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R9644 Sigma

Ribavirin

antiviral

Synonym: 1-β-D-Ribofuranosyl-1,2,4-triazole-3-carboxamide

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Description

Biochem/physiol Actions

Antiviral agent. Its metabolite, ribavirin 5′-phosphate, is an inhibitor of inosine monophosphate (IMP) dehydrogenase. Used to inhibit purine (GTP pools) biosynthesis at the level of inosine monophosphate (IMP) dehydrogenase and as a precursor to the di- and tri-phosphates which inhibit viral RNA-dependent RNA polymerases.

Antiviral agent used against a wide variety of human viral infections, in particular, chronic hepatitis C, HIV, and adenovirus. Its metabolite, ribavirin 5′-phosphate, is an inhibitor of inosine monophosphate (IMP) dehydrogenase, but many other mechanisms of action are also supported with experimental evidence.1

General description

Analog of the imidazole nucleotide intermediates in purine nucleotide biosynthesis.

Features and Benefits

This compound is also offered as part of Sigma′s Library of Pharmacologically Active Compounds (LOPAC®,1280), a biologically annotated collection of high-quality, ready-to-screen compounds. Click here to learn more.

Legal Information

LOPAC is a registered trademark of Sigma-Aldrich Co. LLC

Other Notes

Tandem Mass Spectrometry data independently generated by Scripps Center for Metabolomics is available to view or download in PDF. R9644.pdf Tested metabolites are featured on Scripps Center for Metabolomics METLIN Metabolite Database. To learn more, visit sigma.com/metlin.

Price and Availability

TruPAGE™ Pre-cast Polyacrylamide Gels


TruPAGE™ Pre-cast Polyacrylamide GelsTruPAGE Gels run true every time!

  • . 2-Year Shelf Life
  • . Superior Band Resolution
  • . Strong & Tear Resistant
  • . Higher Capacity Wells


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European Pharmacopoeia (EP) Reference Standard

Safety & Documentation

Safety Information

Symbol 
GHS08  GHS08
Signal word 
Danger
Hazard statements 
Precautionary statements 
WGK Germany 
3
RTECS 
XZ4250000

Protocols & Articles

Articles

Nucleotide Synthesis in Cancer Cells

Neoplastic cells are highly dependent on the de novo synthesis of nucleotides to maintain sufficient pools to support DNA replication and the production of RNA. The metabolic pathways supporting nucl...
Keywords: Biofiles, Cancer, Catalysis, Citric Acid Cycle, DNA replication, Gene expression, Glycolysis, Metabolic Pathways, Metabolism, Metabolites, Nucleotide Synthesis, PAGE, Pentose phosphate pathway, Pyrimidine synthesis, Support

Peer-Reviewed Papers

References

Set your institution to view full text papers.

1. Mechanisms of action of ribavirin against distinct viruses Graci, J.D., and Cameron, C.E. Rev. Med. Virol. 16, 37-48, (2006)

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Broad-Spectrum Antiviral Activity of the IMP Dehydrogenase Inhibitor VX-497: a Comparison with Ribavirin and Demonstration of Antiviral Additivity with Alpha Interferon Markland, W., et al. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 44, 859-66, (2000)

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Preclinical Evaluation Of GS-9160, A Novel Inhibitor Of Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1 Integrase. Jones, G.S., et al. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 53, 1194-203, (2009)

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Identification and characterization of potent small molecule inhibitor of hemorrhagic fever New World arenaviruses. Bolken, T.C., et al. Antiviral Res. 69, 86-97, (2006)

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Effect of ribavirin on subacute sclerosing panencephalitis virus infections in hamsters. Honda, Y., et al. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 38, 653-655, (1994)

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The antiviral drug ribavirin is a selective inhibitor of S-adenosyl-L-homocysteine hydrolase from Trypanosoma cruzi. Cai, S., et al. Bioorg. Med. Chem. 15, 7281-7, (2007)

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Reversal of the antiviral activity of ribavirin against Sindbis virus in Ae. albopictus mosquito cells. Liao, H.J. and Stollar, V. Antiviral Res. 22, 285-294, (1993)

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Sofosbuvir for hepatitis C genotype 2 or 3 in patients without treatment options. Jacobson IM, Gordon SC, Kowdley KV, et al. N. Engl. J. Med. 368(20), 1867-77, (2013)

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Sofosbuvir and ribavirin in HCV genotypes 2 and 3. Zeuzem S, Dusheiko GM, Salupere R, et al. N. Engl. J. Med. 370(21), 1993-2001, (2014)

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Ledipasvir and sofosbuvir for untreated HCV genotype 1 infection. Afdhal N, Zeuzem S, Kwo P, et al. N. Engl. J. Med. 370(20), 1889-98, (2014)

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Sofosbuvir for previously untreated chronic hepatitis C infection. Lawitz E, Mangia A, Wyles D, et al. N. Engl. J. Med. 368(20), 1878-87, (2013)

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Daclatasvir plus sofosbuvir for previously treated or untreated chronic HCV infection. Sulkowski MS, Gardiner DF, Rodriguez-Torres M, et al. N. Engl. J. Med. 370(3), 211-21, (2014)

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ABT-450/r-ombitasvir and dasabuvir with ribavirin for hepatitis C with cirrhosis. Poordad F, Hezode C, Trinh R, et al. N. Engl. J. Med. 370(21), 1973-82, (2014)

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Ledipasvir and sofosbuvir for 8 or 12 weeks for chronic HCV without cirrhosis. Kowdley KV, Gordon SC, Reddy KR, et al. N. Engl. J. Med. 370(20), 1879-88, (2014)

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Treatment of HCV with ABT-450/r-ombitasvir and dasabuvir with ribavirin. Feld JJ, Kowdley KV, Coakley E, et al. N. Engl. J. Med. 370(17), 1594-603, (2014)

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ABT-450, ritonavir, ombitasvir, and dasabuvir achieves 97% and 100% sustained virologic response with or without ribavirin in treatment-experienced patients with HCV genotype 1b infection. Andreone P, Colombo MG, Enejosa JV, et al. Gastroenterology 147(2), 359-365.e1, (2014)

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Treatment with interferon-α2b and ribavirin improves outcome in MERS-CoV-infected rhesus macaques. Falzarano D, de Wit E, Rasmussen AL, et al. Nat. Med. 19(10), 1313-7, (2013)

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Safety and on-treatment efficacy of telaprevir: the early access programme for patients with advanced hepatitis C. Colombo M, Fernández I, Abdurakhmanov D, et al. Gut 63(7), 1150-8, (2014)

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Simeprevir with pegylated interferon alfa 2a plus ribavirin in treatment-naive patients with chronic hepatitis C virus genotype 1 infection (QUEST-1): a phase 3, randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. Jacobson IM, Dore GJ, Foster GR, et al. Lancet 384(9941), 403-13, (2014)

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Simeprevir with pegylated interferon alfa 2a or 2b plus ribavirin in treatment-naive patients with chronic hepatitis C virus genotype 1 infection (QUEST-2): a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled phase 3 trial. Manns M, Marcellin P, Poordad F, et al. Lancet 384(9941), 414-26, (2014)

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Attenuation of human enterovirus 71 high-replication-fidelity variants in AG129 mice. Meng T and Kwang J J. Virol. 88(10), 5803-15, (2014)

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Pegylated interferon-α2a with or without low-dose ribavirin for treatment-naive patients with hepatitis C virus genotype 1 receiving hemodialysis: a randomized trial. Liu CH, Huang CF, Liu CJ, et al. Ann. Intern. Med. 159(11), 729-38, (2013)

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Serum microRNA-122 level correlates with virologic responses to pegylated interferon therapy in chronic hepatitis C. Su TH, Liu CH, Liu CJ, et al. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U. S. A. 110(19), 7844-9, (2013)

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Boceprevir versus placebo with pegylated interferon alfa-2b and ribavirin for treatment of hepatitis C virus genotype 1 in patients with HIV: a randomised, double-blind, controlled phase 2 trial. Sulkowski M, Pol S, Mallolas J, et al. Lancet Infect. Dis. 13(7), 597-605, (2013)

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The combination of MK-5172, peginterferon, and ribavirin is effective in treatment-naive patients with hepatitis C virus genotype 1 infection without cirrhosis. Manns MP, Vierling JM, Bacon BR, et al. Gastroenterology 147(2), 366-76.e6, (2014)

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Efficacy and safety of pegylated interferon alfa-2a or alfa-2b plus ribavirin for the treatment of chronic hepatitis C in children and adolescents: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Druyts E, Thorlund K, Wu P, et al. Clin. Infect. Dis. 56(7), 961-7, (2013)

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ABT-450/r-ombitasvir and dasabuvir with or without ribavirin for HCV. Ferenci P, Bernstein D, Lalezari J, et al. N. Engl. J. Med. 370(21), 1983-92, (2014)

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The sonic hedgehog factor GLI1 imparts drug resistance through inducible glucuronidation. Zahreddine HA, Culjkovic-Kraljacic B, Assouline S, et al. Nature 511(7507), 90-3, (2014)

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Homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance does not seem to predict response to telaprevir in chronic hepatitis C in the REALIZE trial. Younossi Z, Negro F, Serfaty L, et al. Hepatology 58(6), 1897-906, (2013)

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All-oral combination of ledipasvir, vedroprevir, tegobuvir, and ribavirin in treatment-naïve patients with genotype 1 HCV infection. Wyles DL, Rodriguez-Torres M, Lawitz E, et al. Hepatology 60(1), 56-64, (2014)

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Therapeutic potential of and treatment with boceprevir/telaprevir-based triple-therapy in HIV/chronic hepatitis C co-infected patients in a real-world setting. Mandorfer M, Payer BA, Niederecker A, et al. AIDS Patient Care STDS 28(5), 221-7, (2014)

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Phase 2b trial of interferon-free therapy for hepatitis C virus genotype 1. Kowdley KV, Lawitz E, Poordad F, et al. N. Engl. J. Med. 370(3), 222-32, (2014)

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Treatment indication and response to standard of care with peginterferon and ribavirin in acute and chronic HCV infection. Feld JJ Best Pract. Res. Clin. Gastroenterol. 26(4), 429-44, (2012)

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A non-interventional phase IV Belgian survey to assess the antiviral effectiveness of pegylated interferon-alpha-2b and ribavirin treatment according to the stage of liver fibrosis in previously untreated patients with genotype 1/4/5/6 chronic hepatitis C (PRACTICE). Bourgeois S, Deltenre P, Delwaide J, et al. Acta Gastroenterol. Belg. 77(4), 393-400, (2014)

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[Chronic hepatitis C. Interferon free therapy also in patients with liver cirrhosis]. MMW Fortschr. Med. 156(21-22), 97, (2014)

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Demographics, clinical characteristics, IFNL3- and IFNL4- polymorphisms in a cohort of hepatitis C patients from Puerto Rico. Morales-Vásquez L, Miranda-Avalo EI, Rodríguez-Medina JR, et al. P. R. Health Sci. J. 33(4), 177-83, (2014)

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Treatment for cryoglobulinemic and non-cryoglobulinemic peripheral neuropathy associated with hepatitis C virus infection. Benstead TJ, Chalk CH, and Parks NE Cochrane Database Syst. Rev. 12, CD010404, (2014)

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Tuberculous peritonitis during pegylated interferon plus ribavirin combination therapy in a patient with chronic hepatitis C. Fukuba R, Kawaratani H, Kubo T, et al. Nihon Shokakibyo Gakkai Zasshi 111(12), 2337-45, (2014)

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Controlling hepatitis C with simeprevir. Dusheiko G Lancet Infect. Dis. 15(1), 2-4, (2015)

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Simeprevir versus telaprevir with peginterferon and ribavirin in previous null or partial responders with chronic hepatitis C virus genotype 1 infection (ATTAIN): a randomised, double-blind, non-inferiority phase 3 trial. Reddy KR, Zeuzem S, Zoulim F, et al. Lancet Infect. Dis. 15(1), 27-35, (2015)

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When will resistance be futile? Borden KL Cancer Res. 74(24), 7175-80, (2014)

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Sofosbuvir treatment in the pre and post liver transplantation phase: the sooner, the better. Aghemo A and Donato MF Gastroenterology 148(1), 13-6, (2015)

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Anti-respiratory syncytial virus prenylated dihydroquinolone derivatives from the gorgonian-derived fungus Aspergillus sp. XS-20090B15. Chen M, Shao CL, Meng H, et al. J. Nat. Prod. 77(12), 2720-4, (2014)

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Polymorphisms of Toll-like receptors 2 and 4 in chronically infected hepatitis C patients from north-east Croatia. Perić M, Bošnjak Z, Šarkanj B, et al. Arch. Virol. 160(1), 297-304, (2015)

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An interferon-free antiviral regimen for HCV after liver transplantation. Kwo PY, Mantry PS, Coakley E, et al. N. Engl. J. Med. 371(25), 2375-82, (2014)

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Ombitasvir (ABT-267), a novel NS5A inhibitor for the treatment of hepatitis C. Stirnimann G Expert Opin. Pharmacother. 15(17), 2609-22, (2014)

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Persistent hepatitis C virus infection impairs ribavirin antiviral activity through clathrin-mediated trafficking of equilibrative nucleoside transporter 1. Panigrahi R, Chandra PK, Ferraris P, et al. J. Virol. 89(1), 626-42, (2015)

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Sofosbuvir and ribavirin for treatment of compensated recurrent hepatitis C virus infection after liver transplantation. Charlton M, Gane E, Manns MP, et al. Gastroenterology 148(1), 108-17, (2015)

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Sofosbuvir and ribavirin prevent recurrence of HCV infection after liver transplantation: an open-label study. Curry MP, Forns X, Chung RT, et al. Gastroenterology 148(1), 100-107.e1, (2015)

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Lower incidence of hepatocellular carcinoma and cirrhosis in hepatitis C patients with sustained virological response by pegylated interferon and ribavirin. Moon C, Jung KS, Kim do Y, et al. Dig. Dis. Sci. 60(2), 573-81, (2015)

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Core amino acid variation at position 110 is associated with sustained virological response in Caucasian patients with chronic hepatitis C virus 1b infection. Di Lello FA, Mira JA, Neukam K, et al. Arch. Virol. 159(12), 3345-51, (2014)

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Effectiveness of telaprevir and boceprevir triple therapy for patients with hepatitis C virus infection in a large integrated care setting. Price JC, Murphy RC, Shvachko VA, et al. Dig. Dis. Sci. 59(12), 3043-52, (2014)

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Antiviral treatment of hepatitis C. Feeney ER and Chung RT BMJ 348, g3308, (2014)

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Simultaneous splenectomy during liver transplantation augments anti-viral therapy in patients infected with hepatitis C virus. Chu HC, Hsieh CB, Hsu KF, et al. Am. J. Surg. 209(1), 180-6, (2015)

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Reply: To PMID 24449403. Holmes JA, Matthews GV, and Thompson AJ Hepatology 61(1), 409, (2015)

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Ribavirin with interferon for hepatitis C in dialysis patients: efficacious and safe in the right patients in good hands. Mutimer D Gut 64(2), 190-1, (2015)

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Next-generation sequencing sheds light on the natural history of hepatitis C infection in patients who fail treatment. Abdelrahman T, Hughes J, Main J, et al. Hepatology 61(1), 88-97, (2015)

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Association between response to pegylated interferon/ribavirin therapy and ribavirin levels. Dai CY, Yu ML, and Chuang WL Hepatology 61(1), 408-9, (2015)

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Peginterferon alfa-2a with or without low-dose ribavirin for treatment-naive patients with hepatitis C virus genotype 2 receiving haemodialysis: a randomised trial. Liu CH, Liu CJ, Huang CF, et al. Gut 64(2), 303-11, (2015)

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[Therapy of chronic hepatitis C]. Schaffstein S, Rampini SK, and Müllhaupt B Praxis (Bern 1994) 103(8), 423-36, (2014)

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The price of good health. Nat. Med. 20(4), 319, (2014)

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Association of interleukin-10 polymorphisms with chronic hepatitis C virus infection in a case-control study and its effect on the response to combined pegylated interferon/ribavirin therapy. Khan AJ, Saraswat VA, Choudhuri G, et al. Epidemiol. Infect. 143(1), 71-80, (2015)

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Variants of the inosine triphosphate pyrophosphatase gene and relapse risk following treatment for HCV genotype 2/3. Dai CY, Chuang WL, and Yu ML Hepatology 60(6), 2129-30, (2014)

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Reply: To PMID 24519039. Lagging M, Rembeck K, Waldenström J, et al. Hepatology 60(6), 2130-1, (2014)

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A 24-week pegylated interferon alpha-2b versus a 12-week pegylated interferon alpha-2b alone or with ribavirin for patients with acute hepatitis C. Dai CY, Chuang WL, and Yu ML Hepatology 60(6), 2128-9, (2014)

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Hepatitis C genotype 3: a tough match for interferon-free regimens. Aghemo A and Colombo M Gastroenterology 146(4), 1125-7, (2014)

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Summaries for patients. Pegylated interferon with or without ribavirin for patients with hepatitis C receiving hemodialysis. Ann. Intern. Med. 159(11), I-14, (2013)

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[Immunogenetic factors of interaction of hepatitis C virus and human and possibilities of development of therapeutic tactic]. Fedoseeva NV, Znoĭko OO, and Iushchuk ND Zh. Mikrobiol. Epidemiol. Immunobiol. (3), 97-103, (2013)

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Sustained virological response after treatment in patients with chronic hepatitis C infection--a five year follow up. Rahman MZ, Ahmed DS, Masud H, et al. Bangladesh Med. Res. Counc. Bull. 39(1), 11-3, (2013)

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[Emergency treatment for Middle Eastern coronaviruses (MERS-CoV]. Nau JY Rev. Med. Suisse 9(392), 1394-5, (2013)

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[Nucleosides of 1,2,4-triazole: potentialities and restrictions of chemo-enzymatic method for synthesis]. Konstantinova ID, Chudinov MV, Fateev IV, et al. Bioorg. Khim. 39(1), 61-80, (2013)

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Side effects of antiviral therapy in hepatitis C virus infection-sarcoidosis - case report. Teodor D, Teodor A, Grigore L, et al. Rev. Med. Chir. Soc. Med. Nat. Iasi. 116(4), 1039-43, (2012)

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[Inosine triphosphatase gene polymorphism and ribavirin-related anemia in chronic hepatitis C patients]. Geng JX, Zhang Q, and Zhang JM Zhonghua Gan Zang Bing Za Zhi 20(12), 958-60, (2012)

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Hepatitis C treatment options improving. Mayo Clin. Health Lett. 31(1), 4, (2013)

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[Study on effect of intensive treatment for refractory chronic hepatitis C patients]. Li MH, Zhang YL, Zhang L, et al. Zhonghua Shi Yan He Lin Chuang Bing Du Xue Za Zhi 26(5), 374-8, (2012)

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[Development of sarcoidosis during treatment for chronic hepatitis C with pegylated interferon alfa-2a and ribavirin: case report and literature review]. Cacopardo B, Pinzone MR, and Nunnari G Infez. Med. 21(1), 40-44, (2013)

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Novel therapeutic approaches for hepatitis C. Au JS and Pockros PJ Clin. Pharmacol. Ther. 95(1), 78-88, (2014)

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Sofosbuvir and ledipasvir fixed-dose combination with and without ribavirin in treatment-naive and previously treated patients with genotype 1 hepatitis C virus infection (LONESTAR): an open-label, randomised, phase 2 trial. Lawitz E, Poordad FF, Pang PS, et al. Lancet 383(9916), 515-23, (2014)

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Retreatment of HCV with ABT-450/r-ombitasvir and dasabuvir with ribavirin. Zeuzem S, Jacobson IM, Baykal T, et al. N. Engl. J. Med. 370(17), 1604-14, (2014)

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IFNL4-ΔG genotype is associated with slower viral clearance in hepatitis C, genotype-1 patients treated with sofosbuvir and ribavirin. Meissner EG, Bon D, Prokunina-Olsson L, et al. J. Infect. Dis. 209(11), 1700-4, (2014)

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Sofosbuvir and ribavirin for hepatitis C genotype 1 in patients with unfavorable treatment characteristics: a randomized clinical trial. Osinusi A, Meissner EG, Lee YJ, et al. JAMA 310(8), 804-11, (2013)

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In vitro activity and preclinical profile of TMC435350, a potent hepatitis C virus protease inhibitor. Lin TI, Lenz O, Fanning G, et al. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 53(4), 1377-85, (2009)

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Modeling viral kinetics and treatment outcome during alisporivir interferon-free treatment in hepatitis C virus genotype 2 and 3 patients. Guedj J, Yu J, Levi M, et al. Hepatology 59(5), 1706-14, (2014)

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Cost analysis of sofosbuvir/ribavirin versus sofosbuvir/simeprevir for genotype 1 hepatitis C virus in interferon-ineligible/intolerant individuals. Hagan LM, Sulkowski MS, and Schinazi RF Hepatology 60(1), 37-45, (2014)

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Sofosbuvir and ribavirin for hepatitis C in patients with HIV coinfection. Sulkowski MS, Naggie S, Lalezari J, et al. JAMA 312(4), 353-61, (2014)

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The rapid evolution of treatment strategies for hepatitis C. Muir AJ Am. J. Gastroenterol. 109(5), 628-35; quiz 636, (2014)

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Pegylated interferon-α2a and ribavirin versus pegylated interferon-α2b and ribavirin in chronic hepatitis C : a meta-analysis. Flori N, Funakoshi N, Duny Y, et al. Drugs 73(3), 263-77, (2013)

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Statin therapy improves response to interferon alfa and ribavirin in chronic hepatitis C: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Zhu Q, Li N, Han Q, et al. Antiviral Res. 98(3), 373-9, (2013)

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Novel composed galactosylated nanodevices containing a ribavirin prodrug as hepatic cell-targeted carriers for HCV treatment. Craparo EF, Teresi G, Licciardi M, et al. J. Biomed. Nanotechnol. 9(6), 1107-22, (2013)

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Response of Black African patients with hepatitis C virus genotype 4 to treatment with peg-interferon and ribavirin. Nkuize M, Mulkay JP, Adler M, et al. Acta Gastroenterol. Belg. 76(3), 291-9, (2013)

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Induction of Cytoplasmic Rods and Rings Structures by Inhibition of the CTP and GTP Synthetic Pathway in Mammalian Cells. Carcamo WC, Satoh M, Kasahara H, et al. PLoS ONE 6, e29690, (2011)

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Conformational changes induced in the eukaryotic translation initiation factor eIF4E by a clinically relevant inhibitor, ribavirin triphosphate. Volpon L, Osborne MJ, Zahreddine H, et al. Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 434(3), 614-9, (2013)

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Citalopram for the prevention of depression and its consequences in HIV-hepatitis C coinfected individuals initiating pegylated interferon/ribavirin therapy: a multicenter randomized double-blind placebo-controlled trial. Klein MB, Lee T, Brouillette MJ, et al. HIV Clin. Trials 15(4), 161-75, (2014)

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Ribavirin-resistant variants of foot-and-mouth disease virus: the effect of restricted quasispecies diversity on viral virulence. Zeng J, Wang H, Xie X, et al. J. Virol. 88(8), 4008-20, (2014)

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Comparative effectiveness of telaprevir-based triple therapy in patients with chronic hepatitis C. Al-Bawardy B, Kim WR, Poterucha JJ, et al. Mayo Clin. Proc. 89(5), 595-601, (2014)

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Vaccine-derived mutation in motif D of poliovirus RNA-dependent RNA polymerase lowers nucleotide incorporation fidelity. Liu X, Yang X, Lee CA, et al. J. Biol. Chem. 288(45), 32753-65, (2013)

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Vitamin D levels in Egyptian HCV patients (genotype 4) treated with pegylated interferon. Mohamed AA, Sabry NA, Abbassi MM, et al. Acta Gastroenterol. Belg. 76(1), 38-44, (2013)

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In HIV/hepatitis C virus co-infected patients, higher 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentrations were not related to hepatitis C virus treatment responses but were associated with ritonavir use. Branch AD, Kang M, Hollabaugh K, et al. Am. J. Clin. Nutr. 98(2), 423-9, (2013)

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Arenaviruses and lethal mutagenesis. Prospects for new ribavirin-based interventions. Moreno H, Grande-Pérez A, Domingo E, et al. Viruses 4(11), 2786-805, (2012)

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Update on combinations of DAAs with and without pegylated-interferon and ribavirin: triple and quadruple therapy more than doubles SVR. Martel-Laferrière V and Dieterich DT Clin. Liver Dis. 17(1), 93-103, (2013)

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What the infectious disease physician needs to know about pegylated interferon and ribavirin. Gara N and Ghany MG Clin. Infect. Dis. 56(11), 1629-36, (2013)

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Monocyte activation by interferon α is associated with failure to achieve a sustained virologic response after treatment for hepatitis C virus infection. Hartigan-O'Connor DJ, Lin D, Ryan JC, et al. J. Infect. Dis. 209(10), 1602-12, (2014)

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Practical silyl protection of ribonucleosides. Blaisdell TP, Lee S, Kasaplar P, et al. Org. Lett. 15(18), 4710-3, (2013)

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Human leukocyte antigen class II alleles (DQB1 and DRB1) as predictors for response to interferon therapy in HCV genotype 4. Shaker O, Bassiony H, El Raziky M, et al. Mediators Inflamm. 2013, 392746, (2013)

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Natural cytotoxicity receptor-dependent natural killer cytolytic activity directed at hepatitis C Virus (HCV) is associated with liver inflammation, African American race, IL28B genotype, and response to pegylated interferon/ribavirin therapy in chronic HCV infection. Meng Q, Rani MR, Sugalski JM, et al. J. Infect. Dis. 209(10), 1591-601, (2014)

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My treatment approach to chronic hepatitis C virus. Shiffman ML, Long AG, James A, et al. Mayo Clin. Proc. 89(7), 934-42, (2014)

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Section 13. Short-course pretransplant antiviral therapy is a feasible and effective strategy to prevent hepatitis C recurrence after liver transplantation in genotype 2 patients. Lin CC, Kabiling C, Chen CL, et al. Transplantation 97 Suppl 8, S47-53, (2014)

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Eleganketal A, a highly oxygenated dibenzospiroketal from the marine-derived fungus Spicaria elegans KLA03. Luan Y, Wei H, Zhang Z, et al. J. Nat. Prod. 77(7), 1718-23, (2014)

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Shortened peginterferon and ribavirin treatment for chronic hepatitis C. Hartwell D, Jones J, Baxter L, et al. Int. J. Technol. Assess. Health Care 28(4), 398-406, (2012)

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Thyroid disease in chronic hepatitis C infection treated with combination interferon-α and ribavirin: management strategies and future perspective. Tran HA, Jones TL, Ianna EA, et al. Endocr. Pract. 19(2), 292-300, (2013)

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Sustained virological response and baseline predictors in HIV-HCV coinfected patients retreated with pegylated interferon and ribavirin after failing a previous interferon-based therapy: systematic review and meta-analysis. Basso M, Parisi SG, Mengoli C, et al. HIV Clin. Trials 14(4), 127-39, (2013)

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Respiratory syncytial virus infections in children with cancer. Chemaly RF, Ghantoji SS, Shah DP, et al. J. Pediatr. Hematol. Oncol. 36(6), e376-81, (2014)

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Dynamics of serum metabolites in patients with chronic hepatitis C receiving pegylated interferon plus ribavirin: a metabolomics analysis. Saito T, Sugimoto M, Igarashi K, et al. Metabolism 62(11), 1577-86, (2013)

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When do psychiatric side effects emerge during antiviral treatment of hepatitis C? Gazdag G, Horváth G, Szabó O, et al. Psychiatr. Danub. 25(4), 398-400, (2013)

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Re-treatment with highly purified nIFNα in Mexican nonresponder patients with chronic genotype 1 hepatitis C. Muñoz-Espinosa LE, Cordero-Pérez P, Marín-López E, et al. Arch. Med. Res. 44(6), 444-8, (2013)

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Ischemic colitis during interferon-ribavirin therapy for chronic hepatitis C: a case report. Baik SJ, Kim TH, Yoo K, et al. World J. Gastroenterol. 18(31), 4233-6, (2012)

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Treatment of chronic hepatitis C infection among current and former injection drug users within a multidisciplinary treatment model at a community health centre. Newman AI, Beckstead S, Beking D, et al. Can. J. Gastroenterol. 27(4), 217-23, (2013)

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Clinical outcomes of hepatitis C treated with pegylated interferon and ribavirin via telemedicine consultation in Northern California. Rossaro L, Torruellas C, Dhaliwal S, et al. Dig. Dis. Sci. 58(12), 3620-5, (2013)

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Secondary hyperpigmentation during interferon alfa treatment for chronic hepatitis C virus infection. Tsilika K, Tran A, Trucchi R, et al. JAMA Dermatol. 149(6), 675-7, (2013)

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Dilated cardiomyopathy and hypothyroidism associated with pegylated interferon and ribavirin treatment for chronic hepatitis C: case report and literature review. Zhao W, Ji F, Yu S, et al. Braz. J. Infect. Dis. 18(1), 110-3, (2014)

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Addition of nitazoxanide to PEG-IFN and ribavirin to improve HCV treatment response in HIV-1 and HCV genotype 1 coinfected persons naïve to HCV therapy: results of the ACTG A5269 trial. Amorosa VK, Luetkemeyer A, Kang M, et al. HIV Clin. Trials 14(6), 274-83, (2013)

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Association between insulin resistance and sustained virologic response in hepatitis C treatment, genotypes 1 versus 2 and 3: systematic literature review and meta-analysis. Laurito MP and Parise ER Braz. J. Infect. Dis. 17(5), 555-63, (2013)

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Managing adverse effects of interferon-alfa and ribavirin in combination therapy for HCV. Slim J and Afridi MS Infect. Dis. Clin. North Am. 26(4), 917-29, (2012)

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Remission of HCV-associated glomerulonephritis with pegylated ifn and ribavirin therapy after liver transplantation: case report and literature review. Donato MF, Fabrizi F, Fogazzi GB, et al. Int. J. Artif. Organs 36(1), 63-8, (2013)

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[HCV reinfection after liver transplantation - management and first experiences with telaprevir-based triple therapy]. Herzer K, Papadopoulos-Köhn A, Timm J, et al. Dtsch. Med. Wochenschr. 138(36), 1759-64, (2013)

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Foot-and-mouth disease virus low-fidelity polymerase mutants are attenuated. Xie X, Wang H, Zeng J, et al. Arch. Virol. 159(10), 2641-50, (2014)

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The influence of hepatitis B virus on antiviral treatment with interferon and ribavirin in Asian patients with hepatitis C virus/hepatitis B virus coinfection: a meta-analysis. Liu JY, Sheng YJ, Hu HD, et al. Virol. J. 9, 186, (2012)

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Factors associated with efficacy of pegylated interferon-α plus ribavirin for chronic hepatitis C after renal transplantation. Li LF, Shi KQ, Lin YQ, et al. Gene 544(2), 101-6, (2014)

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HCV-specific CD8+ cell detection at week 12 of chronic hepatitis C treatment with PEG-interferon-α2b/ribavirin correlates with infection resolution. Larrubia JR, Lokhande MU, Moreno-Cubero E, et al. Cell. Immunol. 286(1-2), 31-8, (2013)

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Replication of hepatitis C virus in peripheral blood mononuclear cells in patients with chronic hepatitis C treated with pegylated interferon alpha and ribavirin. Inglot M, Pawlowski T, Szymczak A, et al. Postepy Hig. Med. Dosw. (Online) 67, 186-91, (2013)

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[Hepatitis C virus: 25 years-old, the end?]. Pol S Med. Sci. (Paris.) 29(11), 998-1003, (2013)

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Validity of aspartate aminotransferase to platelet ratio index as predictor of early viral response in patients with hepatitis C treated by interferon-based therapy. Samiullah S, Bikharam D, and Musarat K J. Pak. Med. Assoc. 62(10), 1008-11, (2012)

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Weight loss with interferon and ribavirin therapy in chronic hepatitis C patients. Sajjad SF, Ahmed Wu, Arif A, et al. J. Pak. Med. Assoc. 62(11), 1229-32, (2012)

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End of treatment response in chronic hepatitis C patients treated with interferon alpha and ribavirin. Tanveer A, Khalid SR, Kazmi SY, et al. J. Coll. Physicians Surg. Pak. 23(10), 764-5, (2013)

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Hepatocellular carcinoma after sustained viral response to interferon and ribavirin therapy in cirrhosis secondary to chronic hepatitis C. Khokhar N, Niazi TK, and Qureshi MO J. Coll. Physicians Surg. Pak. 23(10), 699-702, (2013)

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[Hepatitis C virus-related cryoglobulinemic vasculitis with renal involvement: current possibilities of treatment]. Gordovskaia NB, Kozlovskaia LV, Milovanova SIu, et al. Ter. Arkh. 85(6), 78-84, (2013)

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Editorial: can we afford the new direct-acting anti-virals for treatment of genotype 1 hepatitis C? Authors' reply. Saab S and Younossi ZM Aliment. Pharmacol. Ther. 40(8), 984-5, (2014)

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Editorial: can we afford the new direct-acting antivirals for treatment of genotype 1 hepatitis C? Congly SE and Lee SS Aliment. Pharmacol. Ther. 40(8), 983-4, (2014)

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Quantum leaps, microeconomics, and the treatment of patients with hepatitis C and HIV coinfection. Saag MS JAMA 312(4), 347-8, (2014)

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Valuing cure: bridging cost-effectiveness and coverage decisions for hepatitis C therapy. Pho MT and Linas BP Hepatology 60(1), 12-4, (2014)

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Hepatitis C treatment in dialysis patients: is a new dawn approaching? Gordon CE and Francis J Am. J. Kidney Dis. 64(2), 178-80, (2014)

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Therapy of hepatitis C--back to the future. Liang TJ and Ghany MG N. Engl. J. Med. 370(21), 2043-7, (2014)

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Triple therapy for hepatitis C virus infection in patients receiving hemodialysis. Lemoinne S, Barrou B, and Thabut D Ann. Intern. Med. 160(8), 581, (2014)

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HCV therapy with daclatasvir, PEG-IFN, and RBV after boceprevir-based therapy failure post-liver transplantation in hyper-IgM syndrome. Reddy KR, Wirjosemito A, Pavri TM, et al. Transplantation 97(8), e47-8, (2014)

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[Treatment of hepatitis C infection. A revolution should not hide another]. Sogni P Presse Med. 43(4 Pt 1), 339-40, (2014)

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Atazanavir-based therapy with pegylated interferon and ribavirin for patients with hepatitis C and HIV. Rivero-Juarez A, Lopez-Cortes LF, Girón-Gonzalez JA, et al. Lancet Infect. Dis. 14(1), 13-4, (2014)

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Beyond phase 3 registration trials: defining safety for triple therapy with protease inhibitors in cirrhosis. Ferenci P and Dusheiko G Gut 63(7), 1033-4, (2014)

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Interferon-free hepatitis C treatment: one pill to fit all? Hellard ME and Doyle JS Lancet 383(9916), 491-2, (2014)

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Neurocognitive function and dysfunction after hepatitis C therapy. Solis-Muñoz P, Mingote-Adán C, and Solís-Herruzo JA Hepatology 60(1), 431, (2014)

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HCV, ribavirin, and anemia: a new dawn. Pol S Gastroenterology 145(5), 930-3, (2013)

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Sofosbuvir for previously untreated chronic hepatitis C infection. Lawitz E and Gane EJ N. Engl. J. Med. 369(7), 678-9, (2013)

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DRESS syndrome with suspected Strongyloides infection in a patient treated for hepatitis C. Rampur L, Jariwala S, Amin B, et al. Ann. Allergy Asthma Immunol. 111(2), 138-9, (2013)

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Optimizing ribavirin exposure by therapeutic drug monitoring improves treatment response in patients with chronic hepatitis C genotype 1. Stickel F, Worni M, Pache I, et al. Am. J. Gastroenterol. 108(7), 1176-8, (2013)

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Boceprevir for HCV in patients with HIV: where next? Osinusi A and Naggie S Lancet Infect. Dis. 13(7), 563-4, (2013)

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Letter to the editor concerning the paper: Boltjes A, Op den Brouw ML, Biesta PJ, et al. Assessment of the effect of ribavirin on myeloid and plasmacytoid dendritic cells during interferon-based therapy of chronic hepatitis B patients [Molecular Immunology 53(1/2) (2013) 72-78]. Pachiadakis I, Choksi S, Ilonidis G, et al. Mol. Immunol. 56(1-2), 129-30, (2013)

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HCV treatment--no more room for interferonologists? Drenth JP N. Engl. J. Med. 368(20), 1931-2, (2013)

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Tongue hyperpigmentation during PEG-interferon-alfa/ribavirin therapy in a non-Caucasian patient with chronic hepatitis C: a case report and review of the literature. Mlika RB, Kerkeni N, Marrak H, et al. Int. J. Dermatol. 52(5), 643-4, (2013)

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Extended peginterferon plus ribavirin treatment for 72 weeks versus standard peginterferon plus ribavirin treatment for 48 weeks in chronic hepatitis C genotype 1 infected slow-responder adult patients. Katz LH, Goldvaser H, Gafter-Gvili A, et al. Cochrane Database Syst. Rev. 9, CD008516, (2012)

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