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R3501 Sigma

Rifampicin

≥97% (HPLC), powder

Synonym: 3-(4-Methylpiperazinyliminomethyl)rifamycin SV, Rifampin, Rifamycin AMP

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Properties

Related Categories Antibacterial, Antibiotics, Antibiotics A to Z, Antibiotics N-S, Antibiotics by Application,
assay   ≥97% (HPLC)
form   powder
color   faint-orange to red-brown
solubility   H2O: soluble1.3 mg/mL (pH 4.3)
  DMSO: soluble100 mg/mL
  H2O: soluble2.5 mg/mL at 25 °C (pH 7.3)
  chloroform: soluble50 mg/mL
antibiotic activity spectrum   Gram-negative bacteria
  Gram-positive bacteria
  mycobacteria
  viruses
storage temp.   −20°C

Description

Frequently Asked Questions

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Biochem/physiol Actions

Inhibits the assembly of DNA and protein into mature virus particles.

Mode of Action: Inhibits initiation of RNA synthesis by binding to β-subunit of RNA polymerase.

Rifampicin inhibits the assembly of DNA and protein into mature virus particles. It inhibits initiation of RNA synthesis by binding to β-subunit of RNA polymerase, which results in cell death1.

Application

Rifampicin is used to treat Tuberculosis and Tuberculosis-related mycobacterial infections1. It is widely used as an antipruritic agent in the autoimmune cholestatic liver disease, primary biliary cirrhosis (PBC). It has been shown to cause hepatitis2.

Protocols & Applications

Antibiotic Selector for application, solubility, solution stability, working concentration, and mode of action information

Price and Availability

Suggested Laboratory Gloves


Laboratory GlovesThis substance has been tested against several types of hand protection for CE compliance. Click below to find the recommended gloves for handling this product.



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Safety & Documentation

Safety Information

Symbol 
GHS07  GHS07
Signal word 
Warning
Hazard statements 
Precautionary statements 
Personal Protective Equipment 
WGK Germany 
3
RTECS 
VJ7000000

Protocols & Articles

Articles

Inhibition of Nucleic Acid Synthesis by Antibiotics

Quinolones are a key group of antibiotics that interfere with DNA synthesis by inhibiting topoisomerase, most frequently topoisomerase II (DNA gyrase), an enzyme involved in DNA replication. DNA gyra...
BioFiles 2006, 1.4, 7.
Keywords: Antibiotics, Antitumor agents, Cancer, DNA replication

Rapid Analysis of Rifampicin Using Discovery LC-MS Stationary Phases

The desire for quality data in an increasingly timely manner places a significant burden on the modern analytical laboratory. In this article, the use of short LC-MS columns are shown to provide fast...
David Bell
Reporter EU Volume 13
Keywords: Antibiotics, High performance liquid chromatography, Liquid chromatography mass spectrometry, Mass spectrometry, Reductions, Separation

Peer-Reviewed Papers

References

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1. DrugBank 3.0: a comprehensive resource for 'omics' research on drugs. Knox C, Law V, et al. Nucleic Acids Res. 39, D1035-41., (2011)

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2. Hepatitis and liver dysfunction with rifampicin therapy for pruritus in primary biliary cirrhosis M I Prince, A D Burt, et al. Gut 50, 436-439, (2002)

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Differential inhibition of transcription from sigma70- and sigma32-dependent promoters by rifampicin. Wegrzyn, A., et al. FEBS Lett. 440, 172-174, (1998)

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The A and B forms of plastid DNA-dependent RNA polymerase from mustard (Sinapis alba L.) transcribe the same genes in a different developmental context. Pfannschmidt, T., et al. Mol. Gen. Genet. 257, 35-44, (1997)

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Assembly of vaccinia virus: effects of rifampin on the intracellular distribution of viral protein p65. Sodeik, B., et al. J. Virol. 68, 1103-1114, (1994)

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Topology of the RNA polymerase active center probed by chimeric rifampicin-nucleotide compounds. Mustaev, A. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U. S. A. 91, 12036, (1994)

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Rifampicin prevents the aggregation and neurotoxicity of amyloid beta protein in vitro. Tomiyama, T., et al. Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 204, 76-83, (1994)

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Rifampin: mechanisms of action and resistance. Wehrli, W. Rev. Infect. Dis. 5, S407-s411, (1983)

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Plasmid-mediated quinolone resistance pump QepA2 in an Escherichia coli isolate from France. Vincent Cattoir et al Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 52, 3801-4, (2008)

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Membrane transporters in drug development Giacomini, K.M., et al. Nat. Rev. Drug Discov. 9, 215-236, (2010)

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In vivo selection of reduced susceptibility to carbapenems in Acinetobacter baumannii related to ISAba1-mediated overexpression of the natural bla(OXA-66) oxacillinase gene. Samy Figueiredo et al Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 53, 2657-9, (2009)

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Detection of NDM-1-producing Klebsiella pneumoniae in Kenya. Laurent Poirel et al Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 55, 934-6, (2011)

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Mupirocin-resistant, methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus strains in Canadian hospitals. Andrew E Simor et al Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 51, 3880-6, (2007)

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Structure-activity relationship and mechanism of action studies of manzamine analogues for the control of neuroinflammation and cerebral infections. Peng, J.; et al. J. Med. Chem. 53, 61, (2010)

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The ability to enter into an avirulent viable but non-culturable (VBNC) form is widespread among Listeria monocytogenes isolates from salmon, patients and environment. Lindbäck T, Rottenberg ME, Roche SM, et al. Vet. Res. 41(1), 8, (2010)

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Role of the Mycobacterium tuberculosis P55 efflux pump in intrinsic drug resistance, oxidative stress responses, and growth. Santiago Ramón-García et al Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 53, 3675-82, (2009)

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Linezolid alone or combined with rifampin against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus in experimental foreign-body infection. Daniela Baldoni et al Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 53, 1142-8, (2009)

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Susceptibility of Mycobacterium bovis BCG vaccine strains to antituberculous antibiotics. Nicole Ritz et al Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 53, 316-8, (2009)

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Synergistic activity of R207910 combined with pyrazinamide against murine tuberculosis. M Ibrahim et al Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 51, 1011-5, (2007)

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Structure-brain exposure relationships in rat and human using a novel data set of unbound drug concentrations in brain interstitial and cerebrospinal fluids. Markus Fridén et al J. Med. Chem. 52, 6233-43, (2009)

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Structural requirements for drug inhibition of the liver specific human organic cation transport protein 1. Gustav Ahlin et al J. Med. Chem. 51, 5932-42, (2008)

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Novel polymyxin derivatives carrying only three positive charges are effective antibacterial agents. Martti Vaara et al Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 52, 3229-36, (2008)

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Theileria apicoplast as a target for chemotherapy. Regina Lizundia et al Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 53, 1213-7, (2009)

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Diarylquinolines target subunit c of mycobacterial ATP synthase. Anil Koul et al Nat. Chem. Biol. 3, 323-4, (2007)

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Prediction and identification of drug interactions with the human ATP-binding cassette transporter multidrug-resistance associated protein 2 (MRP2; ABCC2). Jenny M Pedersen et al J. Med. Chem. 51, 3275-87, (2008)

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New drugs against tuberculosis: problems, progress, and evaluation of agents in clinical development. Jossy van den Boogaard et al Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 53, 849-62, (2009)

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Population pharmacokinetics of rifampin in pulmonary tuberculosis patients, including a semimechanistic model to describe variable absorption. Justin J Wilkins et al Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 52, 2138-48, (2008)

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A high-throughput screen for tuberculosis progression. Carvalho R, de Sonneville J, Stockhammer OW, et al. PLoS ONE 6(2), e16779, (2011)

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Searching for new cures for tuberculosis: design, synthesis, and biological evaluation of 2-methylbenzothiazoles. Qingqing Huang et al J. Med. Chem. 52, 6757-67, (2009)

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Early bactericidal activity of high-dose rifampin in patients with pulmonary tuberculosis evidenced by positive sputum smears. A H Diacon et al Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 51, 2994-6, (2007)

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Pharmacokinetics and tolerability of a higher rifampin dose versus the standard dose in pulmonary tuberculosis patients. Rovina Ruslami et al Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 51, 2546-51, (2007)

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A novel polymyxin derivative that lacks the fatty acid tail and carries only three positive charges has strong synergism with agents excluded by the intact outer membrane. Martti Vaara et al Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 54, 3341-6, (2010)

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(+)-agelasine D: improved synthesis and evaluation of antibacterial and cytotoxic activities. Anders Vik et al J. Nat. Prod. 69, 381-6, (2006)

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Orally administered combined regimens for treatment of Mycobacterium ulcerans infection in mice. Baohong Ji et al Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 51, 3737-9, (2007)

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High-dose rifapentine with moxifloxacin for pulmonary tuberculosis. Jindani A, Harrison TS, Nunn AJ, et al. N. Engl. J. Med. 371(17), 1599-608, (2014)

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Xpert® MTB/RIF assay: development, evaluation and implementation of a new rapid molecular diagnostic for tuberculosis and rifampicin resistance. Lawn SD and Nicol MP Future Microbiol. 6(9), 1067-82, (2011)

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Pharmacokinetics of antituberculosis drugs in pulmonary tuberculosis patients with type 2 diabetes. Rovina Ruslami et al Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 54, 1068-74, (2010)

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Pregnane X receptor agonists impair postprandial glucose tolerance. Rysä J, Buler M, Savolainen MJ, et al. Clin. Pharmacol. Ther. 93(6), 556-63, (2013)

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Efficacy of a novel rifamycin derivative, ABI-0043, against Staphylococcus aureus in an experimental model of foreign-body infection. Andrej Trampuz et al Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 51, 2540-5, (2007)

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Organization of ribosomes and nucleoids in Escherichia coli cells during growth and in quiescence. Chai Q, Singh B, Peisker K, et al. J. Biol. Chem. 289(16), 11342-52, (2014)

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Design and studies of novel 5-substituted alkynylpyrimidine nucleosides as potent inhibitors of mycobacteria. Dinesh Rai et al J. Med. Chem. 48, 7012-7, (2005)

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Antimicrobial and cytotoxic activity of agelasine and agelasimine analogs. Anders Vik et al Bioorg. Med. Chem. 15, 4016-37, (2007)

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Inhibition of Mycobacterium tuberculosis, Mycobacterium bovis, and Mycobacterium avium by novel dideoxy nucleosides. Dinesh Rai et al J. Med. Chem. 50, 4766-74, (2007)

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The chromosomal toxin gene yafQ is a determinant of multidrug tolerance for Escherichia coli growing in a biofilm. Joe J Harrison et al Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 53, 2253-8, (2009)

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Swarming and complex pattern formation in Paenibacillus vortex studied by imaging and tracking cells. Colin J Ingham et al BMC Microbiol. 8, 36, (2008)

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Bacteriophage assays for rifampicin resistance detection in Mycobacterium tuberculosis: updated meta-analysis. Minion J and Pai M Int. J. Tuberc. Lung Dis. 14(8), 941-51, (2010)

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Caenorhabditis elegans as a model to determine fitness of antibiotic-resistant Salmonella enterica serovar typhimurium. Wilhelm Paulander et al Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 51, 766-9, (2007)

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Dependence of efavirenz- and rifampicin-isoniazid-based antituberculosis treatment drug-drug interaction on CYP2B6 and NAT2 genetic polymorphisms: ANRS 12154 study in Cambodia. Bertrand J, Verstuyft C, Chou M, et al. J. Infect. Dis. 209(3), 399-408, (2014)

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Is there a role for rifampicin, ofloxacin and minocycline (ROM) therapy in the treatment of leprosy? Systematic review and meta-analysis. Setia MS, Shinde SS, Jerajani HR, et al. Trop. Med. Int. Health 16(12), 1541-51, (2011)

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Identification of selective inhibitors of uncharacterized enzymes by high-throughput screening with fluorescent activity-based probes. Bachovchin DA Nat. Biotechnol. 27(4), 387-94, (2009)

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Synthesis, antimalarial and antitubercular activity of acetylenic chalcones. Renate H Hans et al Bioorg. Med. Chem. Lett. 20, 942-4, (2010)

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Growth inhibition of Mycobacterium bovis, Mycobacterium tuberculosis and Mycobacterium avium in vitro: effect of 1-beta-D-2'-arabinofuranosyl and 1-(2'-deoxy-2'-fluoro-beta-D-2'-ribofuranosyl) pyrimidine nucleoside analogs. Monika Johar et al J. Med. Chem. 50, 3696-705, (2007)

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Curing Mycobacterium ulcerans infection in mice with a combination of rifampin-streptomycin or rifampin-amikacin. Sébastien Lefrançois et al Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 51, 645-50, (2007)

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3'-bromo analogues of pyrimidine nucleosides as a new class of potent inhibitors of Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Neeraj Shakya et al J. Med. Chem. 53, 4130-40, (2010)

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Intracellular activity of antibiotics in a model of human THP-1 macrophages infected by a Staphylococcus aureus small-colony variant strain isolated from a cystic fibrosis patient: pharmacodynamic evaluation and comparison with isogenic normal-phenotype and revertant strains. Hoang Anh Nguyen et al Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 53, 1434-42, (2009)

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Efficacy of high doses of daptomycin versus alternative therapies against experimental foreign-body infection by methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus. O Murillo et al Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 53, 4252-7, (2009)

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Resistance to rifampicin: at the crossroads between ecological, genomic and medical concerns. Tupin A, Gualtieri M, Roquet-Banères F, et al. Int. J. Antimicrob. Agents 35(6), 519-23, (2010)

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Trend analysis of a database of intravenous pharmacokinetic parameters in humans for 670 drug compounds. R Scott Obach et al Drug Metab. Dispos. 36, 1385-405, (2008)

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1,5-Diphenylpyrrole derivatives as antimycobacterial agents. Probing the influence on antimycobacterial activity of lipophilic substituents at the phenyl rings. Mariangela Biava et al J. Med. Chem. 51, 3644-8, (2008)

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Fast standardized therapeutic-efficacy assay for drug discovery against tuberculosis. Joaquín Rullas et al Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 54, 2262-4, (2010)

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Physicochemical determinants of human renal clearance. Manthena V S Varma et al J. Med. Chem. 52, 4844-52, (2009)

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Comparative study of the effects of pyridoxine, rifampin, and renal function on hematological adverse events induced by linezolid. Alex Soriano et al Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 51, 2559-63, (2007)

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Physicochemical space for optimum oral bioavailability: contribution of human intestinal absorption and first-pass elimination. Manthena V S Varma et al J. Med. Chem. 53, 1098-108, (2010)

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Early bactericidal activity and pharmacokinetics of the diarylquinoline TMC207 in treatment of pulmonary tuberculosis. R Rustomjee et al Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 52, 2831-5, (2008)

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[A positive test QuantiFERON-TB Gold In-Tube in a patient treated with continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis]. Niepolski L and Grzegorzewska AE Pol. Merkur. Lekarski 37(222), 341-3, (2014)

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An adolescent with a swollen nerve. Koo E and de Alba Campomanes AG JAMA Ophthalmol. 133(1), 97-8, (2015)

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Xpert MTB/RIF false detection of rifampin-resistant tuberculosis from prior infection. Kelly JD, Grace Lin SY, Barry PM, et al. Am. J. Respir. Crit. Care Med. 190(11), 1316-8, (2014)

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Intermittent antibiotic therapy for nodular bronchiectatic Mycobacterium avium complex lung disease. Jeong BH, Jeon K, Park HY, et al. Am. J. Respir. Crit. Care Med. 191(1), 96-103, (2015)

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Evaluation on activity of cytochrome p450 enzymes in turbot via a probe drug cocktail. Chang ZQ, Li J, and Zhai QQ J. Aquat. Anim. Health 26(4), 272-7, (2014)

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Phase I study of cabazitaxel plus cisplatin in patients with advanced solid tumors: study to evaluate the impact of cytochrome P450 3A inhibitors (aprepitant, ketoconazole) or inducers (rifampin) on the pharmacokinetics of cabazitaxel. Sarantopoulos J, Mita AC, Wade JL, et al. Cancer Chemother. Pharmacol. 74(6), 1113-24, (2014)

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Biophysical activity of animal-derived exogenous surfactants mixed with rifampicin. Kolomaznik M, Calkovska A, Herting E, et al. Adv. Exp. Med. Biol. 839, 31-9, (2015)

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Classical against molecular-genetic methods for susceptibility testing of antituberculotics. Porvaznik I, Mokry J, and Solovic I Adv. Exp. Med. Biol. 835, 15-22, (2015)

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Management of paradoxical response in pediatric tubercular meningitis with methylprednisolone. Nema N, Verma A, Singh K, et al. Middle East Afr. J. Ophthalmol. 21(2), 189-92, (2014)

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[The "second life" of rifampicin]. Stettler R and Trampuz A Rev. Med. Suisse 10(422), 670-2, (2014)

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[Drug delivery system on the base of phospholipid nanoparticles for rifampicin]. Sanzhakov MA, Prozorovskiĭ VN, Ipatova OM, et al. Biomed. Khim. 59(5), 585-90, (2013)

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Clinical efficacy of Rifampicin and Streptomycin in combination against Mycobacterium ulcerans infection: a systematic review. Vouking MZ, Tamo VC, and Tadenfok CN Pan Afr. Med. J. 15, 155, (2013)

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[A clinical investigation of seven patients with pulmonary tuberculosis who developed mixed liver injury during oral anti-tuberculosis treatment]. Nomi F, Hosaka K, and Kurosawa T Kekkaku 88(9), 647-51, (2013)

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Ethical issues in adapting new technologies for rapid diagnosis. Cash RA Indian J. Med. Ethics 10(4), 254-5, (2013)

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Availability of an assay for detecting Mycobacterium tuberculosis, including rifampin-resistant strains, and considerations for its use - United States, 2013. MMWR Morb. Mortal. Wkly. Rep. 62(41), 821-7, (2013)

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Transmission of Mycobacterium tuberculosis in a High School and School-Based Supervision of an Isoniazid-Rifapentine Regimen for Preventing Tuberculosis - Colorado, 2011-2012. MMWR Morb. Mortal. Wkly. Rep. 62(39), 805-9, (2013)

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[Low cyclosporin levels induced by the brief use of rifampicin; immunosuppression may fail for several weeks]. Valk-Swinkels CG, Alidjan F, Rommers MK, et al. Ned. Tijdschr. Geneeskd. 157(28), A5667, (2013)

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[Comparing performance of "TB-BIOCHIP", "Xpert MTB/RIF" and "genotype MTBDRplus" assays for fast identification of mutations in the Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex in sputum from TB patients]. Nosova EIu, Krasnova MA, Galkina KIu, et al. Mol. Biol. (Mosk.) 47(2), 267-74, (2013)

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A sociodemographic study of multidrug resistant tuberculosis cases from DOTS clinics of Kolkata. Gupta S, Bandyopadhyay D, Gupta S, et al. J. Indian Med. Assoc. 110(10), 723-5, (2012)

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[Dysphagia in a young woman from Somalia]. Veldhuis S, van Altena R, van Steenwijk RP, et al. Ned. Tijdschr. Geneeskd. 157(22), A5673, (2013)

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Stability of rifampin in SyrSpend SF. Sorenson B and Whaley P Int. J. Pharm. Compd. 17(2), 162-4, (2013)

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[Clinical evaluation of a line probe assay kit for the identification of Mycobacterium species and detection of drug-resistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis]. Matsumoto T, Ogata H, Toyota E, et al. Kekkaku 88(3), 291-6, (2013)

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Primary gingival tuberculosis diagnosis: a difficult endeavor. Gelli V, Mutalik SS, Mutalik VS, et al. J. Contemp. Dent. Pract. 14(1), 137-9, (2013)

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[Pseudotumor form of primary nasopharyngeal tuberculosis: apropos of 2 new cases and review of the literature]. Touati M, Aljalil A, Chihani M, et al. Pan Afr. Med. J. 14, 63, (2013)

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[Antibiotic regimens in tuberculous meningitis]. Rokstad IS Tidsskr. Nor. Laegeforen. 133(3), 278, (2013)

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Gingival pain: an unusual side effect of ziprasidone. Raghunath A BMJ Case Rep. 2013, doi:10.1136/bcr-2012-007577, (2013)

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Antimycobacterial activity of novel 1,2,4-oxadiazole-pyranopyridine/chromene hybrids generated by chemoselective 1,3-dipolar cycloadditions of nitrile oxides. Raju Ranjith Kumar et al Bioorg. Med. Chem. 19, 3444-50, (2011)

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Diagnostic test of rifampicin resistance in Mycobacterium tuberculosis: a meta-analysis. Ma B, Qi GQ, Li HM, et al. J. Evid. Based. Med. 4(1), 15-21, (2011)

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Spectrophotometric determination of drugs with iodine. Karuna T, et al. J. Sci. Ind. Res. 65(10), 808, (2006)

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Novel thiolactone-isatin hybrids as potential antimalarial and antitubercular agents. Renate H Hans et al Bioorg. Med. Chem. Lett. 21, 2055-8, (2011)

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Activated ClpP kills persisters and eradicates a chronic biofilm infection. Conlon BP, Nakayasu ES, Fleck LE, et al. Nature 503(7476), 365-70, (2013)

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Nasal carriage of methicillin-resistant and methicillin-sensitive strains of Staphylococcus sciuri in the Indonesian population. J A Severin et al Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 54, 5413-7, (2010)

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The Japanese toxicogenomics project: application of toxicogenomics. Takeki Uehara et al Mol. Nutr. Food. Res. 54, 218-27, (2010)

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Synthesis, antifungal and antimycobacterial activities of new bis-imidazole derivatives, and prediction of their binding to P450(14DM) by molecular docking and MM/PBSA method. Daniele Zampieri et al Bioorg. Med. Chem. 15, 7444-58, (2007)

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OPC-67683, a nitro-dihydro-imidazooxazole derivative with promising action against tuberculosis in vitro and in mice. Makoto Matsumoto et al PLoS Med. 3, e466, (2006)

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Hologram QSAR model for the prediction of human oral bioavailability. Tiago L Moda et al Bioorg. Med. Chem. 15, 7738-45, (2007)

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Antimycobacterial agents. Novel diarylpyrrole derivatives of BM212 endowed with high activity toward Mycobacterium tuberculosis and low cytotoxicity. Mariangela Biava et al J. Med. Chem. 49, 4946-52, (2006)

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FDA-approved drug labeling for the study of drug-induced liver injury. Minjun Chen et al Drug Discov. Today 16, 697-703, (2011)

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Structure-activity relationships for a series of quinoline-based compounds active against replicating and nonreplicating Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Annamaria Lilienkampf et al J. Med. Chem. 52, 2109-18, (2009)

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Novel 1,2,3-triazole derivatives for use against Mycobacterium tuberculosis H37Rv (ATCC 27294) strain. Nubia Boechat et al J. Med. Chem. 54, 5988-99, (2011)

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Inhibition of mycobacterial replication by pyrimidines possessing various C-5 functionalities and related 2'-deoxynucleoside analogues using in vitro and in vivo models. Naveen C Srivastav et al J. Med. Chem. 53, 6180-7, (2010)

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Xpert® MTB/RIF assay for pulmonary tuberculosis and rifampicin resistance in adults. Steingart KR, Sohn H, Schiller I, et al. Cochrane Database Syst. Rev. 1, CD009593, (2013)

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1,5-Diaryl-2-ethyl pyrrole derivatives as antimycobacterial agents: design, synthesis, and microbiological evaluation. Mariangela Biava et al Eur. J. Med. Chem. 44, 4734-8, (2009)

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Quantitative structure-activity relationship and complex network approach to monoamine oxidase A and B inhibitors. Lourdes Santana et al J. Med. Chem. 51, 6740-51, (2008)

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Characterization of the carbapenem-hydrolyzing oxacillinase oxa-58 in an Acinetobacter genospecies 3 clinical isolate. Sara Marti et al Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 52, 2955-8, (2008)

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Population modeling and Monte Carlo simulation study of the pharmacokinetics and antituberculosis pharmacodynamics of rifampin in lungs. Sylvain Goutelle et al Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 53, 2974-81, (2009)

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In vitro activity of OPT-80 tested against clinical isolates of toxin-producing Clostridium difficile. James A Karlowsky et al Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 52, 4163-5, (2008)

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Synthesis of new quinoxaline-2-carboxylate 1,4-dioxide derivatives as anti-Mycobacterium tuberculosis agents. Andrés Jaso et al J. Med. Chem. 48, 2019-25, (2005)

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Cheminformatics analysis of assertions mined from literature that describe drug-induced liver injury in different species. Denis Fourches et al Chem. Res. Toxicol. 23, 171-83, (2010)

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Comparative activities of daptomycin, linezolid, and tigecycline against catheter-related methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus bacteremic isolates embedded in biofilm. Issam Raad et al Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 51, 1656-60, (2007)

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Contribution of phenotypic heterogeneity to adaptive antibiotic resistance. Sánchez-Romero MA and Casadesús J Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U. S. A. 111(1), 355-60, (2014)

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AdeIJK, a resistance-nodulation-cell division pump effluxing multiple antibiotics in Acinetobacter baumannii. Laurence Damier-Piolle et al Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 52, 557-62, (2008)

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Synthesis and antituberculosis activity of a novel series of optically active 6-nitro-2,3-dihydroimidazo[2,1-b]oxazoles. Hirofumi Sasaki et al J. Med. Chem. 49, 7854-60, (2006)

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A diarylquinoline drug active on the ATP synthase of Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Koen Andries et al Science 307, 223-7, (2005)

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An RpoB mutation confers dual heteroresistance to daptomycin and vancomycin in Staphylococcus aureus. Longzhu Cui et al Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 54, 5222-33, (2010)

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SCY-635, a novel nonimmunosuppressive analog of cyclosporine that exhibits potent inhibition of hepatitis C virus RNA replication in vitro. Sam Hopkins et al Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 54, 660-72, (2010)

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Low-oxygen-recovery assay for high-throughput screening of compounds against nonreplicating Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Sang Hyun Cho et al Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 51, 1380-5, (2007)

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Characterization of TolC efflux pump proteins from Pasteurella multocida. Tamas Hatfaludi et al Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 52, 4166-71, (2008)

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Concentration-dependent Mycobacterium tuberculosis killing and prevention of resistance by rifampin. Tawanda Gumbo et al Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 51, 3781-8, (2007)

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Plasmid-mediated KPC-2 in a Klebsiella pneumoniae isolate from China. Ze-Qing Wei et al Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 51, 763-5, (2007)

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High-level vancomycin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus isolates associated with a polymicrobial biofilm. Linda M Weigel et al Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 51, 231-8, (2007)

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Different classes of antibiotics differentially influence shiga toxin production. Colleen Marie McGannon et al Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 54, 3790-8, (2010)

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Vancomycin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus isolates associated with Inc18-like vanA plasmids in Michigan. Wenming Zhu et al Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 52, 452-7, (2008)

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Multiple antibiotics exert delayed effects against the Plasmodium falciparum apicoplast. Erica L Dahl et al Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 51, 3485-90, (2007)

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Four-month moxifloxacin-based regimens for drug-sensitive tuberculosis. Gillespie SH, Crook AM, McHugh TD, et al. N. Engl. J. Med. 371(17), 1577-87, (2014)

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Efficacy of rifampin and its combinations with imipenem, sulbactam, and colistin in experimental models of infection caused by imipenem-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii. María E Pachón-Ibáñez et al Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 54, 1165-72, (2010)

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Molecular evidence for spread of two major methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus clones with a unique geographic distribution in Chinese hospitals. Yudong Liu et al Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 53, 512-8, (2009)

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Antagonistic effect of rifampin on the efficacy of high-dose levofloxacin in staphylococcal experimental foreign-body infection. O Murillo et al Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 52, 3681-6, (2008)

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Evaluation of a published in silico model and construction of a novel Bayesian model for predicting phospholipidosis inducing potential. Dennis J Pelletier et al J. Chem. Inf. Model. 47, 1196-205, (2007)

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Treatment and outcomes of infections by methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus at an ambulatory clinic. John D Szumowski et al Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 51, 423-8, (2007)

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vanM, a new glycopeptide resistance gene cluster found in Enterococcus faecium. Xiaogang Xu et al Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 54, 4643-7, (2010)

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Interaction of the GraRS two-component system with the VraFG ABC transporter to support vancomycin-intermediate resistance in Staphylococcus aureus. Michael Meehl et al Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 51, 2679-89, (2007)

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Synthesis and antimycobacterial activities of non-purine analogs of 6-aryl-9-benzylpurines: Imidazopyridines, pyrrolopyridines, benzimidazoles, and indoles. Abhijit Datta Khoje et al Bioorg. Med. Chem. 19, 3483-91, (2011)

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Oritavancin kills stationary-phase and biofilm Staphylococcus aureus cells in vitro. Adam Belley et al Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 53, 918-25, (2009)

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Molecular epidemiology of clinical isolates of carbapenem-resistant Acinetobacter spp. from Chinese hospitals. Hui Wang et al Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 51, 4022-8, (2007)

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Antimycobacterial activities of 5-alkyl (or halo)-3'-substituted pyrimidine nucleoside analogs. Naveen C Srivastav et al Bioorg. Med. Chem. Lett. 22, 1091-4, (2012)

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Effect of DNase and antibiotics on biofilm characteristics. George V Tetz et al Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 53, 1204-9, (2009)

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Rifampin and rifaximin resistance in clinical isolates of Clostridium difficile. Jennifer R O'Connor et al Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 52, 2813-7, (2008)

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Diversity of staphylococcal cassette chromosome mec elements in predominant methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus clones in a small geographic area. Patrick Basset et al Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 54, 4589-95, (2010)

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In vitro activities of various antimicrobials alone and in combination with tigecycline against carbapenem-intermediate or -resistant Acinetobacter baumannii. Marc H Scheetz et al Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 51, 1621-6, (2007)

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Chaxamycins A-D, bioactive ansamycins from a hyper-arid desert Streptomyces sp. Mostafa E Rateb et al J. Nat. Prod. 74, 1491-9, (2011)

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Developing structure-activity relationships for the prediction of hepatotoxicity. Nigel Greene et al Chem. Res. Toxicol. 23, 1215-22, (2010)

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Screening and quantification of the expression of antibiotic resistance genes in Acinetobacter baumannii with a microarray. Sébastien Coyne et al Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 54, 333-40, (2010)

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Transfer of embB codon 306 mutations into clinical Mycobacterium tuberculosis strains alters susceptibility to ethambutol, isoniazid, and rifampin. Hassan Safi et al Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 52, 2027-34, (2008)

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Activity of daptomycin alone and in combination with rifampin and gentamicin against Staphylococcus aureus assessed by time-kill methodology. Kim Credito et al Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 51, 1504-7, (2007)

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Rational design of 5-phenyl-3-isoxazolecarboxylic acid ethyl esters as growth inhibitors of Mycobacterium tuberculosis. a potent and selective series for further drug development. Annamaria Lilienkampf et al J. Med. Chem. 53, 678-88, (2010)

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Antimycobacterial activity of new 3,5-disubstituted 1,3,4-oxadiazol-2(3H)-one derivatives. Molecular modeling investigations. Daniele Zampieri et al Bioorg. Med. Chem. 17, 4693-707, (2009)

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In vitro effects of antimicrobial agents on planktonic and biofilm forms of Staphylococcus lugdunensis clinical isolates. Kristi L Frank et al Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 51, 888-95, (2007)

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Manzamine B and E and ircinal A related alkaloids from an Indonesian Acanthostrongylophora sponge and their activity against infectious, tropical parasitic, and Alzheimer's diseases. Karumanchi V Rao et al J. Nat. Prod. 69, 1034-40, (2006)

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Horizontal transfer of tetracycline resistance among Chlamydia spp. in vitro. R J Suchland et al Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 53, 4604-11, (2009)

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Roles of NF-kappaB activation and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma inhibition in the effect of rifampin on inducible nitric oxide synthase transcription in human lung epithelial cells. Yael Yuhas et al Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 53, 1539-45, (2009)

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Effects of rifampin and multidrug resistance gene polymorphism on concentrations of moxifloxacin. Marc Weiner et al Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 51, 2861-6, (2007)

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Antimicrobial ambiguine isonitriles from the cyanobacterium Fischerella ambigua. Shunyan Mo et al J. Nat. Prod. 72, 894-9, (2009)

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The thymidine-dependent small-colony-variant phenotype is associated with hypermutability and antibiotic resistance in clinical Staphylococcus aureus isolates. Silke Besier et al Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 52, 2183-9, (2008)

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A four-month gatifloxacin-containing regimen for treating tuberculosis. Merle CS, Fielding K, Sow OB, et al. N. Engl. J. Med. 371(17), 1588-98, (2014)

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Hydrolyzed galactomannan-modified nanoparticles and flower-like polymeric micelles for the active targeting of rifampicin to macrophages. Moretton MA, Chiappetta DA, Andrade F, et al. J. Biomed. Nanotechnol. 9(6), 1076-87, (2013)

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Adjuvant host-directed therapy with types 3 and 5 but not type 4 phosphodiesterase inhibitors shortens the duration of tuberculosis treatment. Maiga M, Ammerman NC, Maiga MC, et al. J. Infect. Dis. 208(3), 512-9, (2013)

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Activities of high-dose daptomycin, vancomycin, and moxifloxacin alone or in combination with clarithromycin or rifampin in a novel in vitro model of Staphylococcus aureus biofilm. Jorge Parra-Ruiz et al Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 54, 4329-34, (2010)

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Stereochemical analysis of leubethanol, an anti-TB-active serrulatane, from Leucophyllum frutescens. Gloria M Molina-Salinas et al J. Nat. Prod. 74, 1842-50, (2011)

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Discovery of 1,4-dihydroxy-2-naphthoate [corrected] prenyltransferase inhibitors: new drug leads for multidrug-resistant gram-positive pathogens. Michio Kurosu et al J. Med. Chem. 50, 3973-5, (2007)

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Semisynthetic studies on the manzamine alkaloids. Khalid A El Sayed et al J. Nat. Prod. 71, 300-8, (2008)

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Dual targeting of GyrB and ParE by a novel aminobenzimidazole class of antibacterial compounds. Trudy H Grossman et al Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 51, 657-66, (2007)

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Influence on Mitochondria and Cytotoxicity of Different Antibiotics Administered in High Concentrations on Primary Human Osteoblasts and Cell Lines. N. Duewelhenke, O. Krut, et al. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 51, 54-63, (2007)

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Inhibitors of nonhousekeeping functions of the apicoplast defy delayed death in Plasmodium falciparum. T N C Ramya et al Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 51, 307-16, (2007)

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Selection of mutations to detect multidrug-resistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis strains in Shanghai, China. Tao Luo et al Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 54, 1075-81, (2010)

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Genetic characterization of Vga ABC proteins conferring reduced susceptibility to pleuromutilins in Staphylococcus aureus. Daniel R Gentry et al Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 52, 4507-9, (2008)

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Multi-target spectral moment QSAR versus ANN for antiparasitic drugs against different parasite species. Francisco J Prado-Prado et al Bioorg. Med. Chem. 18, 2225-31, (2010)

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Structure-activity relationships of phenyl-furanyl-rhodanines as inhibitors of RNA polymerase with antibacterial activity on biofilms. Philippe Villain-Guillot et al J. Med. Chem. 50, 4195-204, (2007)

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Replication of Colonic Crohn's Disease Mucosal Escherichia coli Isolates within Macrophages and Their Susceptibility to Antibiotics. Sreedhar Subramanian et al Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 52, 427-34, (2008)

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Design, synthesis, and structure-activity relationships of benzophenone-based tetraamides as novel antibacterial agents. Sunil K Vooturi et al J. Med. Chem. 52, 5020-31, (2009)

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Synthesis and structure-antituberculosis activity relationship of 1H-indole-2,3-dione derivatives. Nilgün Karali et al Bioorg. Med. Chem. 15, 5888-904, (2007)

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Studies on acyclic pyrimidines as inhibitors of mycobacteria. Naveen C Srivastav et al Bioorg. Med. Chem. 15, 2045-53, (2007)

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New 1,3-oxazolo[4,5-c]quinoline derivatives: synthesis and evaluation of antibacterial and antituberculosis properties. Sumesh Eswaran et al Eur. J. Med. Chem. 45, 957-66, (2010)

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Role of AbeS, a novel efflux pump of the SMR family of transporters, in resistance to antimicrobial agents in Acinetobacter baumannii. Vijaya Bharathi Srinivasan et al Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 53, 5312-6, (2009)

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Antimicrobial susceptibility and synergy studies of Burkholderia cepacia complex isolated from patients with cystic fibrosis. Juyan Zhou et al Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 51, 1085-8, (2007)

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Optimized Nile Red efflux assay of AcrAB-TolC multidrug efflux system shows competition between substrates. Jürgen A Bohnert et al Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 54, 3770-5, (2010)

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Pretreatment of epithelial cells with rifaximin alters bacterial attachment and internalization profiles. Eric L Brown et al Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 54, 388-96, (2010)

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Allelic exchange and mutant selection demonstrate that common clinical embCAB gene mutations only modestly increase resistance to ethambutol in Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Hassan Safi et al Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 54, 103-8, (2010)

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Synthesis and anti-mycobacterial activity of (E)-N'-(monosubstituted-benzylidene)isonicotinohydrazide derivatives. Maria Cristina da Silva Lourenço et al Eur. J. Med. Chem. 43, 1344-7, (2008)

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Aegicerin, the first oleanane triterpene with wide-ranging antimycobacterial activity, isolated from Clavija procera. Rosario Rojas et al J. Nat. Prod. 69, 845-6, (2006)

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Quinonoid and phenazine compounds: synthesis and evaluation against H37Rv, rifampicin and isoniazid-resistance strains of Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Paula F Carneiro et al Eur. J. Med. Chem. 46, 4521-9, (2011)

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Selection of heterogeneous vancomycin-intermediate Staphylococcus aureus by imipenem. Yuki Katayama et al Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 53, 3190-6, (2009)

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Daptomycin is effective for treatment of experimental endocarditis due to methicillin-resistant and glycopeptide-intermediate Staphylococcus epidermidis. C García-de-la-Mària et al Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 54, 2781-6, (2010)

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Prevalence and characterization of heterogeneous vancomycin-intermediate Staphylococcus aureus isolates from 14 cities in China. Wenjia Sun et al Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 53, 3642-9, (2009)

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Thiopurine drugs azathioprine and 6-mercaptopurine inhibit Mycobacterium paratuberculosis growth in vitro. Sung Jae Shin et al Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 52, 418-26, (2008)

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New quinoline derivatives: Synthesis and investigation of antibacterial and antituberculosis properties Eswaran, S.; et al. Eur. J. Med. Chem. 45, 3374, (2010)

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Rifampin inhibits prostaglandin E2 production and arachidonic acid release in human alveolar epithelial cells. Yael Yuhas et al Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 51, 4225-30, (2007)

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New quinolin-4-yl-1,2,3-triazoles carrying amides, sulphonamides and amidopiperazines as potential antitubercular agents. K D Thomas et al Eur. J. Med. Chem. 46, 2503-12, (2011)

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One-pot syntheses of pseudopteroxazoles from pseudopterosins: a rapid route to non-natural congeners with improved antimicrobial activity. Malcolm W B McCulloch et al J. Nat. Prod. 74, 2250-6, (2011)

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Transfer of antimicrobial resistance plasmids from Klebsiella pneumoniae to Escherichia coli in the mouse intestine. Schjørring S J. Antimicrob. Chemother. 62(5), 1086-93, (2008)

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Lysosome and HER3 (ErbB3) selective anticancer agent kahalalide F: semisynthetic modifications and antifungal lead-exploration studies. Abbas Gholipour Shilabin et al J. Med. Chem. 50, 4340-50, (2007)

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Synthesis, antitubercular activity and docking study of novel cyclic azole substituted diphenyl ether derivatives. Suvarna G Kini et al Eur. J. Med. Chem. 44, 492-500, (2009)

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Selective activity against Mycobacteriumtuberculosis of new quinoxaline 1,4-di-N-oxides. Esther Vicente et al Bioorg. Med. Chem. 17, 385-9, (2009)

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Antitubercular constituents from the stem wood of Cinnamomum kotoense. Fu-Chi Chen et al J. Nat. Prod. 68, 1318-23, (2005)

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1,3-Dihydro-2H-indol-2-ones derivatives: design, synthesis, in vitro antibacterial, antifungal and antitubercular study. Tarunkumar Nanjibhai Akhaja et al Eur. J. Med. Chem. 46, 5573-9, (2011)

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Pharmacological evaluation and characterizations of newly synthesized 1,2,4-triazoles. Navin B Patel et al Eur. J. Med. Chem. 45, 4293-9, (2010)

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Synthesis and evaluation of anti-Toxoplasma gondii and antimicrobial activities of thiosemicarbazides, 4-thiazolidinones and 1,3,4-thiadiazoles. André P Liesen et al Eur. J. Med. Chem. 45, 3685-91, (2010)

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LmrS is a multidrug efflux pump of the major facilitator superfamily from Staphylococcus aureus. Jody L Floyd et al Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 54, 5406-12, (2010)

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In vitro evaluation of CBR-2092, a novel rifamycin-quinolone hybrid antibiotic: studies of the mode of action in Staphylococcus aureus. Gregory T Robertson et al Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 52, 2313-23, (2008)

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Synthesis of new S-derivatives of clubbed triazolyl thiazole as anti-Mycobacterium tuberculosis agents. Mahendra Ramesh Shiradkar et al Bioorg. Med. Chem. 15, 3997-4008, (2007)

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Clubbed triazoles: a novel approach to antitubercular drugs. Mahendra Shiradkar et al Eur. J. Med. Chem. 42, 807-16, (2007)

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Novel isatinyl thiosemicarbazones derivatives as potential molecule to combat HIV-TB co-infection Banerjee, D.; et al. Eur. J. Med. Chem. 46, 106, (2010)

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Pentacyclo-undecane derived cyclic tetra-amines: synthesis and evaluation as potent anti-tuberculosis agents. Oluseye K Onajole et al Eur. J. Med. Chem. 44, 4297-305, (2009)

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Antituberculosis cycloartane triterpenoids from Radermachera boniana. Ngan B Truong et al J. Nat. Prod. 74, 1318-22, (2011)

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Synthesis, spectral and biological evaluation of some new thiazolidinones and thiazoles based on t-3-alkyl-r-2,c-6-diarylpiperidin-4-ones. G Aridoss et al Eur. J. Med. Chem. 44, 4199-210, (2009)

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Synthesis, anti-tubercular activity and 3D-QSAR study of coumarin-4-acetic acid benzylidene hydrazides. Atul Manvar et al Eur. J. Med. Chem. 43, 2395-403, (2008)

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Anti-infective discorhabdins from a deep-water alaskan sponge of the genus Latrunculia. Minkyun Na et al J. Nat. Prod. 73, 383-7, (2010)

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Synthesis, biological evaluation, and structure-activity relationships for 5-[(E)-2-arylethenyl]-3-isoxazolecarboxylic acid alkyl ester derivatives as valuable antitubercular chemotypes. Marco Pieroni et al J. Med. Chem. 52, 6287-96, (2009)

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Factors associated with the rapid implementation process of the fixed-dose combination RHZE tuberculosis regimen in Brazil: an ecological study. Braga JU, da Conceição DA, and Trajman A BMC Public Health 13, 321, (2013)

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Identification of benzofuro[2,3-b]quinoline derivatives as a new class of antituberculosis agents. Chiao-Li Yang et al Eur. J. Med. Chem. 45, 602-7, (2010)

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1,3-Dipolar cycloaddition of C-aryl-N-phenylnitrones to (R)-1-(1-phenylethyl)-3-[(E)-arylmethylidene]tetrahydro-4(1H)-pyridinones: synthesis and antimycobacterial evaluation of enantiomerically pure spiroisoxazolidines. Raju Suresh Kumar et al Eur. J. Med. Chem. 45, 124-33, (2010)

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SAR study of clubbed [1,2,4]-triazolyl with fluorobenzimidazoles as antimicrobial and antituberculosis agents. Ganesh Rajaram Jadhav et al Eur. J. Med. Chem. 44, 2930-5, (2009)

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Physicochemical and biological characterization of novel macrocycles derived from o-phthalaldehyde. P Muralidhar Reddy et al Eur. J. Med. Chem. 44, 2621-5, (2009)

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Respiratory system involvement in brucellosis: the results of the Kardelen study. Erdem H, Inan A, Elaldi N, et al. Chest 145(1), 87-94, (2014)

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Prevalence of and molecular basis for tuberculosis drug resistance in the Republic of Georgia: validation of a QIAplex system for detection of drug resistance-related mutations. Medea Gegia et al Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 52, 725-9, (2008)

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Synthesis and biological evaluation of benzimidazole-5-carbohydrazide derivatives as antimalarial, cytotoxic and antitubercular agents. José Camacho et al Bioorg. Med. Chem. 19, 2023-9, (2011)

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Synthesis and biological evaluation of some new 1,4-dihydropyridines containing different ester substitute and diethyl carbamoyl group as anti-tubercular agents. Mehdi Khoshneviszadeh et al Bioorg. Med. Chem. 17, 1579-86, (2009)

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In vitro activities of different inhibitors of bacterial transcription against Staphylococcus epidermidis biofilm. Philippe Villain-Guillot et al Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 51, 3117-21, (2007)

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Structure and anti-TB activity of trachylobanes from the liverwort Jungermannia exsertifolia ssp. cordifolia. Jochen M Scher et al J. Nat. Prod. 73, 656-63, (2010)

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N-Aroyl-3,5-bis(benzylidene)-4-piperidones: a novel class of antimycobacterial agents. Umashankar Das et al Bioorg. Med. Chem. 16, 3602-7, (2008)

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Discovery and characterization of QPT-1, the progenitor of a new class of bacterial topoisomerase inhibitors. Alita A Miller et al Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 52, 2806-12, (2008)

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Synthesis and antituberculosis activity of new thiazolylhydrazone derivatives. Gülhan Turan-Zitouni et al Eur. J. Med. Chem. 43, 981-5, (2008)

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New 3-methylquinoxaline-2-carboxamide 1,4-di-N-oxide derivatives as anti-Mycobacterium tuberculosis agents. Saioa Ancizu et al Bioorg. Med. Chem. 18, 2713-9, (2010)

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Synthesis, biological evaluation and 2D-QSAR analysis of benzoxazoles as antimicrobial agents. Tugba Ertan et al Eur. J. Med. Chem. 44, 501-10, (2009)

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Cloning, nucleotide sequencing, and analysis of the AcrAB-TolC efflux pump of Enterobacter cloacae and determination of its involvement in antibiotic resistance in a clinical isolate. Astrid Pérez et al Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 51, 3247-53, (2007)

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Effect of concomitantly administered rifampin on the pharmacokinetics and safety of atazanavir administered twice daily. Edward P Acosta et al Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 51, 3104-10, (2007)

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Steroids control paradoxical worsening of Mycobacterium ulcerans infection following initiation of antibiotic therapy. Trevillyan JM and Johnson PD Med. J. Aust. 198(8), 443-4, (2013)

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Identification, synthesis, and pharmacological evaluation of tetrahydroindazole based ligands as novel antituberculosis agents. Songpo Guo et al J. Med. Chem. 53, 649-59, (2010)

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Integerrimides A and B, cyclic heptapeptides from the latex of Jatropha integerrima. Wantana Mongkolvisut et al J. Nat. Prod. 69, 1435-41, (2006)

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Synthesis and in vitro antimycobacterial activity of 8-OCH(3) ciprofloxacin methylene and ethylene isatin derivatives. Lian-Shun Feng et al Eur. J. Med. Chem. 46, 341-8, (2011)

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Activities of daptomycin and comparative antimicrobials, singly and in combination, against extracellular and intracellular Staphylococcus aureus and its stable small-colony variant in human monocyte-derived macrophages and in broth. Aldona L Baltch et al Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 52, 1829-33, (2008)

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Synergy between polyethylenimine and different families of antibiotics against a resistant clinical isolate of Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Hayssam Khalil et al Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 52, 1635-41, (2008)

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Isoxazole analogs of curcuminoids with highly potent multidrug-resistant antimycobacterial activity. Chatchawan Changtam et al Eur. J. Med. Chem. 45, 4446-57, (2010)

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Synthesis and antimycobacterial activity of new quinoxaline-2-carboxamide 1,4-di-N-oxide derivatives. Elsa Moreno et al Eur. J. Med. Chem. 45, 4418-26, (2010)

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Structure-activity relationship of new anti-tuberculosis agents derived from oxazoline and oxazole benzyl esters. Garrett C Moraski et al Eur. J. Med. Chem. 45, 1703-16, (2010)

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A predictive ligand-based Bayesian model for human drug-induced liver injury. Sean Ekins et al Drug Metab. Dispos. 38, 2302-8, (2010)

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Development of antitubercular compounds based on a 4-quinolylhydrazone scaffold. Further structure-activity relationship studies. Sandra Gemma et al Bioorg. Med. Chem. 17, 6063-72, (2009)

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Macrophyllin-type bicyclo[3.2.1]octanoid neolignans from the leaves of Pleurothyrium cinereum. Ericsson D Coy et al J. Nat. Prod. 72, 1245-8, (2009)

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Novel broad-spectrum bis-(imidazolinylindole) derivatives with potent antibacterial activities against antibiotic-resistant strains. Rekha G Panchal et al Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 53, 4283-91, (2009)

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A facile 1,3-dipolar cycloaddition of azomethine ylides to 2-arylidene-1,3-indanediones: synthesis of dispiro-oxindolylpyrrolothiazoles and their antimycobacterial evaluation. Shanmugavel Uma Maheswari et al Bioorg. Med. Chem. Lett. 20, 7278-82, (2010)

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A highly atom economic, chemo-, regio- and stereoselective synthesis and evaluation of spiro-pyrrolothiazoles as antitubercular agents. Subramanian Vedhanarayanan Karthikeyan et al Bioorg. Med. Chem. Lett. 20, 350-3, (2010)

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Functional cloning and characterization of the multidrug efflux pumps NorM from Neisseria gonorrhoeae and YdhE from Escherichia coli. Feng Long et al Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 52, 3052-60, (2008)

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Antimicrobial activities of daptomycin, vancomycin, and oxacillin in human monocytes and of daptomycin in combination with gentamicin and/or rifampin in human monocytes and in broth against Staphylococcus aureus. Aldona L Baltch et al Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 51, 1559-62, (2007)

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Role of porins in the susceptibility of Mycobacterium smegmatis and Mycobacterium chelonae to aldehyde-based disinfectants and drugs. Zuzana Svetlíková et al Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 53, 4015-8, (2009)

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Intracellular activity of antibiotics against Staphylococcus aureus in a mouse peritonitis model. Anne Sandberg et al Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 53, 1874-83, (2009)

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Antistaphylococcal activity of dihydrophthalazine antifolates, a family of novel antibacterial drugs. Catherine Clark et al Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 53, 1353-61, (2009)

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Novel imidazo[2,1-b][1,3,4]thiadiazole carrying rhodanine-3-acetic acid as potential antitubercular agents. Shankar G Alegaon et al Bioorg. Med. Chem. Lett. 22, 1917-21, (2012)

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Synthesis and antitubercular evaluation of novel dibenzo[b,d]furan and 9-methyl-9H-carbazole derived hexahydro-2H-pyrano[3,2-c]quinolines via Povarov reaction. Srinivas Kantevari et al Eur. J. Med. Chem. 46, 4827-33, (2011)

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Mycobacterium tuberculosis and cholinesterase inhibitors from Voacanga globosa. Allan Patrick G Macabeo et al Eur. J. Med. Chem. 46, 3118-23, (2011)

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Clubbed [1,2,3] triazoles by fluorine benzimidazole: a novel approach to H37Rv inhibitors as a potential treatment for tuberculosis. Charansingh Gill et al Bioorg. Med. Chem. Lett. 18, 6244-7, (2008)

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Synthesis and antimycobacterial activity of 4-(5-substituted-1,3,4-oxadiazol-2-yl)pyridines. Gabriel Navarrete-Vázquez et al Bioorg. Med. Chem. 15, 5502-8, (2007)

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A microwave-assisted facile regioselective Fischer indole synthesis and antitubercular evaluation of novel 2-aryl-3,4-dihydro-2H-thieno[3,2-b]indoles. Subramanian Vedhanarayanan Karthikeyan et al Bioorg. Med. Chem. Lett. 19, 3006-9, (2009)

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Synthesis and antitubercular activity of novel 4-substituted imidazolyl-2,6-dimethyl-N3,N5-bisaryl-1,4-dihydropyridine-3,5-dicarboxamides. Afshin Fassihi et al Eur. J. Med. Chem. 44, 3253-8, (2009)

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Horizontal Gene Transfer of ftsI, Encoding Penicillin-Binding Protein 3, in Haemophilus influenzae. Sho Takahata, Takashi Ida, et. Al Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 51, 1589 - 1595, (2007)

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Activity of telavancin against Staphylococcus aureus strains with various vancomycin susceptibilities in an in vitro pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic model with simulated endocardial vegetations. Steven N Leonard et al Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 53, 2928-33, (2009)

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Effect of electrical current on the activities of antimicrobial agents against Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Staphylococcus aureus, and Staphylococcus epidermidis biofilms. Jose L del Pozo et al Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 53, 35-40, (2009)

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Synthesis of 3-heteroarylthioquinoline derivatives and their in vitro antituberculosis and cytotoxicity studies. Selvam Chitra et al Eur. J. Med. Chem. 46, 4897-903, (2011)

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A facile four-component sequential protocol in the expedient synthesis of novel 2-aryl-5-methyl-2,3-dihydro-1H-3-pyrazolones in water and their antitubercular evaluation. Pethaiah Gunasekaran et al Eur. J. Med. Chem. 46, 4530-6, (2011)

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Subinhibitory concentrations of protein synthesis-inhibiting antibiotics promote increased expression of the agr virulence regulator and production of phenol-soluble modulin cytolysins in community-associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus. Hwang-Soo Joo et al Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 54, 4942-4, (2010)

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Antibacterial, partially acetylated oligorhamnosides from Cleistopholis patens. Jin-Feng Hu et al J. Nat. Prod. 69, 585-90, (2006)

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Ambigol C and 2,4-dichlorobenzoic acid, natural products produced by the terrestrial cyanobacterium Fischerella ambigua. Anthony D Wright et al J. Nat. Prod. 68, 459-61, (2005)

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Synthesis of non-purine analogs of 6-aryl-9-benzylpurines, and their antimycobacterial activities. Compounds modified in the imidazole ring. Abhijit Datta Khoje et al Bioorg. Med. Chem. 18, 7274-82, (2010)

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A bioactive labdane diterpenoid from Curcuma amada and its semisynthetic analogues as antitubercular agents. Sailendra Singh et al Eur. J. Med. Chem. 45, 4379-82, (2010)

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Design and synthesis of some new quinoline-3-carbohydrazone derivatives as potential antimycobacterial agents. Sumesh Eswaran et al Bioorg. Med. Chem. Lett. 20, 1040-4, (2010)

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Synthesis, antimicrobial activity, pharmacophore analysis of some new 2-(substitutedphenyl/benzyl)-5-[(2-benzofuryl)carboxamido]benzoxazoles. Sabiha Alper-Hayta et al Eur. J. Med. Chem. 43, 2568-78, (2008)

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Biomimetic transformation and biological activities of Globiferin, a terpenoid benzoquinone from Cordia globifera. Suppamit Dettrakul et al J. Nat. Prod. 72, 861-5, (2009)

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Thiophene containing triarylmethanes as antitubercular agents. Maloy Kumar Parai et al Bioorg. Med. Chem. Lett. 18, 289-92, (2008)

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Identification of a novel pyrrole derivative endowed with antimycobacterial activity and protection index comparable to that of the current antitubercular drugs streptomycin and rifampin. Mariangela Biava et al Bioorg. Med. Chem. 18, 8076-84, (2010)

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Antibiotic susceptibility and characteristics of Neisseria meningitidis isolates from the African meningitis belt, 2000 to 2006: phenotypic and genotypic perspectives. Sara Thulin Hedberg et al Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 53, 1561-6, (2009)

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Design, synthesis and in vitro evaluation of antitubercular and antimicrobial activity of some novel pyranopyrimidines. Nimesh R Kamdar et al Eur. J. Med. Chem. 45, 5056-63, (2010)

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Metronidazole lacks antibacterial activity in guinea pigs infected with Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Donald R Hoff et al Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 52, 4137-40, (2008)

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Dihydro-?-agarofuran sesquiterpenes isolated from Celastrus vulcanicola as potential anti-Mycobacterium tuberculosis multidrug-resistant agents. David Torres-Romero et al Bioorg. Med. Chem. 19, 2182-9, (2011)

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A facile synthesis, antibacterial, and antitubercular studies of some piperidin-4-one and tetrahydropyridine derivatives. Gopalakrishnan Aridoss et al Bioorg. Med. Chem. Lett. 18, 6542-8, (2008)

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Increased genome instability in Escherichia coli lon mutants: relation to emergence of multiple-antibiotic-resistant (Mar) mutants caused by insertion sequence elements and large tandem genomic amplifications. Hervé Nicoloff et al Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 51, 1293-303, (2007)

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Anti-mycobacterial activities of some cationic and anionic calix[4]arene derivatives. Maxime Mourer et al Bioorg. Med. Chem. 20, 2035-41, (2012)

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Design, synthesis, and antitubercular evaluation of novel series of 3-benzofuran-5-aryl-1-pyrazolyl-pyridylmethanone and 3-benzofuran-5-aryl-1-pyrazolylcarbonyl-4-oxo-naphthyridin analogs. Kuntal Manna et al Eur. J. Med. Chem. 45, 3831-9, (2010)

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Norselic acids A-E, highly oxidized anti-infective steroids that deter mesograzer predation, from the Antarctic sponge Crella sp. Wai S Ma et al J. Nat. Prod. 72, 1842-6, (2009)

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Novel CYP2C9 promoter variants and assessment of their impact on gene expression. Kramer MA Mol. Pharmacol. 73(6), 1751-60, (2008)

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Synthesis and evaluation of rifabutin analogs against Mycobacterium avium and H(37)Rv, MDR and NRP Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Ricardo Figueiredo et al Bioorg. Med. Chem. 17, 503-11, (2009)

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Synthesis and antituberculosis activity of 5-methyl/trifluoromethoxy-1H-indole-2,3-dione 3-thiosemicarbazone derivatives. Ozlen Güzel et al Bioorg. Med. Chem. 16, 8976-87, (2008)

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Synthesis, anti-Toxoplasma gondii and antimicrobial activities of benzaldehyde 4-phenyl-3-thiosemicarbazones and 2-[(phenylmethylene)hydrazono]-4-oxo-3-phenyl-5-thiazolidineacetic acids. Thiago M de Aquino et al Bioorg. Med. Chem. 16, 446-56, (2008)

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Diversity oriented design of various hydrazides and their in vitro evaluation against Mycobacterium tuberculosis H37Rv strains. Atul Manvar et al Bioorg. Med. Chem. Lett. 21, 4728-31, (2011)

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Evaluation of analogs of reutericyclin as prospective candidates for treatment of staphylococcal skin infections. Julian G Hurdle et al Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 53, 4028-31, (2009)

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Inactivation of KsgA, a 16S rRNA methyltransferase, causes vigorous emergence of mutants with high-level kasugamycin resistance. Kozo Ochi et al Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 53, 193-201, (2009)

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Synthesis and evaluation of anti-tubercular activity of new dithiocarbamate sugar derivatives. Yasuhiro Horita et al Bioorg. Med. Chem. Lett. 21, 899-903, (2011)

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Evaluation of NTF1836 as an inhibitor of the mycothiol biosynthetic enzyme MshC in growing and non-replicating Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Gerald L Newton et al Bioorg. Med. Chem. 19, 3956-64, (2011)

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Activation and products of the cryptic secondary metabolite biosynthetic gene clusters by rifampin resistance (rpoB) mutations in actinomycetes. Tanaka Y, Kasahara K, Hirose Y, et al. J. Bacteriol. 195(13), 2959-70, (2013)

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Anti-tubercular agents. Part 6: synthesis and antimycobacterial activity of novel arylsulfonamido conjugated oxazolidinones. Ahmed Kamal et al Eur. J. Med. Chem. 46, 893-900, (2011)

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A green expedient synthesis of pyridopyrimidine-2-thiones and their antitubercular activity. Stephen Michael Rajesh et al Bioorg. Med. Chem. Lett. 21, 3012-6, (2011)

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Trypanoside, anti-tuberculosis, leishmanicidal, and cytotoxic activities of tetrahydrobenzothienopyrimidines. José C Aponte et al Bioorg. Med. Chem. 18, 2880-6, (2010)

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Furanyl-rhodanines are unattractive drug candidates for development as inhibitors of bacterial RNA polymerase. Katherine R Mariner et al Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 54, 4506-9, (2010)

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Multicenter study for defining the breakpoint for rifampin resistance in Neisseria meningitidis by rpoB sequencing. Muhamed-Kheir Taha et al Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 54, 3651-8, (2010)

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Transfer of plasmid-mediated CTX-M-9 from Salmonella enterica serotype Virchow to Enterobacteriaceae in human flora-associated rats treated with cefixime. S Faure et al Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 54, 164-9, (2010)

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Pyrrolidine dithiocarbamate and diethyldithiocarbamate are active against growing and nongrowing persister Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Sean T Byrne et al Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 51, 4495-7, (2007)

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Use of a surface plasmon resonance method to investigate antibiotic and plasma protein interactions. Françoise Banères-Roquet et al Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 53, 1528-31, (2009)

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Small molecules with structural similarities to siderophores as novel antimicrobials against Mycobacterium tuberculosis and Yersinia pestis. Karen L Stirrett et al Bioorg. Med. Chem. Lett. 18, 2662-8, (2008)

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Comparison of tulathromycin, azithromycin and azithromycin-rifampin for the treatment of mild pneumonia associated with Rhodococcus equi. Venner M, Credner N, Lämmer M, et al. Vet. Rec. 173(16), 397, (2013)

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Design, synthesis and antimycobacterial evaluation of novel 3-substituted-N-aryl-6,7-dimethoxy-3a,4-dihydro-3H-indeno[1,2-c]pyrazole-2-carboxamide analogues. Mohamed Jawed Ahsan et al Bioorg. Med. Chem. Lett. 21, 4451-3, (2011)

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Identification of novel antitubercular compounds through hybrid virtual screening approach. Muhammad Muddassar et al Bioorg. Med. Chem. 18, 6914-21, (2010)

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Delayed development of linezolid resistance in Staphylococcus aureus following exposure to low levels of antimicrobial agents. Keith Miller et al Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 52, 1940-4, (2008)

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Evaluation of a 2-pyridone, KRQ-10018, against Mycobacterium tuberculosis in vitro and in vivo. Anne J Lenaerts et al Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 52, 1513-5, (2008)

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Modifying Culture Conditions In Chemical Library Screening Identifies Alternative Inhibitors Of Mycobacteria. Miller, C.H., et al. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 53, 5279-83, (2009)

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Further studies with the 2-amino-1,3-thiazol-4(5H)-one class of 11beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 inhibitors: reducing pregnane X receptor activity and exploring activity in a monkey pharmacodynamic model. Christopher Fotsch et al J. Med. Chem. 51, 7953-67, (2008)

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Antimicrobial susceptibilities and clinical sources of Dialister species. F Morio et al Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 51, 4498-501, (2007)

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Protein kinase G is required for intrinsic antibiotic resistance in mycobacteria. Kerstin A Wolff et al Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 53, 3515-9, (2009)

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In vitro activities of DC-159a, a novel fluoroquinolone, against Mycobacterium species. Areeya Disratthakit et al Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 54, 2684-6, (2010)

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Staphylococcus aureus cell wall stress stimulon gene-lacZ fusion strains: potential for use in screening for cell wall-active antimicrobials. Rebecca Steidl et al Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 52, 2923-5, (2008)

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Comparative evaluation of polymeric nanoparticles of rifampicin comprising Gantrez and poly(ethylene sebacate) on pharmacokinetics, biodistribution and lung uptake following oral administration. Patel MD, Date PV, Gaikwad RV, et al. J. Biomed. Nanotechnol. 10(4), 687-94, (2014)

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New thiopyrazolo[3,4-d]pyrimidine derivatives as anti-mycobacterial agents. Lluis Ballell et al Bioorg. Med. Chem. Lett. 17, 1736-40, (2007)

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Clonal diversity and resistance mechanisms in tetracycline-nonsusceptible Streptococcus pneumoniae isolates in Poland. Radosław Izdebski et al Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 51, 1155-63, (2007)

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Radiosynthesis and bioimaging of the tuberculosis chemotherapeutics isoniazid, rifampicin and pyrazinamide in baboons. Li Liu et al J. Med. Chem. 53, 2882-91, (2010)

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Efficacy of oritavancin in a murine model of Bacillus anthracis spore inhalation anthrax. H S Heine et al Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 52, 3350-7, (2008)

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Anthrabenzoxocinones from Streptomyces sp. as liver X receptor ligands and antibacterial agents. Kithsiri B Herath et al J. Nat. Prod. 68, 1437-40, (2005)

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Identification of heteroarylenamines as a new class of antituberculosis lead molecules. Brent R Copp et al Bioorg. Med. Chem. Lett. 15, 4097-9, (2005)

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Emergence and molecular characterization of extensively drug-resistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis clinical isolates from the Delhi Region in India. Alka Khanna et al Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 54, 4789-93, (2010)

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Rapid assessment of antibacterial activity against Mycobacterium ulcerans by using recombinant luminescent strains. Tianyu Zhang et al Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 54, 2806-13, (2010)

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Synthesis and antimycobacterial activity of some alkyl [5-(nitroaryl)-1,3,4-thiadiazol-2-ylthio]propionates. Alireza Foroumadi et al Bioorg. Med. Chem. Lett. 16, 1164-7, (2006)

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Metronidazole plus rifampin sterilizes long-term dormant Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Elisabetta Iona et al Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 51, 1537-40, (2007)

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The pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of rifampicin in adults and children in relation to the dosage recommended for children. Donald PR, Maritz JS, and Diacon AH Tuberculosis (Edinb.) 91(3), 196-207, (2011)

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Tetrahdroxysqualene from Rhus taitensis shows antimycobacterial activity against Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Jeffrey C Noro et al J. Nat. Prod. 71, 1623-4, (2008)

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A macrolactone from benzo[a]phenazine with potent activity against Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Raphael S F Silva et al Eur. J. Med. Chem. 44, 2334-7, (2009)

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Synthesis and cytotoxic activity of trisubstituted-1,3,5-triazines. Kapil Arya et al Bioorg. Med. Chem. Lett. 17, 3298-304, (2007)

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Synthesis of new vitamin K analogues as steroid and xenobiotic receptor (SXR) agonists: insights into the biological role of the side chain part of vitamin K. Yoshitomo Suhara et al J. Med. Chem. 54, 4918-22, (2011)

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Role of the AheABC efflux pump in Aeromonas hydrophila intrinsic multidrug resistance. Mathieu Hernould et al Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 52, 1559-63, (2008)

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Synthesis and biological evaluation of substituted 4-arylthiazol-2-amino derivatives as potent growth inhibitors of replicating Mycobacterium tuberculosis H??Rv. Kuldeep K Roy et al Bioorg. Med. Chem. Lett. 21, 5589-93, (2011)

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In vitro antituberculosis activities of ACH-702, a novel isothiazoloquinolone, against quinolone-susceptible and quinolone-resistant isolates. Michael J Pucci et al Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 54, 3478-80, (2010)

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Involvement of the beta subunit of RNA polymerase in resistance to streptolydigin and streptovaricin in the producer organisms Streptomyces lydicus and Streptomyces spectabilis. Marina Sánchez-Hidalgo et al Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 54, 1684-92, (2010)

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Continuous clindamycin infusion, an innovative approach to treating bone and joint infections. Valérie Zeller et al Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 54, 88-92, (2010)

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Synthesis and antitubercular activity of lipophilic moxifloxacin and gatifloxacin derivatives. Mauro V de Almeida et al Bioorg. Med. Chem. Lett. 17, 5661-4, (2007)

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Antibacterial nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide synthetase inhibitors: amide- and ether-linked tethered dimers with alpha-amino acid end groups. Sadanandan E Velu et al J. Med. Chem. 50, 2612-21, (2007)

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Synthesis of isonicotinic acid N'-arylidene-N-[2-oxo-2-(4-aryl-piperazin-1-yl)-ethyl]-hydrazides as antituberculosis agents. Neelima Sinha et al Bioorg. Med. Chem. Lett. 15, 1573-6, (2005)

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2,3-dideoxy hex-2-enopyranosid-4-uloses as promising new anti-tubercular agents: design, synthesis, biological evaluation and SAR studies. Mohammad Saquib et al Eur. J. Med. Chem. 46, 2217-23, (2011)

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Continuous cefazolin infusion to treat bone and joint infections: clinical efficacy, feasibility, safety, and serum and bone concentrations. Valérie Zeller et al Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 53, 883-7, (2009)

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Preparation and antitubercular activities of alkylated amino alcohols and their glycosylated derivatives. Aline F Taveira et al Bioorg. Med. Chem. 15, 7789-94, (2007)

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Synthesis and biological evaluation of new N-(2-hydroxy-4(or 5)-nitro/aminophenyl)benzamides and phenylacetamides as antimicrobial agents. Tugba Ertan et al Bioorg. Med. Chem. 15, 2032-44, (2007)

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Ionic complexation as a non-covalent approach for the design of folate anchored rifampicin Gantrez nanoparticles. Date PV, Patel MD, Majee SB, et al. J. Biomed. Nanotechnol. 9(5), 765-75, (2013)

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Rifampicin-warfarin interaction leading to macroscopic hematuria: a case report and review of the literature. Martins MA, Reis AM, Sales MF, et al. BMC Pharmacol. Toxicol. 14, 27, (2013)

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Discovery of novel antitubercular 2,10-dihydro-4aH-chromeno[3,2-c]pyridin-3-yl derivatives. Dharmarajan Sriram et al Eur. J. Med. Chem. 45, 120-3, (2010)

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Three-dimensional quantitative structure-activity relationship analysis of human CYP51 inhibitors. Sean Ekins et al Drug Metab. Dispos. 35, 493-500, (2007)

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N-thiolated beta-lactams: Studies on the mode of action and identification of a primary cellular target in Staphylococcus aureus. Kevin D Revell et al Bioorg. Med. Chem. 15, 2453-67, (2007)

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Design, synthesis and docking studies of quinoline-oxazolidinone hybrid molecules and their antitubercular properties. K D Thomas et al Eur. J. Med. Chem. 46, 4834-45, (2011)

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Systematic review of the performance of rapid rifampicin resistance testing for drug-resistant tuberculosis. Arentz M, Sorensen B, Horne DJ, et al. PLoS ONE 8(10), e76533, (2013)

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A new class of potential anti-tuberculosis agents: Synthesis and preliminary evaluation of novel acrylic acid ethyl ester derivatives. M Shahjahan Kabir et al Bioorg. Med. Chem. 18, 4178-86, (2010)

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Antitubercular potential of some semisynthetic analogues of phytol. Dharmendra Saikia et al Bioorg. Med. Chem. Lett. 20, 508-12, (2010)

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Chronological effects of rifampicin discontinuation on cytochrome P450 activity in healthy Japanese volunteers, using the cocktail method. Inui N, Akamatsu T, Uchida S, et al. Clin. Pharmacol. Ther. 94(6), 702-8, (2013)

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Synthesis of novel ketoconazole derivatives as inhibitors of the human Pregnane X Receptor (PXR; NR1I2; also termed SXR, PAR). Bhaskar C Das et al Bioorg. Med. Chem. Lett. 18, 3974-7, (2008)

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Design, synthesis and antimycobacterial activity of cinnamide derivatives: a molecular hybridization approach. Manoj D Kakwani et al Bioorg. Med. Chem. Lett. 21, 1997-9, (2011)

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A note to the biological activity of benzoxazine derivatives containing the thioxo group. Karel Waisser et al Eur. J. Med. Chem. 45, 2719-25, (2010)

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Synthesis of amphiphilic galactopyranosyl diamines and amino alcohols as antitubercular agents. Mauro Vieira de Almeida et al Eur. J. Med. Chem. 42, 1076-83, (2007)

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Synthesis of novel vitamin K2 analogues with modification at the ?-terminal position and their biological evaluation as potent steroid and xenobiotic receptor (SXR) agonists. Yoshitomo Suhara et al J. Med. Chem. 54, 4269-73, (2011)

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Pharmacodynamics of minocycline against Staphylococcus aureus in an in vitro pharmacokinetic model. Karen E Bowker et al Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 52, 4370-3, (2008)

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Efflux-mediated bis-indole resistance in Staphylococcus aureus reveals differential substrate specificities for MepA and MepR. Timothy J Opperman et al Bioorg. Med. Chem. 18, 2123-30, (2010)

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Determination of CEM-101 activity tested against clinical isolates of Neisseria meningitidis from a worldwide collection. Douglas J Biedenbach et al Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 54, 4009-11, (2010)

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Synthesis and anti-mycobacterial activities of triazoloquinolones. Antonio Carta et al Eur. J. Med. Chem. 46, 320-6, (2011)

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Molecular characterization of multidrug-resistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis isolated from south-central in China. Yu XL, Wen ZL, Chen GZ, et al. J. Antibiot. 67(4), 291-7, (2014)

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5-Nitro-2-furoic acid hydrazones: design, synthesis and in vitro antimycobacterial evaluation against log and starved phase cultures. Dharmarajan Sriram et al Bioorg. Med. Chem. Lett. 20, 4313-6, (2010)

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New C25 carbamate rifamycin derivatives are resistant to inactivation by ADP-ribosyl transferases. Keith D Combrink et al Bioorg. Med. Chem. Lett. 17, 522-6, (2007)

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Rapid diagnosis of Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection and drug susceptibility testing. Wilson ML Arch. Pathol. Lab. Med. 137(6), 812-9, (2013)

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Isoniazid induces its own resistance in nonreplicating Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Salman Siddiqi et al Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 51, 2100-4, (2007)

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L-proline-catalysed facile green protocol for the synthesis and antimycobacterial evaluation of [1,4]-thiazines. Sethuraman Indumathi et al Eur. J. Med. Chem. 44, 4978-84, (2009)

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Outer membrane protein STM3031 (Ail/OmpX-like protein) plays a key role in the ceftriaxone resistance of Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium. Wensi S Hu et al Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 53, 3248-55, (2009)

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Estimation of content of anti-TB drugs supplied at centres of the Revised National TB Control Programme in Tamil Nadu, India. Ramachandran G, Chandrasekaran V, Hemanth Kumar AK, et al. Trop. Med. Int. Health 18(9), 1141-4, (2013)

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Oligochlorophens are potent inhibitors of Bacillus anthracis. Marie H Foss et al Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 54, 3988-90, (2010)

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Synthesis and antituberculosis activity of novel mefloquine-isoxazole carboxylic esters as prodrugs. Mao, J.; et al. Bioorg. Med. Chem. Lett. 20, 1263, (2010)

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Changes in serum immunomolecules during antibiotic therapy for Mycobacterium avium complex lung disease. Kim SY, Koh WJ, Park HY, et al. Clin. Exp. Immunol. 176(1), 93-101, (2014)

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Natural product leads for drug discovery: isolation, synthesis and biological evaluation of 6-cyano-5-methoxyindolo[2,3-a]carbazole based ligands as antibacterial agents. Songpo Guo et al Bioorg. Med. Chem. 17, 7126-30, (2009)

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A facile synthesis of carbocycle-fused mono and bis-1,2,3-selenadiazoles and their antimicrobial and antimycobacterial studies. Selvam Chitra et al Eur. J. Med. Chem. 46, 5465-72, (2011)

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5-Nitrofuran-2-yl derivatives: synthesis and inhibitory activities against growing and dormant mycobacterium species. Dharmarajan Sriram et al Bioorg. Med. Chem. Lett. 19, 1152-4, (2009)

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Camphorsulfonic acid catalysed facile tandem double Friedlander annulation protocol for the synthesis of phenoxy linked bisquinoline derivatives and discovery of antitubercular agents. Nidhin Paul et al Bioorg. Med. Chem. Lett. 22, 1643-8, (2012)

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Design, synthesis and antitubercular activity of diarylmethylnaphthol derivatives. Sajal Kumar Das et al Bioorg. Med. Chem. Lett. 17, 5586-9, (2007)

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N-Hydroxythiosemicarbazones: synthesis and in vitro antitubercular activity. Dharmarajan Sriram et al Bioorg. Med. Chem. Lett. 17, 1888-91, (2007)

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Pyrosequencing for the rapid detection of rifampicin resistance in Mycobacterium tuberculosis: a meta-analysis. Guo Q, Zheng RJ, Zhu CT, et al. Int. J. Tuberc. Lung Dis. 17(8), 1008-13, (2013)

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Design, synthesis of some new (2-aminothiazol-4-yl)methylester derivatives as possible antimicrobial and antitubercular agents. Ranjith P Karuvalam et al Eur. J. Med. Chem. 49C, 172-82, (2012)

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Synthesis and biological evaluation of N-(aryl)-2-thiophen-2-ylacetamides series as a new class of antitubercular agents. Maria Cristina Silva Lourenço et al Bioorg. Med. Chem. Lett. 17, 6895-8, (2007)

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Analysis of physico-chemical properties of substrates of ABC and MFS multidrug transporters of pathogenic Candida albicans. Nidhi Puri et al Eur. J. Med. Chem. 45, 4813-26, (2010)

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New approach for drug susceptibility testing: monitoring the stress response of mycobacteria. Ronald J Rieder et al Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 53, 4598-603, (2009)

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New rifabutin analogs: synthesis and biological activity against Mycobacterium tuberculosis. José Barluenga et al Bioorg. Med. Chem. Lett. 16, 5717-22, (2006)

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Xpert® MTB/RIF assay for pulmonary tuberculosis and rifampicin resistance in adults. Steingart KR, Schiller I, Horne DJ, et al. Cochrane Database Syst. Rev. 1, CD009593, (2014)

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Novel enoyl-ACP reductase (FabI) potential inhibitors of Escherichia coli from Chinese medicine monomers. Jingjing Yao et al Bioorg. Med. Chem. Lett. 20, 56-9, (2010)

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Anti-tubercular agents. Part IV: Synthesis and antimycobacterial evaluation of nitroheterocyclic-based 1,2,4-benzothiadiazines. Ahmed Kamal et al Bioorg. Med. Chem. Lett. 17, 5419-22, (2007)

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Anti-tubercular agents. Part 5: synthesis and biological evaluation of benzothiadiazine 1,1-dioxide based congeners. A. Kamal, et al., Eur. J. Med. Chem. 45, 4545-4553, (2010)

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Detection of new arr-4 and arr-5 gene cassettes in clinical Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Klebsiella pneumoniae strains from Brazil. Erica Lourenço da Fonseca et al Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 52, 1865-7, (2008)

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[1,2,3]Triazolo[4,5-h]quinolones. A new class of potent antitubercular agents against multidrug resistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis strains. Antonio Carta et al Bioorg. Med. Chem. Lett. 17, 4791-4, (2007)

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Synthesis and antitubercular activity of 2-hydroxy-aminoalkyl derivatives of diaryloxy methano phenanthrenes. Gautam Panda et al Bioorg. Med. Chem. Lett. 15, 5222-5, (2005)

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Discovery of novel antitubercular 3a,4-dihydro-3H-indeno[1,2-c]pyrazole-2-carboxamide/carbothioamide analogues. Mohamed Jawed Ahsan et al Bioorg. Med. Chem. Lett. 21, 5259-61, (2011)

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Antimycobacterial and H1-antihistaminic activity of 2-substituted piperidine derivatives. Robert Weis et al Bioorg. Med. Chem. 16, 10326-31, (2008)

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A practical guide to community-acquired MRSA. Sastre A, Roberts PF, and Presutti RJ J. Fam. Pract. 62(11), 624-9, (2013)

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First report of probable neurobrucellosis in Australia. Munckhof WJ, Jennison AV, Bates JR, et al. Med. J. Aust. 199(6), 423-5, (2013)

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High prevelance of rifampin-monoresistant tuberculosis: a retrospective analysis among Iranian pulmonary tuberculosis patients. Velayati AA, Farnia P, Mozafari M, et al. Am. J. Trop. Med. Hyg. 90(1), 99-105, (2014)

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Rifampicin and Parkinson's disease. Bi W, Zhu L, Jing X, et al. Neurol. Sci. 34(2), 137-41, (2013)

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Synthesis of new sugar derivatives and evaluation of their antibacterial activities against Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Yasuhiro Horita et al Bioorg. Med. Chem. Lett. 19, 6313-6, (2009)

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Isoniazid-gelatin conjugate microparticles containing rifampicin for the treatment of tuberculosis. Manca ML, Cassano R, Valenti D, et al. J. Pharm. Pharmacol. 65(9), 1302-11, (2013)

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Case report: profound hypotension after anesthetic induction with propofol in patients treated with rifampin. Mirzakhani H, Nozari A, Ehrenfeld JM, et al. Anesth. Analg. 117(1), 61-4, (2013)

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Serum- and glucocorticoid-regulated kinase 2 determines drug-activated pregnane X receptor to induce gluconeogenesis in human liver cells. Gotoh S and Negishi M J. Pharmacol. Exp. Ther. 348(1), 131-40, (2014)

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Synthesis and screening of (E)-1-(?-D-galactopyranosyl)-4-(aryl)but-3-ene-2-one against Mycobacterium tuberculosis. G Mugunthan et al Bioorg. Med. Chem. Lett. 21, 3947-50, (2011)

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Duplication of the A17L locus of vaccinia virus provides an alternate route to rifampin resistance. Erlandson KJ, Cotter CA, Charity JC, et al. J. Virol. 88(19), 11576-85, (2014)

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Synthesis and in vitro biological evaluation of ring B abeo-sterols as novel inhibitors of Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Xiaomei Wei et al Bioorg. Med. Chem. Lett. 18, 5448-50, (2008)

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Investigation into CYP3A4-mediated drug-drug interactions on midostaurin in healthy volunteers. Dutreix C, Munarini F, Lorenzo S, et al. Cancer Chemother. Pharmacol. 72(6), 1223-34, (2013)

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Antimutagenic and antioxidant properties of plumbagin and other naphthoquinones. Kumar S, Gautam S, and Sharma A Mutat. Res. 755(1), 30-41, (2013)

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Clinical manifestations, laboratory findings, and therapeutic regimen in hospitalized children with brucellosis in an Iranian Referral Children Medical Centre. Fanni F, Shahbaznejad L, Pourakbari B, et al. J. Health. Popul. Nutr. 31(2), 218-22, (2013)

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Search of antitubercular activities in tetrahydroacridines: synthesis and biological evaluation. R P Tripathi et al Bioorg. Med. Chem. Lett. 16, 5144-7, (2006)

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Cutaneous T-cell lymphoma-like drug eruption in an HIV-positive patient taking vancomycin and rifampin. Macisaac JL, Ward CE, and Pratt M J. Cutan. Med. Surg. 17(6), 433-6, (2013)

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Simple dihydrosphyngosine analogues with potent activity against MDR-Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Esther Del Olmo et al Bioorg. Med. Chem. Lett. 19, 5764-8, (2009)

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Preparation and in vitro anti-staphylococcal activity of novel 11-deoxy-11-hydroxyiminorifamycins. Jing Li et al Bioorg. Med. Chem. Lett. 17, 5510-3, (2007)

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Rifampicin-induced acute kidney injury during the initial treatment for pulmonary tuberculosis: a case report and literature review. Chiba S, Tsuchiya K, Sakashita H, et al. Intern. Med. 52(21), 2457-60, (2013)

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1-Chloro-2-formyl indenes and tetralenes as antitubercular agents. Debabrata Chanda et al Bioorg. Med. Chem. Lett. 21, 3966-9, (2011)

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Synthesis of new sugar derivatives from Stachys sieboldi Miq and antibacterial evaluation against Mycobacterium tuberculosis, Mycobacterium avium, and Staphylococcus aureus. Taku Chiba et al Bioorg. Med. Chem. Lett. 17, 2487-91, (2007)

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The effect of rifaximin on gut flora and Staphylococcus resistance. Kim MS, Morales W, Hani AA, et al. Dig. Dis. Sci. 58(6), 1676-82, (2013)

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Measurements of mRNA degradation in Borrelia burgdorferi. Archambault L, Borchert JS, Bergeron J, et al. J. Bacteriol. 195(21), 4879-87, (2013)

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Line probe assay for detection of rifampicin and isoniazid resistant tuberculosis in Pakistan. Farooqi JQ, Khan E, Alam SM, et al. J. Pak. Med. Assoc. 62(8), 767-72, (2012)

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Peritonitis caused by Rothia mucilaginosa in a peritoneal dialysis patient. Gosmanova EO, Garrett TR, and Wall BM Am. J. Med. Sci. 346(6), 517-8, (2013)

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Antimicrobial effects of drug-containing electrospun matrices on osteomyelitis-associated pathogens. Waeiss RA, Negrini TC, Arthur RA, et al. J. Oral Maxillofac. Surg. 72(7), 1310-9, (2014)

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Interaction of silencing mediator for retinoid and thyroid receptors with steroid and xenobiotic receptor on multidrug resistance 1 promoter. Hirooka-Masui K, Lesmana R, Iwasaki T, et al. Life Sci. 92(17-19), 911-5, (2013)

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Comparative study of the mutant prevention concentrations of vancomycin alone and in combination with levofloxacin, rifampicin and fosfomycin against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus epidermidis. Liu LG, Zhu YL, Hu LF, et al. J. Antibiot. 66(12), 709-12, (2013)

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Treatment response and adverse reactions in older tuberculosis patients with immunocompromising comorbidities. Kim SY, Lee SM, Yim JJ, et al. Yonsei Med. J. 54(5), 1227-33, (2013)

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Adjunctive rifampicin may improve outcomes in Staphylococcus aureus bacteraemia: a systematic review. Russell CD, Lawson McLean A, Saunders C, et al. J. Med. Microbiol. 63(Pt 6), 841-8, (2014)

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In vitro activity of isoimperatorin, alone and in combination, against Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Guo N, Wu J, Fan J, et al. Lett. Appl. Microbiol. 58(4), 344-9, (2014)

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Pneumonitis induced by rifampicin: a case report and literature review. Koma Y, Goto K, Yoshida C, et al. Intern. Med. 52(4), 473-7, (2013)

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Development of a single multiplex amplification refractory mutation system PCR for the detection of rifampin-resistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Shi X, Zhang C, Shi M, et al. Gene 530(1), 95-9, (2013)

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[Brucella canis endocarditis: first documented case in Argentina]. Manias V, Nagel A, Mollerach A, et al. Rev. Argent. Microbiol. 45(1), 50-3, (2013)

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Shortening treatment for tuberculosis--to basics. Warner DF and Mizrahi V N. Engl. J. Med. 371(17), 1642-3, (2014)

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Orange alert. Osowicki J and Curtis N Arch. Dis. Child. 99(10), 964, (2014)

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Leprosy. Marcos LA, Conerly S, and Walker S Am. J. Trop. Med. Hyg. 91(2), 216, (2014)

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Manufacturer stands by Xpert tuberculosis test after India study questions its reliability. Mudur G BMJ 348, g3338, (2014)

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An unusual cause of breast lump: isolated tuberculosis of the breast. Pal P, Patra SK, and Ray S Am. J. Trop. Med. Hyg. 90(5), 788-9, (2014)

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Impact of drug interactions when medications are stopped: the often forgotten risks. Tong EY, Kowalski M, Yip GS, et al. Med. J. Aust. 200(6), 345-6, (2014)

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A case of skin and lung tuberculosis: diagnostic difficulties. Colasanti P, Cardone M, Zanchini R, et al. G. Ital. Dermatol. Venereol. 148(5), 538-40, (2013)

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Relapsing brucellosis after liver transplantation in a child: what is the appropriate regimen and duration of therapy? Islek A, Sayar E, Yilmaz A, et al. Transplantation 96(2), e6-7, (2013)

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Rifamycins (rifampicin, rifabutin and rifapentine) compared to isoniazid for preventing tuberculosis in HIV-negative people at risk of active TB. Sharma SK, Sharma A, Kadhiravan T, et al. Cochrane Database Syst. Rev. 7, CD007545, (2013)

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Rifampicin and moxifloxacin for tuberculous meningitis--authors' reply. Ruslami R, Ganiem AR, Aarnoutse RE, et al. Lancet Infect. Dis. 13(7), 570, (2013)

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Rifampicin and moxifloxacin for tuberculous meningitis. Ukwaja KN and Onyedum CC Lancet Infect. Dis. 13(7), 569-70, (2013)

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Rifampicin and moxifloxacin for tuberculous meningitis. Akkerman O, Pranger A, van Altena R, et al. Lancet Infect. Dis. 13(7), 568-9, (2013)

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Question 1: what are the options for treating latent TB infection in children? Gwee A, Coghlan B, and Curtis N Arch. Dis. Child. 98(6), 468-74, (2013)

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JAAD Grand Rounds. Posttreatment lesional hyperpigmentation. Mudigonda P, Ragland HP, and Murina A J. Am. Acad. Dermatol. 68(5), 879-81, (2013)

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Why Do We Use 600 mg of Rifampicin in Tuberculosis Treatment? van Ingen J, Aarnoutse RE, Donald PR, et al. Clin. Infect. Dis. 52(9), e194-9, (2011)

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In vitro activity of fidaxomicin (OPT-80) tested against contemporary clinical isolates of Staphylococcus spp. and Enterococcus spp. Douglas J Biedenbach et al Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 54, 2273-5, (2010)

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Carbapenem-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii isolates expressing the blaOXA-23 gene associated with ISAba4 in Belgium. Pierre Bogaerts et al Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 52, 4205-6, (2008)

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Induction of voriconazole metabolism by rifampin in a patient with acute myeloid leukemia: importance of interdisciplinary communication to prevent treatment errors with complex medications. Marcus J P Geist et al Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 51, 3455-6, (2007)

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