Scavengers

 
Vol. 2, No. 6
Functionalized SILICA GELS for Organic Synthesis

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Introduction / Quality Control / Organic Synthesis / Scavengers
Supported Reagents / Linker Resins / References

Scavengers

Metal Scavengers / Electrophilic Scavengers / Nucleophilic Scavengers

53,792-6 3-(Diethylenetriamino)propyl-functionalized silica gel 5g; 25g; 100g
Loading ca. 3.7 mmol N/g
Triamine silica gel is effective for scavenging metals such as lead, cobalt, ruthenium and palladium1. It has also been used as a ligand exchange2. In a specific application (e.g. immobilization of DNA), it is a primary grafted reagent, over which a crosslinker can react3.

55,258-5 2-(4-(Ethylenediamino)benzene)ethyl-functionalized silica gel 5g; 25g; 100g
Loading ca. 2.5 mmol N/g
This functionalized silica gel is a good metal scavenger and is also used as a coupling support for polyimides.

53,808-6 3-(Mercapto)propyl-functionalized silica gel 5g; 25g; 100g
Loading ca. 1.2 mmol/g
Used for adsorption of heavy metals, such as Hg4,5, Ag6, Cu7 and Pd8, and as a linker for immobilizing C3-symmetric cage-like receptors yielding chiral stationnary phase through nucleophilic addition on a double bond9. Also used for primary amine sequestration10.

56,987-9 3-(1-Thioureido)propyl-functionalized silica gel 5g; 25g; 100g
Loading ca. 2.6 mmol N/g
This functionalized silica gel has been used to concentrate Pd, Au, Ag11 and Pt12, to scavenge Pd13 and to anchor it for catalytic applications14.

57,260-8 Triamine tetraacetate-functionalized silica gel 5g; 25g; 100g
This functionalized silica gel is specifically
designed to scavenge metals in solution.

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56,983-6 4-Carboxybutyl-functionalized silica gel 25g; 100g
Loading ca. 1.2 mmol/g
Used for immobilizing cobalt acetate during
alkene catalytic epoxidation15. May also be used for scavenging amines.

53,797-7 4-Ethyl benzenesulfonyl chloride-functionalized silica gel 5g; 25g; 100g
Loading ca. 1.0 mmol/g
This gel can be used to immobilize alcohols and scavenge nucleophiles, as well as for “catch and release” applications.

53,807-8 Propionyl chloride-functionalized silica gel 5g; 25g; 100g
Loading ca. 1.0 mmol/g
Can be used to scavenge amines and alcohols.

53,778-0 3-(Isocyano)propyl-functionalized silica gel 5g; 25g; 100g
Loading ca. 1.2 mmol/g
Used to scavenge azide functionality in a “cap-tag” methodology for oligosaccharide preparation by automated solid-phase synthesis16. It has been repeatedly demonstrated that grafted isocyanate moeties can efficiently scavenge amines (primary and secondary), anilines, and hydrazines without releasing small molecules, thereby greatly simplifying isolation procedures.

53,794-2 53,794-2 3-(Thiocyano)propyl-functionalized silica gel 5g; 25g; 100g
Loading ca. 0.8 mmol/g
Thiocyanate supported on silica can be used for epoxide conversion (oxirane) in episulfide (thiirane) with the possibility of regeneration. It can also be used to immobilize metal ions (silver and gold) with good complex stability and dispersion17, and acts as a good scavenger for amines (primary and secondary).

55,269-0 3-(2-Succinic anhydride)propyl-functionalized silica gel 5g; 25g; 100g
Loading ca. 1.4 mmol/g
This silica-grafted functional group demonstrates high reactivity to amines and water. Therefore, it can be easily transformed into acids, esters or amides using simple organic tranformations.

56,990-9 3-(Maleimido)propyl-functionalized silica gel 5g; 25g
Loading ca. 1.5 mmol/g
A functionalized silica gel designed to scavenge thiols.

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36,425-8 3-Amino-functioanlized silica gel 10g; 50g; 250g
Loading ca. 1.0 mmol N/g
This functionalized silica gel has been used for the separation and solid-phase extraction (SPE) of sugars18, as well as for the separation of steroids19, cholesterol, and triglycerides20. It has also been used in size-exclusion chromatography of cationic polymers21, as a scavenger to remove excess acid chlorides22 and as a catalyst in Knoevenagel reactions23,24.

53,791-8 3-(Ethylenediamino)-functioanlized silica gel 5g; 25g; 100g
Loading ca. 2.7 mmol/g
Scavenge acids, acid chlorides, anhydrides, aldehydes, isocyanates and chloroformates.

55,258-5 2-(4-(Ethylenediamino)benzene)ethyl-functionalized silica gel 5g; 25g; 100g
Loading ca. 2.5 mmol N/g
This functionalized silica gel is a good metal scavenger and is also used as a coupling support for polyimides.

53,792-6 3-(Diethylenetriamino)propyl-functionalized silica gel 5g; 25g; 100g
Loading ca. 3.7 mmol N/g
Triamine silica gel is effective for scavenging metals such as lead, cobalt, ruthenium and palladium1. It has also been used as a ligand exchange2. In a specific application (e.g. immobilization of DNA), it is a primary grafted reagent, over which a crosslinker can react3.

53,793-4 4-Ethyl-benzenesulfonamide-functionalized silica gel 5g; 25g; 100g
Loading ca. 0.9 mmol/g
Sulfonamide functionalized silica gel is an efficient sorbent of active bromine and chlorine species25. Solid supported sulfonamide is a useful component as a linker for solid phase synthesis (e.g. after activation (acylation) in enolate alkylations and in Suzuki reactions).

55,259-3 2-(4-Toluenesulfonyl hydrazino)ethyl-functionalized silica gel 5g; 25g; 100g
Loading ca. 2.0 mmol N/g
Scavenging of aldehydes and ketones and used in application needing solid-phase tosyl hydrazine reagent.

53,808-6 3-(Mercapto)propyl-functionalized silica gel 5g; 25g; 100g
Loading ca. 1.2 mmol/g
Used for adsorption of heavy metals, such as Hg4,5, Ag6, Cu7 and Pd8, and as a linker for immobilizing C3-symmetric cage-like receptors yielding chiral stationnary phase through nucleophilic addition on a double bond9. Also used for primary amine sequestration10.

53,802-7 Dimethylsiloxy-functionalized silica gel 5g; 25g; 100g
Loading ca. 1.5 mmol/g
Silyl derivatives are widely used in synthetic organic chemistry as protecting groups for alcohols, phenols, carboxylic acids, amines, acetylenes and aromatic compounds. Therefore, dimethylsilyl grafted on silica is an efficient scavenger for these organic compounds. It can also be used as a hydride source in Friedel-Crafts alkylation or as a reducing agent (e.g. aldehydes and ketones). Si-H bond can be used as a reactive intermediate to immobilize other molecules, as shown for saccharide modified silica26.

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