(6), 1853-9, (2013)

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Role of melatonin and luzindole in rat mammary cancer. Umit UM, Berna T, Handan K, et al. J. Invest. Surg. 25(6), 345-53, (2012)

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Fish oil alters tamoxifen-modulated expression of mRNAs that encode genes related to differentiation, proliferation, metastasis, and immune response in rat mammary tumors. Bidinotto LT, de Cicco RL, Vanegas JE, et al. Nutr. Cancer 64(7), 991-9, (2012)

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Diosgenin, a steroidal saponin, exhibits anticancer activity by attenuating lipid peroxidation via enhancing antioxidant defense system during NMU-induced breast carcinoma. Jagadeesan J, Nandakumar N, Rengarajan T, et al. J. Environ. Pathol. Toxicol. Oncol. 31(2), 121-9, (2012)

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Rosiglitazone shows partial oncostatic effect in rat mammary carcinogenesis. Bojkova B, Kajo K, Garajova M, et al. Neoplasma 60(1), 46-55, (2013)

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High mobility group A1 protein acts as a new target of Notch1 signaling and regulates cell proliferation in T leukemia cells. Xi Y, Li YS, and Tang HB Mol. Cell Biochem. 374(1-2), 173-80, (2013)

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Distinctive features of advancing breast cancer cells and interactions with surrounding stroma observed under the scanning electron microscope. Jaafar H, Sharif SE, and Murtey MD Asian Pac. J. Cancer Prev. 13(4), 1305-10, (2012)

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