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U5378 Sigma

Urea

powder, BioReagent, for molecular biology, suitable for cell culture

Synonym: Carbamide, Carbonyldiamide

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Properties

Related Categories Biochemicals, Biochemicals and Reagents, Chaotropic Agents, Core Bioreagents, Denaturation,
grade   for molecular biology
product line   BioReagent
form   powder
color   white
mp   132-135 °C(lit.)
density   1.335 g/mL at 25 °C(lit.)
anion traces   chloride (Cl-): ≤5 ppm
cation traces   Cu: ≤1 ppm
  Fe: ≤1 ppm
  Pb: ≤2 ppm
absorption   A6M/260 ≤0.06
  A6M/280 ≤0.06
suitability   suitable for cell culture
foreign activity   DNase, NICKase, RNase and protease, none detected
Gene Information   human ... CA1(759), CA2(760)
rat ... Ppm1a(24666)

Description

Application

Used for the denaturation of proteins and as a mild solubilization agent for insoluble or denatured proteins. Useful for renaturing proteins from samples already denatured with 6 M guanidine chloride such as inclusion bodies. May be used with guanidine hydrochloride and dithiothreitrol (DTT) in the refolding of denatured proteins into their native or active form.

Price and Availability

Suggested Laboratory Gloves


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Everything You Need for Cell Culture

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Safety & Documentation

Protocols & Articles

Articles

Determination of Water Content in Urea Using Karl Fischer Titration

Nitrogen compounds, acid amides and weakly basic amines (heterocyclenes) give no problems. They can be titrated according to the standard procedures. Strongly basic amines alter the pH value and must...
Keywords: Titrations

Peer-Reviewed Papers

References

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Inclusion bodies and purification of proteins in biologically active forms. Mukhopadhyay, A. Adv. Biochem. Eng. Biotechnol. 56, 61-109., (1997)

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Intrarenal urea recycling leads to a higher rate of renal excretion of potassium: an hypothesis with clinical implications. Kamel KS and Halperin ML Curr. Opin. Nephrol. Hypertens. 20(5), 547-54, (2011)

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Orexin/hypocretin system modulates amygdala-dependent threat learning through the locus coeruleus. Sears RM, Fink AE, Wigestrand MB, et al. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U. S. A. 110(50), 20260-5, (2013)

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The emerging physiological roles of the SLC14A family of urea transporters. Stewart G Br. J. Pharmacol. 164(7), 1780-92, (2011)

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What can the dialysis physician learn from kinetic modelling beyond Kt/V(urea)? Eloot S, Schneditz D, and Vanholder R Nephrol. Dial. Transplant. 27(11), 4021-9, (2012)

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Urea recycling contributes to nitrogen retention in calves fed milk replacer and low-protein solid feed. Berends H, van den Borne JJ, Røjen BA, et al. J. Nutr. 144(7), 1043-9, (2014)

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Amide- and urea-functionalized pyrroles and benzopyrroles as synthetic, neutral anion receptors. Dydio P, Lichosyt D, and Jurczak J Chem. Soc. Rev. 40(5), 2971-85, (2011)

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High concentrations of the melatonin metabolite, N1-acetyl-N2-formyl-5-methoxykynuramine, in cerebrospinal fluid of patients with meningitis: a possible immunomodulatory mechanism. Silva SO, Ximenes VF, Livramento JA, et al. J. Pineal Res. 39(3), 302-6, (2005)

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The effect of amniotic membrane de-epithelialization method on its biological properties and ability to promote limbal epithelial cell culture. Zhang T, Yam GH, Riau AK, et al. Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 54(4), 3072-81, (2013)

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Role of ureolytic activity in Bacillus cereus nitrogen metabolism and acid survival. Maarten Mols et al Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 74, 2370-8, (2008)

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Metabolomic profiles delineate potential role for sarcosine in prostate cancer progression. Sreekumar A, Poisson LM, Rajendiran TM, et al. Nature 457(7231), 910-4, (2009)

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The measurement of 1,2-propanediol, D, L-2,3-butanediol and meso-2,3-butanediol in controls and alcoholic cirrhotics. Casazza JP, Frietas J, Stambuk D, et al. Alcohol Alcohol Suppl. 1, 607-9, (1987)

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Barriers to adequate urea clearance among hemodialysis patients in developing countries: an example from the Sudan. Abdelwahab HH and Shigidi MM Saudi J. Kidney Dis. Transpl. 26(1), 144-8, (2015)

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Evaluation of thyroid hormone levels in chronic kidney disease patients. Rajeev G, Chickballapur Rayappa WD, Vijayalakshmi R, et al. Saudi J. Kidney Dis. Transpl. 26(1), 90-3, (2015)

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Metastable and equilibrium phase diagrams of unconjugated bilirubin IXα as functions of pH in model bile systems: Implications for pigment gallstone formation. Berman MD and Carey MC Am. J. Physiol. Gastrointest. Liver Physiol. 308(1), G42-55, (2015)

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Morphological and functional characteristics of the kidney of cartilaginous fishes: with special reference to urea reabsorption. Hyodo S, Kakumura K, Takagi W, et al. Am. J. Physiol. Regul. Integr. Comp. Physiol. 307(12), R1381-95, (2014)

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Epoxyeicosatrienoic acids mediate insulin-mediated augmentation in skeletal muscle perfusion and blood volume. Shim CY, Kim S, Chadderdon S, et al. Am. J. Physiol. Endocrinol. Metab. 307(12), E1097-104, (2014)

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Effects of iron supplementation on blood adenine deaminase activity and oxidative stress in Trypanosoma evansi infection of rats. Bottari NB, Baldissera MD, Tonin AA, et al. Exp. Parasitol. 147, 1-6, (2014)

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Thienoquinolins exert diuresis by strongly inhibiting UT-A urea transporters. Ren H, Wang Y, Xing Y, et al. Am. J. Physiol. Renal Physiol. 307(12), F1363-72, (2014)

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Increasing biopsy number and sampling from gastric body improve the sensitivity of rapid urease test in patients with peptic ulcer bleeding. Lee TH, Lin CC, Chung CS, et al. Dig. Dis. Sci. 60(2), 454-7, (2015)

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Structural modification of plasma albumin in sickle cell anemia. Ozgunes N, Oztas Y, Unal S, et al. Acta Haematol. 133(1), 67-9, (2015)

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The timing and operational management of the variables of bleaching in cases of rehabilitation in the esthetic field. Sibilla P, Cogo E, Turrini R, et al. Int. J. Esthet. Dent. 9(3), 436-45, (2014)

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Perifornical hypothalamic orexin and serotonin modulate the counterregulatory response to hypoglycemic and glucoprivic stimuli. Otlivanchik O, Le Foll C, and Levin BE Diabetes 64(1), 226-35, (2015)

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Arginine infusion in patients with septic shock increases nitric oxide production without haemodynamic instability. Luiking YC, Poeze M, and Deutz NE Clin. Sci. 128(1), 57-67, (2015)

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The effect of radioactive iodine treatment on 14C urea breath test results in patients with hyperthyroidism. Arduc A, Dogan BA, Ozuguz U, et al. Clin. Nucl. Med. 39(12), 1022-6, (2014)

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Minimally invasive rehabilitation of a patient with amelogenesis imperfecta. Büchi D, Fehmer V, Sailer I, et al. Int. J. Esthet. Dent. 9(2), 134-45, (2014)

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Haematological and biochemical profile of growing Yankasa rams fed sorghum stover supplemented with graded levels of dried poultry droppings based diets. Bello AW and Tsado DN Pak. J. Biol. Sci. 16(24), 1922-8, (2013)

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Optimization of complex fermentation media for glucose oxidase production using statistical approach. Gunny AA, Arbain D, and Sithamparam L Pak. J. Biol. Sci. 16(18), 960-4, (2013)

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Efficiency of utilization of nitrogen coated with urease inhibitor in maize. Okumura RS, Mariano Dde C, Zaccheo PV, et al. Pak. J. Biol. Sci. 16(17), 871-6, (2013)

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[Anesthetic and perioperative management of a patient with uncontrolled thyrotoxicosis undergoing coronary artery bypass grafting surgery]. Mizunoya K, Maruyama T, Fujii T, et al. Masui. 62(10), 1214-7, (2013)

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Moisturizing effect of topical cosmetic products applied to dry skin. Polaskova J, Pavlackova J, Vltavska P, et al. J. Cosmet. Sci. 64(5), 329-40, (2013)

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Tooth colour change with Ozicure Oxygen Activator: a comparative in vitro tooth bleaching study. Grundlingh AA, Grossman ES, and Witcomb MJ SADJ 67(7), 332-7, (2012)

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[Effect of nitrogen source on gene expression of first steps of methanol utilization pathway in Pichia pastoris]. Rumiantsev AM, Padkina MV, and Sambuk EV Genetika 49(4), 454-60, (2013)

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Effects of dental bleaching on the color, translucency and fluorescence properties of enamel and dentin. Caneppele TM, Borges AB, and Torres CR Eur. J. Esthet. Dent. 8(2), 200-12, (2013)

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Metabolic syndrome in obese children and adolescents. Pelin AM and Mătăsaru S Rev. Med. Chir. Soc. Med. Nat. Iasi. 116(4), 957-61, (2012)

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Refolding of recombinant human interferon alpha-2a from Escherichia coli by urea gradient size exclusion chromatography. Gao F, Shi L, and Xu LX Prikl. Biokhim. Mikrobiol. 49(1), 17-23, (2013)

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Pimavanserin for patients with Parkinson's disease psychosis: a randomised, placebo-controlled phase 3 trial. Cummings J, Isaacson S, Mills R, et al. Lancet 383(9916), 533-40, (2014)

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On the versatility of urethane/urea bonds: reversibility, blocked isocyanate, and non-isocyanate polyurethane. Delebecq E, Pascault JP, Boutevin B, et al. Chem. Rev. 113(1), 80-118, (2013)

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Analysis of mass spectrometry data using sub-spectra. Meuleman W, Engwegen JY, Gast MC, et al. BMC Bioinformatics 10 Suppl 1, S51, (2009)

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Structure-based identification of ureas as novel nicotinamide phosphoribosyltransferase (Nampt) inhibitors. Zheng X, Bauer P, Baumeister T, et al. J. Med. Chem. 56(12), 4921-37, (2013)

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Exploration of the gene expression correlates of chronic unexplained fatigue using factor analysis. Fostel J, Boneva R, and Lloyd A Pharmacogenomics 7(3), 441-54, (2006)

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Cheminformatics analysis of assertions mined from literature that describe drug-induced liver injury in different species. Denis Fourches et al Chem. Res. Toxicol. 23, 171-83, (2010)

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Ezetimibe for the treatment of uncontrolled hypercholesterolemia in patients with high-dose statin therapy after renal transplantation. Kohnle M, Pietruck F, Kribben A, et al. Am. J. Transplant. 6(1), 205-8, (2006)

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Urea metabolism in plants. Witte CP Plant Sci. 180(3), 431-8, (2011)

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New insights into urea and glucose handling by the kidney, and the urine concentrating mechanism. Bankir L and Yang B Kidney Int. 81(12), 1179-98, (2012)

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How well can the Caco-2/Madin-Darby canine kidney models predict effective human jejunal permeability? Alex Avdeef et al J. Med. Chem. 53, 3566-84, (2010)

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Conformationally constrained ortho-anilino diaryl ureas: discovery of 1-(2-(1'-neopentylspiro[indoline-3,4'-piperidine]-1-yl)phenyl)-3-(4-(trifluoromethoxy)phenyl)urea, a potent, selective, and bioavailable P2Y1 antagonist. Qiao JX, Wang TC, Ruel R, et al. J. Med. Chem. 56(22), 9275-95, (2013)

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Small-molecule inhibitors of cytokine-mediated STAT1 signal transduction in β-cells with improved aqueous solubility. Scully SS, Tang AJ, Lundh M, et al. J. Med. Chem. 56(10), 4125-9, (2013)

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Urea-functionalized crystalline capsules for recognition and separation of tetrahedral oxoanions. Custelcean R Chem. Commun. (Camb.) 49(22), 2173-82, (2013)

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Beta-blocking agents during electroconvulsive therapy: a review. Boere E, Birkenhäger TK, Groenland TH, et al. Br. J. Anaesth. 113(1), 43-51, (2014)

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A new method for determination of serum cholestanol by high-performance liquid chromatography with ultraviolet detection. Halperin G, Elisaf M, Leitersdorf E, et al. J. Chromatogr. B. Biomed. Sci. Appl. 742(2), 345-52, (2000)

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Comparative physiology and architecture associated with the mammalian urine concentrating mechanism: role of inner medullary water and urea transport pathways in the rodent medulla. Pannabecker TL Am. J. Physiol. Regul. Integr. Comp. Physiol. 304(7), R488-503, (2013)

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Proton MR CSF analysis and a new software as predictors for the differentiation of meningitis in children. Subramanian A, Gupta A, Saxena S, et al. NMR Biomed. 18(4), 213-25, (2005)

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Plasma amino acid levels with a note on membrane transport: characteristics, regulation, and metabolic significance. Cynober LA Nutrition 18(9), 761-6, (2002)

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Plasma leucine enkephalin is increased in liver disease. Thornton JR and Losowsky MS Gut 30(10), 1392-5, (1989)

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Molecular mechanisms of urea transport in health and disease. Klein JD, Blount MA, and Sands JM Pflugers Arch. 464(6), 561-72, (2012)

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Mechanistic biomarkers for cytotoxic acute kidney injury. Vaidya VS and Bonventre JV Expert Opin. Drug Metab. Toxicol. 2(5), 697-713, (2006)

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Glycogen synthase kinase 3 beta regulates glial glutamate transporter protein expression in the spinal dorsal horn in rats with neuropathic pain. Weng HR, Gao M, and Maixner DW Exp. Neurol. 252, 18-27, (2014)

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Decreased ethyl carbamate generation during Chinese rice wine fermentation by disruption of CAR1 in an industrial yeast strain. Wu D, Li X, Shen C, et al. Int. J. Food Microbiol. 180, 19-23, (2014)

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Adiponectin, leptin and thyroid hormones in patients with chronic renal failure and on renal replacement therapy: are they related? Malyszko J, Malyszko J, Wolczynski S, et al. Nephrol. Dial. Transplant. 21(1), 145-52, (2006)

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Giardia duodenalis arginine deiminase modulates the phenotype and cytokine secretion of human dendritic cells by depletion of arginine and formation of ammonia. Banik S, Renner Viveros P, Seeber F, et al. Infect. Immun. 81(7), 2309-17, (2013)

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Role of haem oxygenase in the renoprotective effects of soluble epoxide hydrolase inhibition in diabetic spontaneously hypertensive rats. Elmarakby AA, Faulkner J, Pye C, et al. Clin. Sci. 125(7), 349-59, (2013)

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Synthesis of chitosan 3,6-diphenylcarbamate-2-urea derivatives and their applications as chiral stationary phases for high-performance liquid chromatography. Zhang L, Shen J, Zuo W, et al. J. Chromatogr. A 1365, 86-93, (2014)

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New insights into the mechanisms controlling urea excretion in fish gills. McDonald MD, Gilmour KM, and Walsh PJ Respir. Physiol. Neurobiol. 184(3), 241-8, (2012)

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Sequential, concomitant and hybrid first-line therapies for Helicobacter pylori eradication: a prospective randomized study. De Francesco V, Hassan C, Ridola L, et al. J. Med. Microbiol. 63(Pt 5), 748-52, (2014)

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Drosophila frataxin: an iron chaperone during cellular Fe-S cluster bioassembly. Kondapalli KC Biochemistry 47(26), 6917-27, (2008)

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Transepithelial water and urea permeabilities of isolated perfused Munich-Wistar rat inner medullary thin limbs of Henle's loop. Nawata CM, Evans KK, Dantzler WH, et al. Am. J. Physiol. Renal Physiol. 306(1), F123-9, (2014)

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Computational modeling of novel inhibitors targeting the Akt pleckstrin homology domain. Lei Du-Cuny et al Bioorg. Med. Chem. 17, 6983-92, (2009)

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Urea kinetics and intermittent dialysis prescription in small animals. Cowgill LD Vet. Clin. North Am. Small Anim. Pract. 41(1), 193-225, (2011)

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Plasma free amino acid concentrations in healthy Guatemalan adults and in patients with classic dengue. Klassen P, Fürst P, Schulz C, et al. Am. J. Clin. Nutr. 73(3), 647-52, (2001)

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Characterization of calcium- and integrin-binding protein 1 (CIB1) knockout platelets: potential compensation by CIB family members. Denofrio JC Thromb. Haemost. 100(5), 847-56, (2008)

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A monoclonal antibody-based enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay of glycolithocholic acid sulfate in human urine for liver function test. Kobayashi N, Katsumata H, Uto Y, et al. Steroids 67(10), 827-33, (2002)

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Cell cycle control and DNA damage response of conditionally immortalized urothelial cells. Dixon BP PLoS ONE 6(1), e16595, (2011)

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Therapeutic activity of inhibition of the soluble epoxide hydrolase in a mouse model of scrapie. Poli G, Corda E, Martino PA, et al. Life Sci. 92(23), 1145-50, (2013)

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Equilibrium folding of pro-HlyA from Escherichia coli reveals a stable calcium ion dependent folding intermediate. Thomas S, Bakkes PJ, Smits SH, et al. Biochim. Biophys. Acta 1844(9), 1500-10, (2014)

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The role of surface electrostatics on the stability, function and regulation of human cystathionine β-synthase, a complex multidomain and oligomeric protein. Pey AL, Majtan T, and Kraus JP Biochim. Biophys. Acta 1844(9), 1453-62, (2014)

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Physiological alterations in Bradybaena similaris (Stylommatophora: Bradybaenidae) induced by the entomopathogenic nematode Heterorhabditis indica (Rhabditida: Heterorhabditidae) strain LPP1. Tunholi VM, Monteiro CO, Cristina da Silva L, et al. Exp. Parasitol. 139, 12-8, (2014)

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Higher levels of plasma cholesterol sulfate in patients with liver cirrhosis and hypercholesterolemia. Tamasawa N, Tamasawa A, and Takebe K Lipids 28(9), 833-6, (1993)

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Experimental study on a room temperature urea-SCR of NO over activated carbon fibre-supported CeO2-CuO. Jiang X, Lu P, Li C, et al. Environ. Technol. 34(5-8), 591-8, (2013)

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A whole-grain-rich diet reduces urinary excretion of markers of protein catabolism and gut microbiota metabolism in healthy men after one week. Ross AB, Pere-Trépat E, Montoliu I, et al. J. Nutr. 143(6), 766-73, (2013)

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Coagulopathy unmasking hepatic failure in a child with ornithine transcarbamylase deficiency. Samuel N, Politansky AK, Hoffman R, et al. Isr. Med. Assoc. J. 15(12), 777-9, (2013)

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The effects of a TRPV1 antagonist, SB-705498, in the treatment of seasonal allergic rhinitis. Bareille P, Murdoch RD, Denyer J, et al. Int. J. Clin. Pharmacol. Ther. 51(7), 576-84, (2013)

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Merck 14,9867

Beil. 3,IV,94

Fieser 1,1262 / Fieser 2,455

Corp MSDS 1 (2), 3578:A / FT-IR 2 (1), 1356:D / FT-IR 1 (1), 799:C / IR-Spectra (2), 420:F / IR-Spectra (3), 474:B / NMR-Reference 2 (1), 670:B / RegBook 1 (1), 939:B / Sax 6, 2713 / Structure Index 1, 146:A:1

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