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U5378 Sigma

Urea

powder, BioReagent, for molecular biology, suitable for cell culture

Synonym: Carbamide, Carbonyldiamide

Purchase

Properties

Related Categories Biochemicals, Biochemicals and Reagents, Chaotropic Agents, Core Bioreagents, Denaturation,
grade   for molecular biology
product line   BioReagent
form   powder
color   white
mp   132-135 °C(lit.)
density   1.335 g/mL at 25 °C(lit.)
anion traces   chloride (Cl-): ≤5 ppm
cation traces   Cu: ≤1 ppm
  Fe: ≤1 ppm
  Pb: ≤2 ppm
absorption   A6M/260 ≤0.06
  A6M/280 ≤0.06
suitability   suitable for cell culture
foreign activity   DNase, NICKase, RNase and protease, none detected
Gene Information   human ... CA1(759), CA2(760)
rat ... Ppm1a(24666)

Description

Application

Used for the denaturation of proteins and as a mild solubilization agent for insoluble or denatured proteins. Useful for renaturing proteins from samples already denatured with 6 M guanidine chloride such as inclusion bodies. May be used with guanidine hydrochloride and dithiothreitrol (DTT) in the refolding of denatured proteins into their native or active form.

Packaging

1 kg in poly bottle

100, 500 g in poly bottle

5 kg in poly drum

Price and Availability

Suggested Laboratory Gloves


Laboratory GlovesThis substance has been tested against several types of hand protection for CE compliance. Click below to find the recommended gloves for handling this product.



Safety & Documentation
Protocols & Articles

Articles

Determination of Water Content in Urea Using Karl Fischer Titration

Nitrogen compounds, acid amides and weakly basic amines (heterocyclenes) give no problems. They can be titrated according to the standard procedures. Strongly basic amines alter the pH value and must...
Keywords: Titrations

Recombinant Protein Expression in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

Expressing recombinant proteins in yeast has many advantages, simple protocols, use of basic reagents, appropriate processing of eukaryotic proteins, and scalability. Sigma® Life Science is an essent...
Keywords: Cell disruption, Gene expression, transformation

Peer-Reviewed Papers

References

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Inclusion bodies and purification of proteins in biologically active forms. Mukhopadhyay, A. Adv. Biochem. Eng. Biotechnol. 56, 61-109., (1997)

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In vitro folding of inclusion body proteins. Rudloph, R. and Lilie, H. FASEB J. 10, 49-56, (1996)

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Solubilization of protein aggregates. Marston, F.A.O. and Hartley, D.L. Meth. Enzymol. 182, 264-276, (1990)

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Prevalence of Helicobacter pylori vacA, cagA, and iceA Genotypes in Cuban Patients with Upper Gastrointestinal Diseases. Feliciano O, Gutierrez O, Valdés L, et al. Biomed Res. Int. 2015, 753710, (2015)

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Immediate access arteriovenous grafts versus tunnelled central venous catheters: study protocol for a randomised controlled trial. Aitken E, Geddes C, Thomson P, et al. Trials 16, 42, (2015)

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Inactivation of Src-to-ezrin pathway: a possible mechanism in the ouabain-mediated inhibition of A549 cell migration. Shin HK, Ryu BJ, Choi SW, et al. Biomed Res. Int. 2015, 537136, (2015)

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Acute oral toxicity and biodistribution study of zinc-aluminium-levodopa nanocomposite. Kura AU, Saifullah B, Cheah PS, et al. Nanoscale Res. Lett. 10, 105, (2015)

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The effect of pristine carbon-based nanomaterial on the growth of green gram sprouts and pH of water. Li X, Zhou Z, Lu D, et al. Nanoscale Res. Lett. 9(1), 583, (2014)

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Effect of Helicobacter pylori eradication on hepatic steatosis, NAFLD fibrosis score and HSENSI in patients with nonalcoholic steatohepatitis: a MR imaging-based pilot open-label study. Polyzos SA, Nikolopoulos P, Stogianni A, et al. Arq. Gastroenterol. 51(3), 261-8, (2014)

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Qualitative and quantitative determination of peptides related to celiac disease in mixtures derived from different methods of simulated gastrointestinal digestion of wheat products. Prandi B, Faccini A, Tedeschi T, et al. Anal. Bioanal. Chem 406(19), 4765-75, (2014)

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Application of fluorescence two-dimensional difference in-gel electrophoresis as a proteomic biomarker discovery tool in muscular dystrophy research. Carberry S, Zweyer M, Swandulla D, et al. Biology (Basel.) 2(4), 1438-64, (2014)

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Proteome adaptation in cell reprogramming proceeds via distinct transcriptional networks. Benevento M, Tonge PD, Puri MC, et al. Nat. Commun. 5, 5613, (2014)

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Structural and biochemical impact of C8-aryl-guanine adducts within the NarI recognition DNA sequence: influence of aryl ring size on targeted and semi-targeted mutagenicity. Sproviero M, Verwey AM, Rankin KM, et al. Nucleic Acids Res. 42(21), 13405-21, (2014)

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Stereoselective metal-free synthesis of ?-amino thioesters with tertiary and quaternary stereogenic centers. Bahlinger A, Fritz SP, Wennemers H, et al. Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. Engl. 53(33), 8779-83, (2014)

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Deleterious mutations in the essential mRNA metabolism factor, hGle1, in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. Kaneb HM, Folkmann AW, Belzil VV, et al. Hum. Mol. Genet. 24(5), 1363-73, (2015)

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A 3D in vitro model of differentiated HepG2 cell spheroids with improved liver-like properties for repeated dose high-throughput toxicity studies. Ramaiahgari SC, den Braver MW, Herpers B, et al. Arch. Toxicol. 88(5), 1083-95, (2014)

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Integrated metabolic spatial-temporal model for the prediction of ammonia detoxification during liver damage and regeneration. Schliess F, Hoehme S, Henkel SG, et al. Hepatology 60(6), 2040-51, (2014)

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A mechanically and electrically self-healing supercapacitor. Wang H, Zhu B, Jiang W, et al. Adv. Mater. 26(22), 3638-43, (2014)

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Ablation of proximal tubular suppressor of cytokine signaling 3 enhances tubular cell cycling and modifies macrophage phenotype during acute kidney injury. Susnik N, Sörensen-Zender I, Rong S, et al. Kidney Int. 85(6), 1357-68, (2014)

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Amyloid-beta-activated human microglial cells through ER-resident proteins. Yoo Y, Byun K, Kang T, et al. J. Proteome Res. 14(1), 214-23, (2015)

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Control of transcription elongation by GreA determines rate of gene expression in Streptococcus pneumoniae. Yuzenkova Y, Gamba P, Herber M, et al. Nucleic Acids Res. 42(17), 10987-99, (2014)

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Antiviral immunity of Anopheles gambiae is highly compartmentalized, with distinct roles for RNA interference and gut microbiota. Carissimo G, Pondeville E, McFarlane M, et al. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U. S. A. 112(2), E176-85, (2015)

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Mass spectrometry based quantitative proteomics and integrative network analysis accentuates modulating roles of annexin-1 in mammary tumorigenesis. Swa HL, Shaik AA, Lim LH, et al. Proteomics 15(2-3), 408-18, (2015)

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Expression of mosquito microRNA Aae-miR-2940-5p is downregulated in response to West Nile virus infection to restrict viral replication. Slonchak A, Hussain M, Torres S, et al. J. Virol. 88(15), 8457-67, (2014)

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High dietary protein restores overreaching induced impairments in leukocyte trafficking and reduces the incidence of upper respiratory tract infection in elite cyclists. Witard OC, Turner JE, Jackman SR, et al. Brain. Behav. Immun. 39, 211-9, (2014)

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Large-scale analysis of lysine SUMOylation by SUMO remnant immunoaffinity profiling. Lamoliatte F, Caron D, Durette C, et al. Nat. Commun. 5, 5409, (2014)

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Hepatic differentiation of human embryonic stem cells as microscaled multilayered colonies leading to enhanced homogeneity and maturation. Yao R, Wang J, Li X, et al. Small 10(21), 4311-23, (2014)

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Metrological traceability in mass spectrometry-based targeted protein quantitation: a proof-of-principle study for serum apolipoproteins A-I and B100. Smit NP, Romijn FP, van den Broek I, et al. J. Proteomics 109, 143-61, (2014)

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Impaired vitamin K recycling in uremia is rescued by vitamin K supplementation. Kaesler N, Magdeleyns E, Herfs M, et al. Kidney Int. 86(2), 286-93, (2014)

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Direct binding of the Alu binding protein dimer SRP9/14 to 40S ribosomal subunits promotes stress granule formation and is regulated by Alu RNA. Berger A, Ivanova E, Gareau C, et al. Nucleic Acids Res. 42(17), 11203-17, (2014)

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Specific delivery of microRNA93 into HBV-replicating hepatocytes downregulates protein expression of liver cancer susceptible gene MICA. Ohno M, Otsuka M, Kishikawa T, et al. Oncotarget 5(14), 5581-90, (2014)

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Roussoella percutanea, a novel opportunistic pathogen causing subcutaneous mycoses. Ahmed SA, Stevens DA, van de Sande WW, et al. Med. Mycol 52(7), 689-98, (2014)

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Comprehensive two-dimensional liquid chromatography coupled to high resolution time of flight mass spectrometry for chemical characterization of sewage treatment plant effluents. Ouyang X, Leonards P, Legler J, et al. J. Chromatogr. A. 1380, 139-45, (2015)

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Crystals of Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase with bound cisplatin. Huliciak M, Reinhard L, Laursen M, et al. Biochem. Pharmacol. 92(3), 494-8, (2014)

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In vivo toxicity of cationic micelles and liposomes. Knudsen KB, Northeved H, Kumar PE, et al. Nanomedicine: Nanotechnology, Biology, and Medicine 11(2), 467-77, (2015)

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Hydrogen sulphide increases hepatic differentiation of human tooth pulp stem cells compared with human bone marrow stem cells. Okada M, Ishkitiev N, Yaegaki K, et al. Int. Endod. J. 47(12), 1142-50, (2014)

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Shotgun ecotoxicoproteomics of Daphnia pulex: biochemical effects of the anticancer drug tamoxifen. Borgatta M, Hernandez C, Decosterd LA, et al. J. Proteome Res. 14(1), 279-91, (2015)

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An invertebrate Warburg effect: a shrimp virus achieves successful replication by altering the host metabolome via the PI3K-Akt-mTOR pathway. Su MA, Huang YT, Chen IT, et al. PLoS Pathog. 10(6), e1004196, (2014)

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Targeting miR-155 restores abnormal microglia and attenuates disease in SOD1 mice. Butovsky O, Jedrychowski MP, Cialic R, et al. Ann. Neurol. 77(1), 75-99, (2015)

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Identification of a Haemophilus influenzae factor H-Binding lipoprotein involved in serum resistance. Fleury C, Su YC, Hallström T, et al. J. Immunol. 192(12), 5913-23, (2014)

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Failure of renal biomarkers to predict worsening renal function in high-risk patients presenting with oliguria. Legrand M, Jacquemod A, Gayat E, et al. Intensive Care Med. 41(1), 68-76, (2014)

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Small molecule-directed specification of sclerotome-like chondroprogenitors and induction of a somitic chondrogenesis program from embryonic stem cells. Zhao J, Li S, Trilok S, et al. Development 141(20), 3848-58, (2014)

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Determination of the binding mode for the cyclopentapeptide CXCR4 antagonist FC131 using a dual approach of ligand modifications and receptor mutagenesis. Thiele S, Mungalpara J, Steen A, et al. Br. J. Pharmacol. 171(23), 5313-29, (2014)

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A novel mouse model for inhibition of DOHH-mediated hypusine modification reveals a crucial function in embryonic development, proliferation and oncogenic transformation. Sievert H, Pällmann N, Miller KK, et al. Dis. Model Mech. 7(8), 963-76, (2014)

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FRETS-VWF73 rather than CBA assay reflects ADAMTS13 proteolytic activity in acquired thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura patients. Mancini I, Valsecchi C, Lotta LA, et al. Thromb. Haemost. 112(2), 297-303, (2014)

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The integrative analysis of microRNA and mRNA expression in Apis mellifera following maze-based visual pattern learning. Qin QH, Wang ZL, Tian LQ, et al. Insect Sci. 21(5), 619-36, (2014)

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Sodium thiosulfate attenuates angiotensin II-induced hypertension, proteinuria and renal damage. Snijder PM, Frenay AR, Koning AM, et al. Nitric Oxide 42, 87-98, (2014)

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Urea minimizes brain complications following rapid correction of chronic hyponatremia compared with vasopressin antagonist or hypertonic saline. Gankam Kengne F, Couturier BS, Soupart A, et al. Kidney Int. 87(2), 323-31, (2015)

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Andrews, A.T. Electrophoresis: Theory, Techniques, and Biochemical and Clinical Applications 2nd ed., New York , (1988), 252

2-D Proteome Analysis Protocols. Link, A.J. Methods Mol. Biol. Totowa, NJ , (1999) 112

Merck 14,9867

Beil. 3,IV,94

Fieser 1,1262 / Fieser 2,455

Corp MSDS 1 (2), 3578:A / FT-IR 2 (1), 1356:D / FT-IR 1 (1), 799:C / IR-Spectra (2), 420:F / IR-Spectra (3), 474:B / NMR-Reference 2 (1), 670:B / RegBook 1 (1), 939:B / Sax 6, 2713 / Structure Index 1, 146:A:1

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