|Related Categories||Antibiotics, Antibiotics A to Z, Antibiotics N-S, Biochemicals and Reagents|
Patulin is a mycotoxin produced by a variety of molds, such as, Aspergillus and Penicillium. It is commonly found in apples. It is used as an inhibitor of potassium uptake and as an inducer of ion flux across cell membranes, potentially involving Na+-K+ dependent ATPase and to induce intra- and intermolecular protein crosslinking. It is used to study patulin contamination of bottled wine 1, DNA-damaging activity of patulin in Escherichia coli.2, and molecular cloning and functional characterization of two CYP619 cytochrome P450s involved in patulin biosynthesis3.
Patulin is genotoxic and may be carcinogenic. It is an inhibitor of potassium uptake and an inducer of ion flux across cell membranes, potentially involving Na+-K+ dependent ATPase. It induces intra- and intermolecular protein crosslinking. CYP619 cytochrome P450s are involved in biosynthesis of patulin in Aspergillus clavatus3.
Certificate of Analysis
Certificate of Origin
|Precautionary statements||P264-P301 + P310|
|Personal Protective Equipment||Eyeshields, Gloves|
|Hazard Codes (Europe)||T|
|Risk Statements (Europe)||25-38|
|Safety Statements (Europe)||45|
|RIDADR||UN 3462 6.1 / PGII|
1. Low Occurrence of Patulin-Producing Strains of Penicillium in Grapes and Patulin Degradation during Winemaking in Chile Gonzalo A. Díaz, Lina Yañez, et al. Am. J. Enol. Vitic. 62, 542-546, (2011)
3. Molecular cloning and functional characterization of two CYP619 cytochrome P450s involved in biosynthesis of patulin in Aspergillus clavatus Marie Pierre Artigot, Nicolas Loiseau, et al. Microbiology 155, 1738-1747, (2009)
Birkinshaw, M., et al. Lancet 245, 625, (1943)
Molecular characterization, fitness and mycotoxin production of benzimidazole-resistant isolates of Penicillium expansum. Malandrakis AA, Markoglou AN, Konstantinou S, et al. Int. J. Food Microbiol. 162(3), 237-44, (2013)
Effects of aliphatic aldehydes on the growth and patulin production of Penicillium expansum in apple juice. Taguchi T, Kozutsumi D, Nakamura R, et al. Biosci. Biotechnol. Biochem. 77(1), 138-44, (2013)
Improved positive electrospray ionization of patulin by adduct formation: usefulness in liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry multi-mycotoxin analysis. Malysheva SV, Diana Di Mavungu J, Boonen J, et al. J. Chromatogr. A 1270, 334-9, (2012)
Study of thermal resistance and in vitro bioaccessibility of patulin from artificially contaminated apple products. Raiola A, Meca G, García-Llatas G, et al. Food Chem. Toxicol. 50(9), 3068-72, (2012)
Development of a multiplex real-time PCR to quantify aflatoxin, ochratoxin A and patulin producing molds in foods. Rodríguez A, Rodríguez M, Andrade MJ, et al. Int. J. Food Microbiol. 155(1-2), 10-8, (2012)
Simultaneous determination of bisphenol A, aflatoxin B1, ochratoxin A, and patulin in food matrices by liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry. Song W, Li C, and Moezzi B Rapid Commun. Mass Spectrom. 27(6), 671-80, (2013)
Interaction with Penicillium expansum enhances Botrytis cinerea growth in grape juice medium and prevents patulin accumulation in vitro. Morales H, Paterson RR, Venâncio A, et al. Lett. Appl. Microbiol. 56(5), 356-60, (2013)
Patulin reduction in apple juice from concentrate by UV radiation and comparison of kinetic degradation models between apple juice and apple cider. Assatarakul K, Churey JJ, Manns DC, et al. J. Food Prot. 75(4), 717-24, (2012)
Minigenome-based reporter system suitable for high-throughput screening of compounds able to inhibit Ebolavirus replication and/or transcription. Luke D Jasenosky et al Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 54, 3007-10, (2010)
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