Furans, consisting of a five-membered aromatic ring with one oxygen atom, are an important class of heterocyclic compounds that possess important biological properties. Considerable attention has been focused on the synthesis of furan derivatives and screening them for pharmacological activity. The furan ring system is the basic skeleton of numerous compounds possessing cardiovascular activities. An iodinated lipophilic furan derivative is widely used in the treatment of ventricular and arterial fibrillation. These moieties are widely found in antibacterial, antiviral, anti-inflammatory, antifungal, antitumor, antihyperglycemic analgesic, anticonvulsant, and other agents. Slight changes in substitution patterns in the furan nucleus cause distinguishable differences in their biological activities. Furan derivatives have been found to be inhibitors of biofilm formation for several bacterial species, as well as possess quorum-sensing inhibitory activities. In addition to being synthetic building blocks, 2-methylfuran and 2,5-dimethylfuran are promising lignocellulosic biofuels.
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