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All-trans retinal is converted to retinoic acid in vivo by the action of retinal dehydrogenase. Retinoic acid is a ligand for both the retinoic acid receptor (RAR) and the retinoid X receptor (RXR) that act as transcription factors to regulate the growth and differentiation of normal and malignant cells. Retinal isomers are also chromophores that bind to opsins, a family of G-protein-linked transmembrane proteins, to form photosensitive receptors in visual and nonvisual systems. All-trans retinal is a potent photosensitizer.
Tandem Mass Spectrometry data independently generated by Scripps Center for Metabolomics is available to view or download in PDF. R2500.pdf Tested metabolites are featured on Scripps Center for Metabolomics METLIN Metabolite Database. To learn more, visit sigma.com/metlin.
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All-trans retinoic acid (RA, ATRA) is a pleiotropic activation factor that regulates genes associated with normal vertebrate cellular processes such as cell differentiation, cell proliferation, apopt...
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Keywords: Apoptosis, Cancer, Cell proliferation, Cellular processes, Chromatin immunoprecipitation, Condensations, Degradations, Diseases, Gene expression, Hormones, Immunoprecipitation, Ligands, Metabolism, Oxidations, Phosphorylations, Polymerase chain reaction, Teratogens, Transcription, Ubiquitinations, Vitamins
Photoreceptor proteins initiate microglial activation via Toll-like receptor 4 in retinal degeneration mediated by all-trans-retinal. Kohno H, Chen Y, Kevany BM, et al. J. Biol. Chem. 288(21), 15326-41, (2013)
Lipid emulsion administered intravenously or orally attenuates triglyceride accumulation and expression of inflammatory markers in the liver of nonobese mice fed parenteral nutrition formula. Ito K, Hao L, Wray AE, et al. J. Nutr. 143(3), 253-9, (2013)
Determination and occurrence of retinoids in a eutrophic lake (Taihu Lake, China): cyanobacteria blooms produce teratogenic retinal. Wu X, Jiang J, and Hu J Environ. Sci. Technol. 47(2), 807-14, (2013)
In vitro conversion of ß-carotene to retinal in bovine rumen fluid by a recombinant ß-carotene- 15, 15'-monooxygenase. García-López E, González-Gallardo A, Antaramián A, et al. Int. J. Vitam. Nutr. Res. 82(2), 94-103, (2012)
Evidence for the Two-State-Two-Mode model in retinal protonated Schiff-bases from pump degenerate four-wave-mixing experiments. Kraack JP, Buckup T, and Motzkus M Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys. 14(40), 13979-88, (2012)
The hepatic Raldh1 expression is elevated in Zucker fatty rats and its over-expression introduced the retinal-induced Srebp-1c expression in INS-1 cells. Li Y, Zhang Y, Li R, et al. PLoS ONE 7(9), e45210, (2012)
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