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R3250 Sigma

Retinyl acetate

synthetic, matrix dispersion, 475,000-650,000 USP units/g

Synonym: Retinol acetate, Vitamin A acetate

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Properties

Related Categories Cell Biology, Nutrition Research, Vitamin A, Vitamins
biological source   synthetic
form   matrix dispersion
mp   57-58 °C
storage temp.   −20°C

Description

Analysis Note

Activity based on HPLC comparison to USP standard.

Packaging

10, 100 g in glass bottle

Physical form

Dispersion in cornstarch-gelatin matrix. Oil dispersible

Biochem/physiol Actions

Retinal, retinol and retinoic acid are the aldehyde, alcohol and acid forms of vitamin A. The retinoids exist as many geometric isomers due to the unsaturated bonds in the aliphatic chain.
Retinoids also exist as retinyl esters such as retinyl propionate, retinyl acetate and retinyl palmitate. Retinyl esters provide pools of vitamin A that are converted into retinol and other retinoids as needed. Retinyl acetate is used in a wide range of biological applications.

Price and Availability

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European Pharmacopoeia (EP) Reference Standard

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United States Pharmacopeia (USP) Reference Standard

Retinyl acetate

solid or viscous liquid, BioReagent, synthetic, suitable for cell culture

Retinyl acetate

concentrate (~50% (w/w) in peanut oil), ~1500 U/mg

Retinyl acetate

analytical standard

Safety & Documentation

Safety Information

Symbol 
GHS08  GHS08
Signal word 
Danger
Hazard statements 
Precautionary statements 
WGK Germany 
2
RTECS 
VH6825000

Documents

Certificate of Analysis

Certificate of Origin

Protocols & Articles

Articles

Retinoic Acid and Gene Expression

All-trans retinoic acid (RA, ATRA) is a pleiotropic activation factor that regulates genes associated with normal vertebrate cellular processes such as cell differentiation, cell proliferation, apopt...
BioFiles 2008, 3.9, 12.
Keywords: Apoptosis, Cancer, Cell proliferation, Cellular processes, Chromatin immunoprecipitation, Condensations, Degradations, Diseases, Gene expression, Hormones, Immunoprecipitation, Ligands, Metabolism, Oxidations, Phosphorylations, Polymerase chain reaction, Sequences, Teratogens, Transcription, Type, Ubiquitinations, Usage, Vitamins

Peer-Reviewed Papers

References

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Vitamin A is systemically bioavailable after intratracheal administration with surfactant in an animal model of newborn respiratory distress. Singh AJ, Bronshtein V, Khashu M, et al. Pediatr. Res. 67, 619-623, (2010)

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Surface activity of surfactant spiked with vitamin A. Bronshtein V, Venkatesh V, et al. Drug Des. Discovery 2, 145-150, (2009)

nvolvement of all-trans-retinal in acute light-induced retinopathy of mice. Maeda A, Maeda T, Golczak M, et al. J. Biol. Chem. 284, 15173-15183, (2009)

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Intake of high levels of vitamin A and polyunsaturated fatty acids during different developmental periods modifies the expression of morphogenesis genes in European sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax). Villeneuve, L.A.N., et al. Br. J. Nutr. 95, 677-87, (2006)

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Retinyl acetate-loaded nanoparticles: dermal penetration and release of the retinyl acetate. Arayachukeat S, et al. Int. J. Pharm. 404, 281-288, (2011)

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Off-line coupling of pressurized liquid extraction and LC/ED for the determination of retinyl acetate and tocopherols in infant formulas. Delgado-Zamarreño MM, et al. Talanta 70, 1094-1099, (2006)

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Triple-fortified rice containing vitamin A reduced marginal vitamin A deficiency and increased vitamin A liver stores in school-aged Thai children. Pinkaew S, Wegmuller R, Wasantwisut E, et al. J. Nutr. 144(4), 519-24, (2014)

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Population deworming every 6 months with albendazole in 1 million pre-school children in north India: DEVTA, a cluster-randomised trial. Awasthi S, Peto R, Read S, et al. Lancet 381(9876), 1478-86, (2013)

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[Effect of vitamin A provision on antineoplastic resistance in rats]. Marchenko MM, Shmarakov IA, and Pasaĭliuk MV Vopr. Pitan. 77(6), 4-8, (2008)

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Vitamin A supplementation every 6 months with retinol in 1 million pre-school children in north India: DEVTA, a cluster-randomised trial. Awasthi S, Peto R, Read S, et al. Lancet 381(9876), 1469-77, (2013)

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Golden Rice is an effective source of vitamin A. Tang G, Qin J, Dolnikowski GG, et al. Am. J. Clin. Nutr. 89(6), 1776-83, (2009)

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Chemoprevention of colorectal cancer by targeting APC-deficient cells for apoptosis. Zhang L, Ren X, Alt E, et al. Nature 464(7291), 1058-61, (2010)

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Loss of cone photoreceptors caused by chromophore depletion is partially prevented by the artificial chromophore pro-drug, 9-cis-retinyl acetate. Maeda T, Cideciyan AV, Maeda A, et al. Hum. Mol. Genet. 18(12), 2277-87, (2009)

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Quantification of β-carotene, retinol, retinyl acetate and retinyl palmitate in enriched fruit juices using dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction coupled to liquid chromatography with fluorescence detection and atmospheric pressure chemical ionization-mass spectrometry. Viñas P, Bravo-Bravo M, López-García I, et al. J. Chromatogr. A 1275, 1-8, (2013)

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Evaluation of 9-cis-retinyl acetate therapy in Rpe65-/- mice. Maeda T, Maeda A, Casadesus G, et al. Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 50(9), 4368-78, (2009)

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Evaluation of potential therapies for a mouse model of human age-related macular degeneration caused by delayed all-trans-retinal clearance. Maeda T, Maeda A, Matosky M, et al. Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 50(10), 4917-25, (2009)

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Nanoscale domains with nematic order in supercooled vitamin-A acetate: molecular dynamics studies. Wojnarowska Z, Paluch M, Wlodarczyk P, et al. Phys. Rev. E. Stat. Nonlin. Soft Matter Phys. 83(5 Pt 1), 051502, (2011)

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A randomized controlled trial to assess the impact of dietary energy sources, feed supplements, and the presence of super-shedders on the detection of Escherichia coli O157:H7 in feedlot cattle using different diagnostic procedures. Cernicchiaro N, Pearl DL, McEwen SA, et al. Foodborne Pathog. Dis. 7(9), 1071-81, (2010)

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An optimized and validated RP-HPLC/UV detection method for simultaneous determination of all-trans-retinol (vitamin A) and alpha-tocopherol (vitamin E) in human serum: comparison of different particulate reversed-phase HPLC columns. Khan A, Khan MI, Iqbal Z, et al. J. Chromatogr. B. Analyt. Technol. Biomed. Life Sci. 878(25), 2339-47, (2010)

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Retinoid production using metabolically engineered Escherichia coli with a two-phase culture system. Jang HJ, Yoon SH, Ryu HK, et al. Microb. Cell Fact. 10, 59, (2011)

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Accelerator mass spectrometry can be used to assess vitamin A metabolism quantitatively in boys in a community setting. Aklamati EK, Mulenga M, Dueker SR, et al. J. Nutr. 140(9), 1588-94, (2010)

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Cosmeceuticals: the evidence behind the retinoids. Babamiri K and Nassab R Aesthet. Surg. J. 30(1), 74-7, (2010)

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Development and validation of a dissolution test method for vitamin A in dietary supplement tablets. Davydova N, Stippler E, Jin P, et al. J. Pharm. Biomed. Anal. 53(3), 295-301, (2010)

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Retinoic acid is present in the postnatal rat olfactory organ and persists in vitamin A--depleted neural tissue. Mary Ann Asson-Batres et al J. Nutr. 139, 1067-72, (2009)

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Application of an allosteric model to describe the interactions among retinol binding protein 4, transthyretin, and small molecule retinol binding protein 4 ligands. Coward P, Conn M, Tang J, et al. Anal. Biochem. 384(2), 312-20, (2009)

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Lemon (Citrus limon, Burm.f.) essential oil enhances the trans-epidermal release of lipid-(A, E) and water-(B6, C) soluble vitamins from topical emulsions in reconstructed human epidermis. Valgimigli L, Gabbanini S, Berlini E, et al. Int. J. Cosmet. Sci. 34(4), 347-56, (2012)

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Small quantities of carotenoid-rich tropical green leafy vegetables indigenous to Africa maintain vitamin A status in Mongolian gerbils ( Meriones unguiculatus). Ejoh RA, Dever JT, Mills JP, et al. Br. J. Nutr. 103(11), 1594-601, (2010)

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Oral doses of α-retinyl ester track chylomicron uptake and distribution of vitamin A in a male piglet model for newborn infants. Riabroy N and Tanumihardjo SA J. Nutr. 144(8), 1188-95, (2014)

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Plasma turnover of 3,4-didehydroretinol (vitamin A2) increases in vitamin A-deficient rats fed low versus high dietary fat. Escaron AL, Green MH, and Tanumihardjo SA J. Lipid Res. 50(4), 694-703, (2009)

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Preparation, in vitro and in vivo evaluation of solid-state self-nanoemulsifying drug delivery system (SNEDDS) of vitamin A acetate. Taha EI, Al-Suwayeh SA, and Anwer MK J. Drug Target. 17(6), 468-73, (2009)

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Relative vitamin A values of 9-cis- and 13-cis-β-carotene do not differ when fed at physiological levels during vitamin A depletion in Mongolian gerbils (Meriones unguiculatus). Bresnahan KA, Davis CR, and Tanumihardjo SA Br. J. Nutr. 112(2), 162-9, (2014)

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Simultaneous determination of 13-cis and all-trans vitamin A palmitate (retinyl palmitate), vitamin A acetate (retinyl acetate), and total vitamin E (alpha-tocopherol and DL-alpha-tocopherol acetate) in infant formula and adult nutritionals by normal phase HPLC: first action 2012.10. McMahon A, Christiansen S, Shine L, et al. J. AOAC Int. 96(5), 1073-81, (2013)

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DEVTA: results from the biggest clinical trial ever. Garner P, Taylor-Robinson D, and Sachdev HS Lancet 381(9876), 1439-41, (2013)

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Vitamin A and C compounds permitted in supplements differ in their abilities to affect cell viability, DNA and the DNA nucleoside deoxyguanosine. Bergström T, Bergman J, Möller L. Mutagenesis 26(6), 73-44, (2011)

Merck 14,10013

Beil. 6,IV,4135

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