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Air Monitoring Applications - Petrochemical

Air Monitoring of Hydrogen Sulfide

Petrochemical Applications main pageHydrogen Sulfide (H2S) is an extremely hazardous, toxic, and flammable gaseous compound recognized for it’s “rotten egg” smell at very low concentrations. It is heavier than air and therefore accumulates at the bottom of poorly ventilated areas. Most hydrogen sulfide in the air comes from natural sources – from bacterial decomposition of plant and animal materials, and from geothermic sources such as volcanoes, hot springs, and underwater thermal events.

Industrial sources of hydrogen sulfide include:

  • Petroleum and natural gas extraction and refining
  • Pulp and Paper manufacturing
  • Rayon textile production
  • Chemical manufacturing and waste disposal

More recently, contamination from sulfur-containing compounds (H2S, SO2, Sulfuric Acid, etc) has come to the forefront due to concerns with commercial and residential buildings where Chinese Drywall was installed in warm and humid climates.

Exposure to high levels can cause muscle cramps, low blood pressure, slow respiration and loss of consciousness. Short-term exposure to moderate amounts of hydrogen sulfide in the workplace produces eye, nose and throat irritation, nausea, dizziness, breathing difficulties, headaches and loss of appetite and sleep. Continued exposure can irritate the respiratory passages and can lead to a buildup of fluid in the lungs.


Exposure Limits
Contaminant/
Agency
Exposure Limit
Hyrdrogen Sulfide
OSHA (PEL) for General Industry: 20 ppm (Ceiling); 50 ppm (Peak)
for Construction Industry: 10 ppm, 15 mg/m³ TWA
for Maritime: 10 ppm, 15 mg/m³ TWA
ACGIH (TLV) 10 ppm, 14 mg/m³ TWA; 15 ppm, 21 mg/m³ STEL
NIOSH (REL) 10 ppm, 15 mg/m³ Ceiling (10 minutes)
(TWA=Time-weighted average; TLV=Threshold Limit Value; STEL=Short-term Exposure Limit; PEL=Personal Exposure Limit, REL=Recommended Exposure Limit)

References
OSHA Hydrogen Sulfide Fact Sheet (PDF)
EARTHWORKS™ General Information – Hydrogen Sulfide

Air Sampling Media by Regulatory Method
Method Contaminants of Interest Sampling Media
OSHA 1008 Hydrogen Sulfide Sorbent Tube w/Reservoir – Silver Nitrate Coated Silica Gel +
  Sodium Carbonate/Glycerol coated GFF, PUF, SGW Plugs (New)
Passive Sampling – Radiello H2S (RAD170)
NIOSH 6013 Hydrogen Sulfide Filter – Zefluor™ PTFE membrane, 0.5 mm, 25 mm (23395)
Sorbent Tube – Coconut Charcoal; ORBO-32L (20228)
Passive Sampling – Radiello H2S (RAD170)

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