P8390 Sigma




Biochem/physiol Actions

GABAA receptor antagonist; binds to the GABA receptor-linked Cl channel.

Other Notes

Active component of picrotoxin


250 mg in glass bottle

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Safety Information

GHS06  GHS06
Signal word 
Hazard statements 
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UN 2811 6.1 / PGII
WGK Germany 


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Certificate of Origin

Protocols & Articles


Discover Bioactive Small Molecules for Neuroscience

The nervous system, comprised of the brain and spinal cord (central nervous system, or CNS) and network of nerves that connects the CNS to the rest of the body (peripheral nervous system, or PNS) is ...
Keywords: Bioactive small molecules, Central Nervous System, Diseases, Metabolism, Neurodegenerative Diseases, Neuroscience, Neurotransmission, Neurotransmitters

Peer-Reviewed Papers


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Dieldrin and picrotoxin in modulation of GABA(A) receptor single channels. Ikeda, T., et al. Neuroreport 9, 3189, (1998)


Binding sites for bilobalide, diltiazem, ginkgolide, and picrotoxinin at the 5-HT3 receptor. Thompson AJ, Duke RK, Lummis SC. Mol. Pharmacol. 80, 183-190, (2011)


A proposed structural basis for picrotoxinin and picrotin binding in the glycine receptor pore. Yang Z, Cromer BA, Harvey RJ, et al. J. Neurochem. 103(2), 580-9, (2007)


Bilobalide, a sesquiterpene trilactone from Ginkgo biloba, is an antagonist at recombinant alpha1beta2gamma2L GABA(A) receptors. Huang SH, Duke RK, Chebib M, et al. Eur. J. Pharmacol. 464(1), 1-8, (2003)


Control of serotonergic function in medial prefrontal cortex by serotonin-2A receptors through a glutamate-dependent mechanism. Martín-Ruiz R, Puig MV, Celada P, et al. J. Neurosci. 21(24), 9856-66, (2001)


Ginkgolides, diterpene trilactones of Ginkgo biloba, as antagonists at recombinant alpha1beta2gamma2L GABAA receptors. Huang SH, Duke RK, Chebib M, et al. Eur. J. Pharmacol. 494(2-3), 131-8, (2004)


Dihydropyridine inhibition of the glycine receptor: subunit selectivity and a molecular determinant of inhibition. Chen X, Cromer B, Webb TI, et al. Neuropharmacology 56(1), 318-27, (2009)


Functional characterization of Musca glutamate- and GABA-gated chloride channels expressed independently and coexpressed in Xenopus oocytes. Eguchi Y, Ihara M, Ochi E, et al. Insect Mol. Biol. 15(6), 773-83, (2006)


Mechanisms for picrotoxinin and picrotin blocks of alpha2 homomeric glycine receptors. Wang DS, Buckinx R, Lecorronc H, et al. J. Biol. Chem. 282(22), 16016-35, (2007)


Synaptic currents generating the inhibitory surround of ganglion cells in the mammalian retina. Flores-Herr N, Protti DA, and Wässle H J. Neurosci. 21(13), 4852-63, (2001)


Deriving the glutamate clearance time course from transporter currents in CA1 hippocampal astrocytes: transmitter uptake gets faster during development. Diamond JS J. Neurosci. 25(11), 2906-16, (2005)


Rat alpha6beta2delta GABAA receptors exhibit two distinct and separable agonist affinities. Hadley SH and Amin J J. Physiol. 581(Pt 3), 1001-18, (2007)


Relative impact of residues at the intracellular and extracellular ends of the human GABAC rho1 receptor M2 domain on picrotoxinin activity. Carland JE, Johnston GA, and Chebib M Eur. J. Pharmacol. 580(1-2), 27-35, (2008)


Activation-dependent properties of pregnenolone sulfate inhibition of GABAA receptor-mediated current. Eisenman LN, He Y, Fields C, et al. J. Physiol. 550(Pt 3), 679-91, (2003)


Terpene trilactones from Ginkgo biloba are antagonists of cortical glycine and GABA(A) receptors. Ivic L, Sands TT, Fishkin N, et al. J. Biol. Chem. 278(49), 49279-85, (2003)


NOESY on neurotoxins: NMR and conformational assignments of picrotoxins. Perry NB, Aiyaz M, Kerr DS, et al. Phytochem. Anal. 12(1), 69-72, (2001)


Cys-loop receptor channel blockers also block GLIC. Alqazzaz M, Thompson AJ, Price KL, et al. Biophys. J. 101(12), 2912-8, (2011)


Amyloid precursor proteins interact with the heterotrimeric G protein Go in the control of neuronal migration. Ramaker JM, Swanson TL, and Copenhaver PF J. Neurosci. 33(24), 10165-81, (2013)


The human taste receptor hTAS2R14 responds to a variety of different bitter compounds. Behrens M, Brockhoff A, Kuhn C, et al. Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 319(2), 479-85, (2004)


Inner and outer retinal mechanisms engaged by epiretinal stimulation in normal and rd mice. Margalit E, Babai N, Luo J, et al. Vis. Neurosci. 28(2), 145-54, (2011)


Role of a serine residue (S278) in the pore-facing region of the housefly L-glutamate-gated chloride channel in determining sensitivity to noncompetitive antagonists. Hirata K, Ishida C, Eguchi Y, et al. Insect Mol. Biol. 17(4), 341-50, (2008)


RdlDv, a novel GABA-gated chloride channel gene from the American dog tick Dermacentor variabilis. Zheng Y, Priest B, Cully DF, et al. Insect Biochem. Mol. Biol. 33(6), 595-9, (2003)


Activation of GABA(A) receptors in subthalamic neurons in vitro: properties of native receptors and inhibition mechanisms. Baufreton J, Garret M, Dovero S, et al. J. Neurophysiol. 86(1), 75-85, (2001)


Site-specific fluorescence reveals distinct structural changes induced in the human rho 1 GABA receptor by inhibitory neurosteroids. Li P, Khatri A, Bracamontes J, et al. Mol. Pharmacol. 77(4), 539-46, (2010)


Investigation of structural requirements for inhibitory activity at the rat and housefly picrotoxinin binding sites in ionotropic GABA receptors using DISCOtech and CoMFA. Ju XL, Hao YL, Pei JF, et al. Chemosphere 69(6), 864-71, (2007)


Glycine receptor subunit composition alters the action of GABA antagonists. Li P and Slaughter M Vis. Neurosci. 24(4), 513-21, (2007)


Merck 14,7416

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