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P1585 Sigma

PMA

for use in molecular biology applications, ≥99% (TLC)

Synonym: 12-O-Tetradecanoylphorbol 13-acetate, 4β,9α,12β,13α,20-Pentahydroxytiglia-1,6-dien-3-one 12-tetradecanoate 13-acetate, PMA, Phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate, TPA

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Properties

Related Categories Biochemicals, Molecular Biology, Molecular Biology Reagents More...
grade   for molecular biology
assay   ≥99% (TLC)
form   film
storage condition   protect from light
solubility   DMSO: soluble (DMSO solutions can be stored dark at −20 °C for at least six months.)
  ethanol: soluble (Dissolve in water-miscible organic solvent prior to preparing aqueous solutions)
storage temp.   −20°C

Description

Frequently Asked Questions

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Biochem/physiol Actions

Potent tumor promoter; activates protein kinase C in vivo and in vitro.

Caution

Photosensitive, protect from light.

Application

Suitable for
• molecular biology studies as standard
• analytical studies of tumor promoters
• promotion of cell growth

General description

PMA (Phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate) is an activator of protein kinase C (PKC) and a known tumor promoting agent. PMA also exhibits clastogenic (chromosome-breaking) activity.1

Price and Availability

Suggested Laboratory Gloves


Laboratory GlovesThis substance has been tested against several types of hand protection for CE compliance. Click below to find the recommended gloves for handling this product.



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Safety & Documentation

Safety Information

Symbol 
GHS07  GHS07
Signal word 
Warning
Hazard statements 
Personal Protective Equipment 
WGK Germany 
3
RTECS 
QH4377000

Protocols & Articles

Protocols

Phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate Molecular Biology Reagent Protocol

T-cell activation is normally triggered by the interaction of a cell surface receptor to its specific ligand molecule. This binding event triggers the rapid hydrolysis of inositol phospholipids to di...
Keywords: Addition reactions, Centrifugation, Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, Ligands

Peer-Reviewed Papers

References

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1. Tumour promoter phorbol-12-myristate-13-acetate induces chromosomal damage via indirect action. Emerit I and Cerutti PA Nature 293(5828), 144-6, (1981)

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A human herpesvirus miRNA attenuates interferon signaling and contributes to maintenance of viral latency by targeting IKKe. Liang, D., et al. Cell Res. 21, 793-806, (2011)

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Activation Of Host Translational Control Pathways By A Viral Developmental Switch. Arias, C., et al. PLoS Pathog. 5, e1000334, (2009)

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Neuronal store-operated calcium entry pathway as a novel therapeutic target for Huntington's disease treatment. Wu, J., et al. Chem. Biol. 18, 777-793, (2011)

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Function Of The Small Hydrophobic Protein Of J Paramyxovirus. Li, Z., et al. J. Virol. 85, 32-42, (2011)

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JNK MAPK Pathway Regulates Constitutive Transcription Of CCL5 By Human NK Cells Through SP1. Kumar, D., et al. J. Immunol. 182, 1011-20, (2009)

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Notch-inducible hyperphosphorylated CREB and its ultradian oscillation in long-term memory formation. Zhang J, Little CJ, Tremmel DM, et al. J. Neurosci. 33(31), 12825-34, (2013)

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Notch and PKC are involved in formation of the lateral region of the dorso-ventral axis in Drosophila embryos. Tremmel DM, Resad S, Little CJ, et al. PLoS ONE 8(7), e67789, (2013)

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Quantitative Analysis Of HIV-1 Preintegration Complexes. Engelman, A., et al. Methods 47, 283-90, (2009)

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The Immune Responses Of Central And Effector Memory BCG-specific CD4(+) T Cells In BCG-vaccinated PPD(+) Donors Were Modulated By Treg Cells. Li, L., et al. Liposomes and Immunobiology 216, 477-84, (2011)

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Differential cytokine regulation by NF-kappaB and AP-1 in Jurkat T-cells. Khalaf H, Jass J, and Olsson PE BMC Immunol. 11, 26, (2010)

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The Renilla luciferase gene as a reference gene for normalization of gene expression in transiently transfected cells. Jiwaji M, Daly R, Pansare K, et al. BMC Mol. Biol. 11, 103, (2010)

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p53 acts as a co-repressor to regulate keratin 14 expression during epidermal cell differentiation. Cai BH, Hsu PC, Hsin IL, et al. PLoS ONE 7(7), e41742, (2012)

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Epidermal p65/NF-κB signalling is essential for skin carcinogenesis. Kim C and Pasparakis M EMBO Mol. Med. 6(7), 970-83, (2014)

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Human Serotonin Transporter Expression During Megakaryocytic Differentiation Of MEG-01 Cells. Giannaccini, G., et al. Neurochem. Res. 35, 628-35, (2010)

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Attenuation of immune-mediated influenza pneumonia by targeting the inducible co-stimulator (ICOS) molecule on T cells. Sakthivel P, Gereke M, Breithaupt A, et al. PLoS ONE 9(7), e100970, (2014)

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Microarray analyses demonstrate the involvement of type I interferons in psoriasiform pathology development in D6-deficient mice. Baldwin HM, Pallas K, King V, et al. J. Biol. Chem. 288(51), 36473-83, (2013)

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New ex vivo approaches distinguish effective and ineffective single agents for reversing HIV-1 latency in vivo. Bullen CK, Laird GM, Durand CM, et al. Nat. Med. 20(4), 425-9, (2014)

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Generation of 'Unnatural Natural Product' library and identification of a small molecule inhibitor of XIAP. Tatsuro Kawamura et al Bioorg. Med. Chem. 19, 4377-85, (2011)

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Toll-like receptor 2 activation by β2→1-fructans protects barrier function of T84 human intestinal epithelial cells in a chain length-dependent manner. Vogt LM, Meyer D, Pullens G, et al. J. Nutr. 144(7), 1002-8, (2014)

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Control of cell differentiation and cell transformation in vitro by phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate and 1 alpha,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3. Huberman E and Jones CA Carcinog. Compr. Surv. 10, 263-73, (1985)

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Tat-biliverdin reductase A inhibits inflammatory response by regulation of MAPK and NF-κB pathways in Raw 264.7 cells and edema mouse model. Kim HR, Kim DW, Jo HS, et al. Mol. Immunol. 63(2), 355-66, (2015)

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PI3K/Akt regulates survival during differentiation of human macrophages by maintaining NF-κB-dependent expression of antiapoptotic Bcl-xL. Busca A, Saxena M, Iqbal S, et al. J. Leukoc. Biol. 96(6), 1011-22, (2014)

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Differential 12-O-Tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate-induced activation of rat mammary carcinoma susceptibility Fbxo10 variant promoters via a PKC-AP1 pathway. Xu X, Prough RA, and Samuelson DJ Mol. Carcinog. 54(2), 134-47, (2015)

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Effect of short-term hyperglycemia on protein kinase C alpha activation in human erythrocytes. Livshits L, Srulevich A, Raz I, et al. Rev. Diabet. Stud. 9(2-3), 94-103, (2012)

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Hypoxia activates NADPH oxidase to increase [ROS]i and [Ca2+]i through the mitochondrial ROS-PKCepsilon signaling axis in pulmonary artery smooth muscle cells. Rakesh Rathore et al Free Radic. Biol. Med. 45, 1223-31, (2008)

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Differential cellular uptake and metabolism of curcuminoids in monocytes/macrophages: regulatory effects on lipid accumulation. Nakagawa K, Zingg JM, Kim SH, et al. Br. J. Nutr. 112(1), 8-14, (2014)

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Legionella Pneumophila Transcriptome during Intracellular Multiplication in Human Macrophages. Faucher SP Front. Microbiol. 2, 60, (2011)

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The purified and recombinant Legionella pneumophila chaperonin alters mitochondrial trafficking and microfilament organization. Chong A Infect. Immun. 77(11), 4724-39, (2009)

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Keratinocyte-specific deletion of the receptor RAGE modulates the kinetics of skin inflammation in vivo. Leibold JS, Riehl A, Hettinger J, et al. J. Invest. Dermatol. 133(10), 2400-6, (2013)

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Leukocyte protease binding to nucleic acids promotes nuclear localization and cleavage of nucleic acid binding proteins. Thomas MP, Whangbo J, McCrossan G, et al. J. Immunol. 192(11), 5390-7, (2014)

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Reduced susceptibility to two-stage skin carcinogenesis in mice with epidermis-specific deletion of CD151. Sachs N, Secades P, van Hulst L, et al. J. Invest. Dermatol. 134(1), 221-8, (2014)

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High frequency, sustained T cell responses to PARV4 suggest viral persistence in vivo. Simmons R J. Infect. Dis. 203(10), 1378-87, (2011)

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Human polymorphonuclear neutrophil responses to Burkholderia pseudomallei in healthy and diabetic subjects. Chanchamroen S Infect. Immun. 77(1), 456-63, (2009)

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Preparation of low molecular weight fucoidan by gamma-irradiation and its anticancer activity. Choi JI and Kim HJ Carbohydr. Polym. 97(2), 358-62, (2013)

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Epstein-barr virus blocks the autophagic flux and appropriates the autophagic machinery to enhance viral replication. Granato M, Santarelli R, Farina A, et al. J. Virol. 88(21), 12715-26, (2014)

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PKM2 inhibitor shikonin suppresses TPA-induced mitochondrial malfunction and proliferation of skin epidermal JB6 cells. Li W, Liu J, and Zhao Y Mol. Carcinog. 53(5), 403-12, (2014)

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Pitfalls in determining the cytokine profile of human T cells. Olsen I and Sollid LM J. Immunol. Methods 390(1-2), 106-12, (2013)

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Expression of cell surface receptors and oxidative metabolism modulation in the clinical continuum of sepsis. Martins PS Critical Care 12(1), R25, (2008)

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Targeted deletion of RasGRP1 impairs skin tumorigenesis. Sharma A, Fonseca LL, Rajani C, et al. Carcinogenesis 35(5), 1084-91, (2014)

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Binding of curcumin and its long chain derivatives to the activator binding domain of novel protein kinase C. Anjoy Majhi et al Bioorg. Med. Chem. 18, 1591-8, (2010)

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Immunization with recombinant Brucella species outer membrane protein Omp16 or Omp19 in adjuvant induces specific CD4+ and CD8+ T cells as well as systemic and oral protection against Brucella abortus infection. Pasquevich KA Infect. Immun. 77(1), 436-45, (2009)

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Geraniol attenuates 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA)-induced oxidative stress and inflammation in mouse skin: possible role of p38 MAP Kinase and NF-κB. Khan AQ, Khan R, Qamar W, et al. Exp. Mol. Pathol. 94(3), 419-29, (2013)

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Nipah virus infects specific subsets of porcine peripheral blood mononuclear cells. Beata Stachowiak et al PLoS ONE 7, e30855, (2012)

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Characterization of cytosolic proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) in neutrophils: antiapoptotic role of the monomer. De Chiara A, Pederzoli-Ribeil M, Mocek J, et al. J. Leukoc. Biol. 94(4), 723-31, (2013)

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The focal adhesion kinase inhibitor PF-562,271 impairs primary CD4+ T cell activation. Wiemer AJ, Wernimont SA, Cung TD, et al. Biochem. Pharmacol. 86(6), 770-81, (2013)

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Unique lipids from a common human bacterium represent a new class of Toll-like receptor 2 ligands capable of enhancing autoimmunity. Nichols FC Am. J. Pathol. 175(6), 2430-8, (2009)

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Acetaminophen prevents oxidative burst and delays apoptosis in human neutrophils. Freitas M, Costa VM, Ribeiro D, et al. Toxicol. Lett. 219(2), 170-7, (2013)

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Identification of protein kinase C activation as a novel mechanism for RGS2 protein upregulation through phenotypic screening of natural product extracts. Raveh A, Schultz PJ, Aschermann L, et al. Mol. Pharmacol. 86(4), 406-16, (2014)

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Sulforaphane inhibits phorbol ester-stimulated IKK-NF-κB signaling and COX-2 expression in human mammary epithelial cells by targeting NF-κB activating kinase and ERK. Kim HN, Kim DH, Kim EH, et al. Cancer Lett. 351(1), 41-9, (2014)

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ADAM10 is the major sheddase responsible for the release of membrane-associated meprin A. Herzog C, Haun RS, Ludwig A, et al. J. Biol. Chem. 289(19), 13308-22, (2014)

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Resveratrol inhibits K(v)2.2 currents through the estrogen receptor GPR30-mediated PKC pathway. Dong WH, Chen JC, He YL, et al. Am. J. Physiol. Cell Physiol. 305(5), C547-57, (2013)

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Chemical modifications of resveratrol for improved protein kinase C alpha activity. Joydip Das et al Bioorg. Med. Chem. 19, 5321-33, (2011)

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Phosphorylation of Noxo1 at threonine 341 regulates its interaction with Noxa1 and the superoxide-producing activity of Nox1. Yamamoto A, Takeya R, Matsumoto M, et al. FEBS J. 280(20), 5145-59, (2013)

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Intracellular shunting of O2(-) contributes to charge compensation and preservation of neutrophil respiratory burst in the absence of voltage-gated proton channel activity. Decleva E, Menegazzi R, Fasolo A, et al. Exp. Cell Res. 319(12), 1875-88, (2013)

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Reduced placental taurine transporter (TauT) activity in pregnancies complicated by pre-eclampsia and maternal obesity. Desforges M, Ditchfield A, Hirst CR, et al. Adv. Exp. Med. Biol. 776, 81-91, (2013)

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Upregulation of membrane-bound CD40L on CD4+ T cells in women with primary Sjögren's syndrome. Belkhir R, Gestermann N, Koutero M, et al. Scand. J. Immunol. 79(1), 37-42, (2014)

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Monoubiquitination of filamin B regulates vascular endothelial growth factor-mediated trafficking of histone deacetylase 7. Su YT, Gao C, Liu Y, et al. Mol. Cell. Biol. 33(8), 1546-60, (2013)

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Isolation of cytotoxic metabolites from targeted peruvian amazonian medicinal plants. José C Aponte et al J. Nat. Prod. 71, 102-5, (2008)

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Conformationally constrained analogues of diacylglycerol (DAG). 27. Modulation of membrane translocation of protein kinase C (PKC) isozymes alpha and delta by diacylglycerol lactones (DAG-lactones) containing rigid-rod acyl groups. Krishnan Malolanarasimhan et al J. Med. Chem. 50, 962-78, (2007)

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Selective inhibition of the function of tyrosine-phosphorylated STAT3 with a phosphorylation site-specific intrabody. Koo MY, Park J, Lim JM, et al. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U. S. A. 111(17), 6269-74, (2014)

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Light-dependent translocation of arrestin in rod photoreceptors is signaled through a phospholipase C cascade and requires ATP. Orisme W Cell. Signal. 22(3), 447-56, (2010)

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Activation of PKCβII by PMA facilitates enhanced epithelial wound repair through increased cell spreading and migration. Sumagin R, Robin AZ, Nusrat A, et al. PLoS ONE 8(2), e55775, (2013)

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Thymoquinone inhibits phorbol ester-induced activation of NF-κB and expression of COX-2, and induces expression of cytoprotective enzymes in mouse skin in vivo. Kundu JK, Liu L, Shin JW, et al. Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 438(4), 721-7, (2013)

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Restored circulating invariant NKT cells are associated with viral control in patients with chronic hepatitis B. Jiang X PLoS ONE 6(12), e28871, (2011)

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S100A9 has a protective role in inflammation-induced skin carcinogenesis. McNeill E and Hogg N Int. J. Cancer 135(4), 798-808, (2014)

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Characterization of regulatory T cells identified as CD4(+)CD25(high)CD39(+) in patients with active tuberculosis. T Chiacchio et al Clin. Exp. Immunol. 156, 463-70, (2009)

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High glucose modulates IL-6 mediated immune homeostasis through impeding neutrophil extracellular trap formation. Joshi MB, Lad A, Bharath Prasad AS, et al. FEBS Lett. 587(14), 2241-6, (2013)

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The zebrafish ortholog of TRPV1 is required for heat-induced locomotion. Gau P, Poon J, Ufret-Vincenty C, et al. J. Neurosci. 33(12), 5249-60, (2013)

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Targeted activation of conventional and novel protein kinases C through differential translocation patterns. Hui X, Reither G, Kaestner L, et al. Mol. Cell. Biol. 34(13), 2370-81, (2014)

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Impact of mycophenolic acid on the functionality of human polymorphonuclear neutrophils and dendritic cells during interaction with Aspergillus fumigatus. Markus Mezger et al Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 52, 2644-6, (2008)

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Nuclear factor κB mediates suppression of canonical transient receptor potential 6 expression by reactive oxygen species and protein kinase C in kidney cells. Wang Y, Ding M, Chaudhari S, et al. J. Biol. Chem. 288(18), 12852-65, (2013)

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Extracellular signal-related kinase 2/specificity protein 1/specificity protein 3/repressor element-1 silencing transcription factor pathway is involved in Aroclor 1254-induced toxicity in SH-SY5Y neuronal cells. Formisano L, Guida N, Laudati G, et al. J. Neurosci. Res. 93(1), 167-77, (2015)

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The F-box protein FBXO25 promotes the proteasome-dependent degradation of ELK-1 protein. Teixeira FR, Manfiolli AO, Soares CS, et al. J. Biol. Chem. 288(39), 28152-62, (2013)

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Disruption of endothelial adherens junction by invasive breast cancer cells is mediated by reactive oxygen species and is attenuated by AHCC. Haidari M, Zhang W, and Wakame K Life Sci. 93(25-26), 994-1003, (2013)

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Altered prostanoid signaling contributes to increased skin tumorigenesis in Tpl2 knockout mice. DeCicco-Skinner KL, Nolan SJ, Deshpande MM, et al. PLoS ONE 8(2), e56212, (2013)

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Synthesis and biological evaluation of 12-aminoacylphorboids. Alberto Pagani et al J. Nat. Prod. 73, 447-51, (2010)

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Nanog expression is negatively regulated by protein kinase C activities in human cancer cell lines. Chu WK, Dai PM, Li HL, et al. Carcinogenesis 34(7), 1497-509, (2013)

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Impaired infectivity of ritonavir-resistant HIV is rescued by heat shock protein 90AB1. Joshi P J. Biol. Chem. 286(28), 24581-92, (2011)

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A keratin 15 containing stem cell population from the hair follicle contributes to squamous papilloma development in the mouse. Li S, Park H, Trempus CS, et al. Mol. Carcinog. 52(10), 751-9, (2013)

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Chemopreventive effect of sarcophine-diol on NOR-1-induced TPA-promoted skin carcinogenesis in female HOS:HR-1 mice. Szymanski PT, Ahmed SA, Khalifa S, et al. Nat. Prod. Commun. 8(2), 153-4, (2013)

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Isolation of new phenylacetylingol derivatives that reactivate HIV-1 latency and a novel spirotriterpenoid from Euphorbia officinarum latex. Mourad Daoubi et al Bioorg. Med. Chem. 15, 4577-84, (2007)

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A new flow cytometry method to measure oxidative status: the Peroxidation of Leukocytes Index Ratio (PLIR). Peluso I, Adorno G, Raguzzini A, et al. J. Immunol. Methods 390(1-2), 113-20, (2013)

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High-level fluorescence labeling of gram-positive pathogens. Aymanns S PLoS ONE 6(6), e19822, (2011)

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Macrophage migration inhibitory factor triggers chemotaxis of CD74+CXCR2+ NKT cells in chemically induced IFN-γ-mediated skin inflammation. Hsieh CY, Chen CL, Lin YS, et al. J. Immunol. 193(7), 3693-703, (2014)

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Association of Mycoplasma arthritidis mitogen with lethal toxicity but not with arthritis in mice. Wenyi Luo et al Infect. Immun. 76, 4989-98, (2008)

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Human choroid plexus papilloma cells efficiently transport glucose and vitamin C. Ulloa V, García-Robles M, Martínez F, et al. J. Neurochem. 127(3), 403-14, (2013)

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β-Arrestin1 and distinct CXCR4 structures are required for stromal derived factor-1 to downregulate CXCR4 cell-surface levels in neuroblastoma. Clift IC, Bamidele AO, Rodriguez-Ramirez C, et al. Mol. Pharmacol. 85(4), 542-52, (2014)

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TSPAN33 is a novel marker of activated and malignant B cells. Luu VP, Hevezi P, Vences-Catalan F, et al. Clin. Immunol. 149(3), 388-99, (2013)

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Tumor promoter-induced sulfiredoxin is required for mouse skin tumorigenesis. Wu L, Jiang H, Chawsheen HA, et al. Carcinogenesis 35(5), 1177-84, (2014)

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Transient receptor potential ankyrin-1 (TRPA1) modulates store-operated Ca(2+) entry by regulation of STIM1-Orai1 association. Albarrán L, Lopez JJ, Dionisio N, et al. Biochim. Biophys. Acta 1833(12), 3025-34, (2013)

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PMA withdrawal in PMA-treated monocytic THP-1 cells and subsequent retinoic acid stimulation, modulate induction of apoptosis and appearance of dendritic cells. Spano A, Barni S, and Sciola L Cell Prolif. 46(3), 328-47, (2013)

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Slit2 promotes tumor growth and invasion in chemically induced skin carcinogenesis. Qi C, Lan H, Ye J, et al. Lab. Invest. 94(7), 766-76, (2014)

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Accelerated receptor shedding inhibits kidney injury molecule-1 (KIM-1)-mediated efferocytosis. Gandhi R, Yi J, Ha J, et al. Am. J. Physiol. Renal Physiol. 307(2), F205-21, (2014)

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HDAC inhibitors prevent the induction of the immediate-early gene FOSL1, but do not alter the nucleosome response. Khan DH and Davie JR FEBS Lett. 587(10), 1510-7, (2013)

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The effects of dissociated glucocorticoids RU24858 and RU24782 on TPA-induced skin tumor promotion biomarkers in SENCAR mice. Kowalczyk P, Junco JJ, Kowalczyk MC, et al. Mol. Carcinog. 53(6), 488-97, (2014)

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Do β-cells generate peroxynitrite in response to cytokine treatment? Broniowska KA, Mathews CE, and Corbett JA J. Biol. Chem. 288(51), 36567-78, (2013)

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Protein kinase C-activating tumor promoters modulate the DNA damage response in UVC-irradiated TK6 cells. Glover KP, Markell LK, Donner EM, et al. Toxicol. Lett. 229(1), 210-9, (2014)

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Annexin A3 plays a role in cytoplasmic calcium oscillation by extracellular calcium in the human promyelocytic leukemia HL-60 cells differentiated by phorbol-12-myristate-13-acetate. Nishiura H, Yamanegi K, Kawabe M, et al. Exp. Mol. Pathol. 97(2), 241-6, (2014)

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miR-22 regulates expression of oncogenic neuro-epithelial transforming gene 1, NET1. Ahmad HM, Muiwo P, Ramachandran SS, et al. FEBS J. 281(17), 3904-19, (2014)

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Evaluation of T cell responses in healing and nonhealing leishmaniasis reveals differences in T helper cell polarization ex vivo and in vitro. Choi BS Parasite Immunol. 31(4), 199-209, (2009)

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Protein kinase C restricts transport of carnitine by amino acid transporter ATB(0,+) apically localized in the blood-brain barrier. Michalec K, Mysiorek C, Kuntz M, et al. Arch. Biochem. Biophys. 554, 28-35, (2014)

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Tryptanthrin ameliorates atopic dermatitis through down-regulation of TSLP. Han NR, Moon PD, Kim HM, et al. Arch. Biochem. Biophys. 542, 14-20, (2014)

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Acute promyelocytic leukemia mutated to radioresistance suppressed monocyte lineage differentiation by phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate. Monzen S, Takimura K, Kashiwakura I, et al. Leuk. Res. 37(9), 1162-9, (2013)

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The zinc finger transcription factor ZXDC activates CCL2 gene expression by opposing BCL6-mediated repression. Ramsey JE and Fontes JD Mol. Immunol. 56(4), 768-80, (2013)

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Modulatory effects of Azadirachta indica leaf extract on cutaneous and hepatic biochemical status during promotion phase of DMBA/TPA-induced skin tumorigenesis in mice. Arora N, Bansal MP, and Koul A Indian J. Biochem. Biophys. 50(2), 105-13, (2013)

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Differentiating asthma phenotypes in young adults through polyclonal cytokine profiles. Zoratti E, Havstad S, Wegienka G, et al. Ann. Allergy Asthma Immunol. 113(1), 25-30, (2014)

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Effects of two disiloxanes ALIS-409 and ALIS-421 on chemoprevention in model experiments. Tokuda H, Maoka T, Suzuiki N, et al. Anticancer Res. 33(5), 2021-7, (2013)

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Homologous desensitization of histamine-mediated signal transduction system in C6 glioma cells. Tseng CL and Wei JW Chin. J. Physiol. 56(2), 90-100, (2013)

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IL-31 is produced by the malignant T-cell population in cutaneous T-Cell lymphoma and correlates with CTCL pruritus. Singer EM, Shin DB, Nattkemper LA, et al. J. Invest. Dermatol. 133(12), 2783-5, (2013)

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