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P7136 Sigma

Pyrazinecarboxamide

Synonym: Pyrazinamide, Pyrazinoic acid amide

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Properties

Related Categories Antibacterial, Antibiotics, Antibiotics A to Z, Antibiotics N-S, Antimycobacterial,
mp   189-191 °C(lit.)
solubility   H2O: soluble50 mg/mL
antibiotic activity spectrum   mycobacteria

Description

Packaging

10, 25, 100 g in poly bottle

Application

Pyrazinamide is used therapeutically as an antitubercular agent. Pyrazinamide is used to form polymeric copper complexes, create pyrazine carboxamide scaffolds useful as FXs inhibitors, and as a component of mycobacteria identification kits. It is used to study liver toxicity prevention 1 and mechanisms of resistance 2.

Biochem/physiol Actions

The active moiety of pyrazinamide is pyrazinoic acid (POA). POA is thought to disrupt membrane energetics and inhibit membrane transport function at acid pH in Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Iron enhances the antituberculous activity of pyrazinamide 3. Pyrazinamide and its analogs have been shown to inhibit the activity of purified FAS I.

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Safety & Documentation

Safety Information

WGK Germany 
3
RTECS 
UQ2275000

Protocols & Articles

Peer-Reviewed Papers

References

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1. Human and Experimental Toxicology. Terminalia chebula (fruit) prevents liver toxicity caused by sub-chronic administration of rifampicin, isoniazid and pyrazinamide in combination S A Tasduq, K Singh, N K Satti, et al. Hum. Exp. Toxicol. 25, 111-118, (2006)

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2. Mechanisms of pyrazinamide resistance in mycobacteria: importance of lack of uptake in addition to lack of pyrazinamidase activity Catherine Raynaud, Marie-Antoinette Lanéelle, et a Microbiology 145, 1359-1367, (1999)

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3. Iron enhances the antituberculous activity of pyrazinamide Akos Somoskovi, Mary Margaret Wade, et al. J. Antimicrob. Chemother. 53, 192-196, (2004)

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Pyrazinamide resistance and pncA gene mutations in Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Pontus Juréen et al Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 52, 1852-4, (2008)

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Susceptibility of Mycobacterium bovis BCG vaccine strains to antituberculous antibiotics. Nicole Ritz et al Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 53, 316-8, (2009)

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Synergistic activity of R207910 combined with pyrazinamide against murine tuberculosis. M Ibrahim et al Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 51, 1011-5, (2007)

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Pharmacokinetics and tolerability of a higher rifampin dose versus the standard dose in pulmonary tuberculosis patients. Rovina Ruslami et al Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 51, 2546-51, (2007)

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High-dose rifapentine with moxifloxacin for pulmonary tuberculosis. Jindani A, Harrison TS, Nunn AJ, et al. N. Engl. J. Med. 371(17), 1599-608, (2014)

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Pharmacokinetics of antituberculosis drugs in pulmonary tuberculosis patients with type 2 diabetes. Rovina Ruslami et al Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 54, 1068-74, (2010)

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Formulation of pyrazinamide-loaded large porous particles for the pulmonary route: avoiding crystal growth using excipients. Pham DD, Fattal E, Ghermani N, et al. Int. J. Pharm. 454(2), 668-77, (2013)

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Pyrazinoic acid and its n-propyl ester inhibit fatty acid synthase type I in replicating tubercle bacilli. Oren Zimhony et al Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 51, 752-4, (2007)

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Inhibition of isolated Mycobacterium tuberculosis fatty acid synthase I by pyrazinamide analogs. Silvana C Ngo et al Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 51, 2430-5, (2007)

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A time-to-event pharmacodynamic model describing treatment response in patients with pulmonary tuberculosis using days to positivity in automated liquid mycobacterial culture. Chigutsa E, Patel K, Denti P, et al. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 57(2), 789-95, (2013)

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Fast standardized therapeutic-efficacy assay for drug discovery against tuberculosis. Joaquín Rullas et al Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 54, 2262-4, (2010)

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[Short-course chemotherapy of tuberculosis with pyrazinamide]. Asai S, Futsuki Y, Tomari S, et al. Nihon Rinsho. 56(12), 3087-90, (1998)

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[Pyrazinamide-containing initial intensive short course chemotherapy of pulmonary tuberculosis]. Wada M Kekkaku 72(10), 587-95, (1997)

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[Re-evaluation of pyrazinamide]. Kajiki A Kekkaku 69(2), 107-12, (1994)

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[Status quo of pyrazinamide as an antituberculosis drug]. Kameda K Kekkaku 70(7), 445-55, (1995)

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Management of paradoxical response in pediatric tubercular meningitis with methylprednisolone. Nema N, Verma A, Singh K, et al. Middle East Afr. J. Ophthalmol. 21(2), 189-92, (2014)

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[A clinical investigation of seven patients with pulmonary tuberculosis who developed mixed liver injury during oral anti-tuberculosis treatment]. Nomi F, Hosaka K, and Kurosawa T Kekkaku 88(9), 647-51, (2013)

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Rapid detection of pyrazinamide resistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis by high resolution melting curve analysis. Watcharasamphankul W, Houpt ER, and Foongladda S J. Med. Assoc. Thai. 96(9), 1218-23, (2013)

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[Pseudotumor form of primary nasopharyngeal tuberculosis: apropos of 2 new cases and review of the literature]. Touati M, Aljalil A, Chihani M, et al. Pan Afr. Med. J. 14, 63, (2013)

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[Tubercular abscess of the chest wall in the child]. El Barni R, Lahkim M, and Achour A Pan Afr. Med. J. 14, 9, (2013)

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[Primary sinonasal tuberculosis: apropos of a case]. Bouchentouf R, Bouaity B, Touati M, et al. Pan Afr. Med. J. 14, 29, (2013)

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[A case of tuberculous peritonitis in a hemodialysis patient revealed by severe diarrhea and stomachache]. Hara M, Hatta T, Ohtani M, et al. Nihon Jinzo Gakkai Shi 55(1), 77-82, (2013)

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Efficacy of the 6-month thrice-weekly regimen in the treatment of new sputum smear-positive pulmonary tuberculosis under clinical trial conditions. Banu Rekha VV, Rajaram K, Kripasankar AS, et al. Natl. Med. J. India 25(4), 196-200, (2012)

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Tuberculosis treatment survival of HIV positive TB patients on directly observed treatment short-course in Southern Ethiopia: a retrospective cohort study. Shaweno D and Worku A BMC Res. Notes 5, 682, (2012)

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[Advances in the research of rapid detection methods of pyrazinamide-resistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis]. Hong CY, Liu XL, and Wang F Zhonghua Jie He He Hu Xi Za Zhi 35(3), 210-2, (2012)

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Synthesis and evaluation of chromenyl barbiturates and thiobarbiturates as potential antitubercular agents. S Vijaya Laxmi et al Bioorg. Med. Chem. Lett. 21, 4329-31, (2011)

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[Pharmacokinetic aspects of tuberculosis therapy with a fixed combination of rifampicin, isoniazide and pyrazinamide]. Schaberg T and Lode H Z. Gesamte Inn. Med. 46(8), 276-9, (1991)

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Pyrazinamide. Tuberculosis (Edinb.) 88(2), 141-4, (2008)

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The paradox of pyrazinamide: an update on the molecular mechanisms of pyrazinamide resistance in Mycobacteria. Singh P, Mishra AK, Malonia SK, et al. J. Commun. Dis. 38(3), 288-98, (2006)

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[A case of fulminant hepatic failure associated with pyrazinamide in a woman with hypoalbuminemia]. Toyama T, Kato H, Kobayashi E, et al. Nihon Shokakibyo Gakkai Zasshi 102(5), 589-94, (2005)

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[The present state of short course chemotherapy including pyrazinamide in Japan]. Yamagishi F Nihon Kokyuki. Gakkai Zasshi 42(6), 481-5, (2004)

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Safety of rifampin and pyrazinamide for the treatment of latent tuberculosis infection. Stout JE Expert Opin. Drug Saf. 3(3), 187-98, (2004)

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Antitubercular drugs (isoniazid, rifampin and pyrazinamide): hepatobiliary reactions. Vu D and Macdonald L CMAJ 165(7), 942-3, 946-7, (2001)

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Spectrophotometric determination of drugs with iodine. Karuna T, et al. J. Sci. Ind. Res. 65(10), 808, (2006)

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OPC-67683, a nitro-dihydro-imidazooxazole derivative with promising action against tuberculosis in vitro and in mice. Makoto Matsumoto et al PLoS Med. 3, e466, (2006)

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FDA-approved drug labeling for the study of drug-induced liver injury. Minjun Chen et al Drug Discov. Today 16, 697-703, (2011)

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Leprosy and tuberculosis co-infection: clinical and immunological report of two cases and review of the literature. Trindade MÂ, Miyamoto D, Benard G, et al. Am. J. Trop. Med. Hyg. 88(2), 236-40, (2013)

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Quantitative structure-activity relationship and complex network approach to monoamine oxidase A and B inhibitors. Lourdes Santana et al J. Med. Chem. 51, 6740-51, (2008)

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Serum drug concentrations predictive of pulmonary tuberculosis outcomes. Pasipanodya JG, McIlleron H, Burger A, et al. J. Infect. Dis. 208(9), 1464-73, (2013)

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Cheminformatics analysis of assertions mined from literature that describe drug-induced liver injury in different species. Denis Fourches et al Chem. Res. Toxicol. 23, 171-83, (2010)

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Nosocomial transmission of extensively drug-resistant tuberculosis in a rural hospital in South Africa. Gandhi NR, Weissman D, Moodley P, et al. J. Infect. Dis. 207(1), 9-17, (2013)

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Low-oxygen-recovery assay for high-throughput screening of compounds against nonreplicating Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Sang Hyun Cho et al Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 51, 1380-5, (2007)

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Four-month moxifloxacin-based regimens for drug-sensitive tuberculosis. Gillespie SH, Crook AM, McHugh TD, et al. N. Engl. J. Med. 371(17), 1577-87, (2014)

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Pyrazinamide susceptibility testing in Mycobacterium tuberculosis: a systematic review with meta-analyses. Chang KC, Yew WW, and Zhang Y Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 55(10), 4499-505, (2011)

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Pharmacokinetics-pharmacodynamics of pyrazinamide in a novel in vitro model of tuberculosis for sterilizing effect: a paradigm for faster assessment of new antituberculosis drugs. Tawanda Gumbo et al Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 53, 3197-204, (2009)

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PhoU is a persistence switch involved in persister formation and tolerance to multiple antibiotics and stresses in Escherichia coli. Yongfang Li et al Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 51, 2092-9, (2007)

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Developing structure-activity relationships for the prediction of hepatotoxicity. Nigel Greene et al Chem. Res. Toxicol. 23, 1215-22, (2010)

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Impact of pharmacogenetic markers of CYP2B6, clinical factors, and drug-drug interaction on efavirenz concentrations in HIV/tuberculosis-coinfected patients. Manosuthi W, Sukasem C, Lueangniyomkul A, et al. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 57(2), 1019-24, (2013)

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A four-month gatifloxacin-containing regimen for treating tuberculosis. Merle CS, Fielding K, Sow OB, et al. N. Engl. J. Med. 371(17), 1588-98, (2014)

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A facile synthesis and antimycobacterial evaluation of novel spiro-pyrido-pyrrolizines and pyrrolidines. Raju Ranjith Kumar et al Eur. J. Med. Chem. 44, 3821-9, (2009)

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Novel three-component domino reactions of ketones, isatin and amino acids: synthesis and discovery of antimycobacterial activity of highly functionalised novel dispiropyrrolidines. Raju Suresh Kumar et al Eur. J. Med. Chem. 45, 411-22, (2010)

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Pyrazinamide, but not pyrazinoic acid, is a competitive inhibitor of NADPH binding to Mycobacterium tuberculosis fatty acid synthase I. Halimah Sayahi et al Bioorg. Med. Chem. Lett. 21, 4804-7, (2011)

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Clinical and toxicodynamic evidence that high-dose pyrazinamide is not more hepatotoxic than the low doses currently used. Jotam G Pasipanodya et al Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 54, 2847-54, (2010)

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Substituted quinolinyl chalcones and quinolinyl pyrimidines as a new class of anti-infective agents. Moni Sharma et al Eur. J. Med. Chem. 44, 2081-91, (2009)

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Synthesis, antibacterial and antimycobacterial activities of some new 4-aryl/heteroaryl-2,6-dimethyl-3,5-bis-N-(aryl)-carbamoyl-1,4-dihydropyridines. Kalam Sirisha et al Eur. J. Med. Chem. 46, 1564-71, (2011)

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The molecular basis of resistance to isoniazid, rifampin, and pyrazinamide in Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Somoskovi A, Parsons LM, and Salfinger M Respir. Res. 2(3), 164-8, (2001)

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A new modification of anti-tubercular active molecules. Ales Imramovský et al Bioorg. Med. Chem. 15, 2551-9, (2007)

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Factors associated with the rapid implementation process of the fixed-dose combination RHZE tuberculosis regimen in Brazil: an ecological study. Braga JU, da Conceição DA, and Trajman A BMC Public Health 13, 321, (2013)

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One-pot synthesis of pyrazoline derivatised carbazoles as antitubercular, anticancer agents, their DNA cleavage and antioxidant activities. Tasneem Taj et al Eur. J. Med. Chem. 46, 4366-73, (2011)

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A new binuclear oxovanadium(V) complex as a catalyst in combination with pyrazinecarboxylic acid (PCA) for efficient alkane oxygenation by H2O2. Sutradhar M, Shvydkiy NV, Guedes da Silva MF, et al. Dalton Trans. 42(33), 11791-803, (2013)

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Mutually exclusive genotypes for pyrazinamide and 5-chloropyrazinamide resistance reveal a potential resistance-proofing strategy. Anthony D Baughn et al Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 54, 5323-8, (2010)

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The near future: improving the activity of rifamycins and pyrazinamide. Mitchison DA and Fourie PB Tuberculosis (Edinb.) 90(3), 177-81, (2010)

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A predictive ligand-based Bayesian model for human drug-induced liver injury. Sean Ekins et al Drug Metab. Dispos. 38, 2302-8, (2010)

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A highly atom economic, chemo-, regio- and stereoselective synthesis and evaluation of spiro-pyrrolothiazoles as antitubercular agents. Subramanian Vedhanarayanan Karthikeyan et al Bioorg. Med. Chem. Lett. 20, 350-3, (2010)

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The curious characteristics of pyrazinamide: a review. Zhang Y and Mitchison D Int. J. Tuberc. Lung Dis. 7(1), 6-21, (2003)

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Role of porins in the susceptibility of Mycobacterium smegmatis and Mycobacterium chelonae to aldehyde-based disinfectants and drugs. Zuzana Svetlíková et al Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 53, 4015-8, (2009)

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Prevention of false resistance results obtained in testing the susceptibility of Mycobacterium tuberculosis to pyrazinamide with the Bactec MGIT 960 system using a reduced inoculum. Piersimoni C, Mustazzolu A, Giannoni F, et al. J. Clin. Microbiol. 51(1), 291-4, (2013)

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A microwave-assisted facile regioselective Fischer indole synthesis and antitubercular evaluation of novel 2-aryl-3,4-dihydro-2H-thieno[3,2-b]indoles. Subramanian Vedhanarayanan Karthikeyan et al Bioorg. Med. Chem. Lett. 19, 3006-9, (2009)

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Biochemical and mutational analysis of a novel nicotinamidase from Oceanobacillus iheyensis HTE831. Sánchez-Carrón G, García-García MI, Zapata-Pérez R, et al. PLoS ONE 8(2), e56727, (2013)

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Synthesis and antimycobacterial evaluation of substituted pyrazinecarboxamides. Martin Dolezal et al Eur. J. Med. Chem. 43, 1105-13, (2008)

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Analogs of the antituberculous agent pyrazinamide are competitive inhibitors of NADPH binding to M. tuberculosis fatty acid synthase I. Sayahi H, Pugliese KM, Zimhony O, et al. Chem. Biodivers. 9(11), 2582-96, (2012)

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Multidrug-resistant tuberculosis in Western Australia, 1998-2012. Francis JR, Blyth CC, Colby S, et al. Med. J. Aust. 200(6), 328-32, (2014)

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Metronidazole lacks antibacterial activity in guinea pigs infected with Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Donald R Hoff et al Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 52, 4137-40, (2008)

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Synthesis and antimycobacterial properties of N-substituted 6-amino-5-cyanopyrazine-2-carboxamides. Jan Zitko et al Bioorg. Med. Chem. 19, 1471-6, (2011)

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Pyrazinamide pharmacokinetics and efficacy in adults and children. Donald PR, Maritz JS, and Diacon AH Tuberculosis (Edinb.) 92(1), 1-8, (2012)

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Pyrrolidine dithiocarbamate and diethyldithiocarbamate are active against growing and nongrowing persister Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Sean T Byrne et al Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 51, 4495-7, (2007)

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Synthesis and antimycobacterial activity of N'-[(E)-(monosubstituted-benzylidene)]-2-pyrazinecarbohydrazide derivatives. Fátima M F Vergara et al Eur. J. Med. Chem. 44, 4954-9, (2009)

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Synthesis and antitubercular evaluation of novel substituted aryl and thiophenyl tethered dihydro-6H-quinolin-5-ones. Srinivas Kantevari et al Bioorg. Med. Chem. Lett. 21, 1214-7, (2011)

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Radiosynthesis and bioimaging of the tuberculosis chemotherapeutics isoniazid, rifampicin and pyrazinamide in baboons. Li Liu et al J. Med. Chem. 53, 2882-91, (2010)

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Emergence and molecular characterization of extensively drug-resistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis clinical isolates from the Delhi Region in India. Alka Khanna et al Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 54, 4789-93, (2010)

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Exploration of the pyrazinamide polymorphism at high pressure. Tan X, Wang K, Li S, et al. J. Phys. Chem. B 116(49), 14441-50, (2012)

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Synthesis of novel 3-cyclohexylpropanoic acid-derived nitrogen heterocyclic compounds and their evaluation for tuberculostatic activity. Katarzyna Gobis et al Bioorg. Med. Chem. 20, 137-44, (2012)

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Synthesis and antitubercular evaluation of amidoalkyl dibenzofuranols and 1H-benzo[2,3]benzofuro[4,5-e][1,3]oxazin-3(2H)-ones. Srinivas Kantevari et al Bioorg. Med. Chem. Lett. 21, 4316-9, (2011)

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A novel mechanism underlies the hepatotoxicity of pyrazinamide. Shih TY, Pai CY, Yang P, et al. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 57(4), 1685-90, (2013)

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Pyrazole derivatives from azines of substituted phenacyl aryl/cyclohexyl sulfides and their antimycobacterial activity. Ramaiyan Manikannan et al Bioorg. Med. Chem. Lett. 20, 6920-4, (2010)

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Synthesis of pyrazinamide Mannich bases and its antitubercular properties. Dharmarajan Sriram et al Bioorg. Med. Chem. Lett. 16, 2113-6, (2006)

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Synthesis and antimycobacterial evaluation of pyrazinamide derivatives with benzylamino substitution. Zitko J, Paterová P, Kubíček V, et al. Bioorg. Med. Chem. Lett. 23(2), 476-9, (2013)

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Microwave prompted multigram synthesis, structural determination, and photo-antiproliferative activity of fluorinated 4-hydroxyquinolinones. Kapil Arya et al Bioorg. Med. Chem. Lett. 17, 86-93, (2007)

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L-proline-catalysed facile green protocol for the synthesis and antimycobacterial evaluation of [1,4]-thiazines. Sethuraman Indumathi et al Eur. J. Med. Chem. 44, 4978-84, (2009)

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Estimation of content of anti-TB drugs supplied at centres of the Revised National TB Control Programme in Tamil Nadu, India. Ramachandran G, Chandrasekaran V, Hemanth Kumar AK, et al. Trop. Med. Int. Health 18(9), 1141-4, (2013)

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Selective one-pot multicomponent synthesis and anti-tubercular evaluation of 5-(aryl/cyclohexylsulfanyl)-2-alkoxy-4,6-diarylnicotinonitriles. Ramaiyan Manikannan et al Bioorg. Med. Chem. Lett. 20, 3352-5, (2010)

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Synthesis and antituberculosis activity of novel mefloquine-isoxazole carboxylic esters as prodrugs. Mao, J.; et al. Bioorg. Med. Chem. Lett. 20, 1263, (2010)

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Synthesis and antimycobacterial evaluation of N-substituted 3-aminopyrazine-2,5-dicarbonitriles. Jan Zitko et al Bioorg. Med. Chem. Lett. 22, 1598-601, (2012)

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Camphorsulfonic acid catalysed facile tandem double Friedlander annulation protocol for the synthesis of phenoxy linked bisquinoline derivatives and discovery of antitubercular agents. Nidhin Paul et al Bioorg. Med. Chem. Lett. 22, 1643-8, (2012)

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Prediction of volume of distribution values in human using immobilized artificial membrane partitioning coefficients, the fraction of compound ionized and plasma protein binding data. Xiaofan Sui et al Eur. J. Med. Chem. 44, 4455-60, (2009)

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Oral bioavailability of rifampicin, isoniazid, ethambutol, and pyrazinamide in a 4-drug fixed-dose combination compared with the separate formulations in healthy Chinese male volunteers. Xu J, Jin H, Zhu H, et al. Clin. Ther. 35(2), 161-8, (2013)

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New approach for drug susceptibility testing: monitoring the stress response of mycobacteria. Ronald J Rieder et al Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 53, 4598-603, (2009)

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Evaluation of tuberculosis underreporting in Greece through comparison with anti-tuberculosis drug consumption. Lytras T, Spala G, Bonovas S, et al. PLoS ONE 7(11), e50033, (2012)

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Tuberculous lymphadenopathy: a multicentre operational study of 6-month thrice weekly directly observed treatment. Jindal SK, Aggarwal AN, Gupta D, et al. Int. J. Tuberc. Lung Dis. 17(2), 234-9, (2013)

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Inadequate therapeutic response to a recommended antituberculosis fixed-dose combination regimen in an overweight patient with Mycobacterium bovis infection. Lloret-Linares C, Mouly S, Hoang-Nguyen DT, et al. Ann. Pharmacother. 47(1), e4, (2013)

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Synthesis and antimycobacterial activity of highly functionalized tetrahydro-4(1H)-pyridinones. Velanganni Paul Alex Raja et al Bioorg. Med. Chem. Lett. 21, 3881-4, (2011)

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Isoniazid- and streptomycin-resistant miliary tuberculosis complicated by intracranial tuberculoma in a Japanese infant. Ishiwada N, Tokunaga O, Nagasawa K, et al. Tohoku J. Exp. Med. 229(3), 221-5, (2013)

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Anhelation due to formation of tuberculomas at the medulla oblongata during chemotherapy of tuberculous meningitis. Ge P, Zhang X, Zhong Y, et al. Neurol. Neurochir. Pol. 46(5), 501-5, (2012)

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An unusual cause of breast lump: isolated tuberculosis of the breast. Pal P, Patra SK, and Ray S Am. J. Trop. Med. Hyg. 90(5), 788-9, (2014)

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A case of skin and lung tuberculosis: diagnostic difficulties. Colasanti P, Cardone M, Zanchini R, et al. G. Ital. Dermatol. Venereol. 148(5), 538-40, (2013)

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Treating pyrazinamide mono-resistant pulmonary tuberculosis. Pérez-Guzmán C, Vargas MH, Pérez-Arellano CP, et al. Int. J. Tuberc. Lung Dis. 17(9), 1244-5, (2013)

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PA-824 , moxifloxacin and pyrazinamide combination therapy for tuberculosis. Dawson R and Diacon A Expert Opin. Investig. Drugs 22(7), 927-32, (2013)

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Reply to "role of rpsA gene sequencing in diagnosis of pyrazinamide resistance". Alexander DC, Ma JH, Guthrie JL, et al. J. Clin. Microbiol. 51(1), 383, (2013)

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Role of rpsA gene sequencing in diagnosis of pyrazinamide resistance. Simons SO, Mulder A, van Ingen J, et al. J. Clin. Microbiol. 51(1), 382, (2013)

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Rifampin and pyrazinamide for latent tuberculosis infection: clinical trials and general practice. Saukkonen J Clin. Infect. Dis. 39(4), 566-8, (2004)

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Rifampin and pyrazinamide for treatment of latent tuberculosis infection: is it safe? Jasmer RM and Daley CL Am. J. Respir. Crit. Care Med. 167(6), 809-10, (2003)

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Merck 14,7956

Beil. 25,IV,772

Aldrich MSDS 1, 1556:C / Corp MSDS 1 (2), 2986:A / FT-IR 2 (3), 3887:B / FT-IR 1 (2), 844:D / FT-NMR 1 (3), 410:A / IR-Spectra (3), 1378:A / IR-Spectra (2), 1200:G / NMR-Reference 2 (2), 723:D / RegBook 1 (2), 2595:F / Sax 6, 2323 / Sigma FT-IR 1 (2), 865:C / Structure Index 1, 410:C:6

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