Chemical Synthesis

Pd EnCats

BOC-Arylpiperazines | Polymer-supported Pd Cats | Pd EnCats™ | VersaFlash™


Sigma-Aldrich is pleased to announce an agreement with Reaxa to distribute Pd EnCat™ (encapsulated palladium catalysts) worldwide. 

Click here for Pd EnCat™ Aldrich Chemistry Webinar.

Click here for Pd EnCat™ Experimental Guide (521 KB).

Homogeneous palladium catalysts are widely utilized due to their versatility, reactivity, and functional group tolerance.  However, using conventional homogeneous palladium catalysts presents some challenges, especially with clean-up of reaction mixtures, including:

  • Possible palladium contamination of intermediates and/or product
  • Palladium contamination of reaction vessel and associated clean-up costs
  • Contamination and cost of waste streams such as extraction and washing solvents
  • Cost of catalyst lost during reaction and reaction work-up

Pd EnCat™ addresses these issues by using microencapsulation technology to immobilize the palladium, optionally with activating ligands, within a highly crosslinked polyurea matrix.  The catalytic activity of palladium is accessed through the porous matrix, thereby leaving the palladium captured within it.

Reaction Types

Transfer Hydrogenation

Advantages of Pd EnCat™:

  • Low residual metal levels in final crude product (typically < 10ppm before purification)
  • Easy recovery of catalysts by filtration and catalyst recycle
  • Safer and easier to handle than Pd/C for hydrogenation reactions
  • Compatibility with a wide range of process technology options, e.g., fixed bed, fluidized bed, trickle bed, and microwave reactors
Prod. No. Name Matrix Content (%) Pd
Ligand Units
64,472-2 Pd EnCat™ 40 40 ~.40 N/A N/A 1g, 10g, 100g
64,471-4 Pd EnCat™ 30 30 ~.40 N/A N/A 1g, 10g, 100g
64,470-6 Pd EnCat™ TPP30 30 ~.40 0.26 - 0.35 Ph3P 1g, 10g, 100g
64,469-2 Pd EnCat™ TOTP30 30 ~.40 0.15 - 0.20 (o-toyl)3P 1g, 10g, 100g
65,869-3 Pd EnCat™ BINAP30 30 ~.40 ~.20 N/A 1g, 10g, 100g
65,366-7 Pd(0) EnCat™ 30NP, Wet 30 ~.40 N/A N/A 1g, 10g, 100g


  1. Yu, J. et al. Chem Comm. 2003, 678
  2. Bremeyer, N. et al., Synlett. 2002, 11, 1843
  3. Ley, S.V. et al. Chem Comm. 2002, 10, 1134
  4. Chandrashekar, R. et al. Chem Comm. 2002, 10, 1132
  5. Vickerstaffe, E. et al. Org. Biomol. Chem. 2003, 1, 2419
  6. Ley, S.V. et al. Org. Lett. 2003, 5(24), 4665

Pd EnCat™ technology, international patent applications have been applied for by Reaxa, including PCT/GB 02/03135'

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