Ligands play a key role in stabilizing and activating the central metal atom in a complex and fine-tuning the selectivity of a given metal-catalyzed transformation. Phosphines form the most significant class of ligands for cross-coupling. For example, phosphine ligands, in combination with transition metals catalyze cross-coupling reactions leading to C-C, C-N, and C-O bonds. Intense efforts have focused on the development of the most effective phosphine ligands that improve catalyst performance. The diversity of applications of phosphorus-based ligands such as monodentate, bidentate, Buchwald, cataCXium®, and Dalphos ligands, available from Aldrich Chemistry, include Negishi, Suzuki, Stille, Heck, Sonogashira, and Buchwald-Hartwig cross-couplings.
Sigma-Aldrich provides the following Phosphine Ligand Application Guide, detailing product applications to cross-coupling reactions. Download