Air Monitoring Applications - Petrochemical

Petrochemical VOCs Analysis

Petrochemical Applications main pageRefinery workers are at risk for exposure to BTEX and other VOC compounds from: routine sampling and maintenance operations, releases from large bulk facilities, surface spills and pipeline leaks. The main source of BTEX contamination to a community is from underground storage tanks leaking into soil and groundwater supplies. BTEX is released into the environment by a volatilization (evaporation) process where it is free to move freely in the air or attach itself to soil particles. It can also dissolve in water. As an example, BTEX volatilization is occurring when you fill the fuel tank of your car and can smell the fuel odor.

Pathways to exposure include ingestion from contaminated water sources, inhalation, and absorption through skin. Common exposure symptoms include skin and sensory irritation, central nervous system depression, and respiratory problems. Severe or prolonged exposure may result in kidney, liver and blood system failures. Benzene is identified as a human carcinogen that can cause myeloid leukemia.

 

Exposure Limits
Contaminant/
Agency
Exposure Limit
Benzene
OSHA (PEL) for General Industry: 1 ppm TWA with a 5 ppm STEL; 0.5 ppm Action Level
for Construction Industry: 1 ppm TWA with a 5 ppm STEL; 0.5 ppm Action Level
for Maritime: 1 ppm TWA with a 5 ppm STEL; 0.5 ppm Action Level
ACGIH (TLV) 0.5 ppm TWA; 2.5 ppm STEL; Skin; Confirmed human carcinogen
NIOSH (REL) 0.1 ppm TWA; 1 ppm STEL
NIOSH (IDHL) 800 ppm
Toluene
OSHA (PEL) for General Industry: 200 ppm (750 mg/m³) TWA; 300 ppm Ceiling
for Construction Industry: 200 ppm (750 mg/m³) TWA
for Maritime: 200 ppm (750 mg/m³) TWA; 100 ppm Skin TWA
ACGIH (TLV) 50 ppm (188 mg/m³) TWA; skin; Not a human carcinogen
NIOSH (REL) 100 ppm (375 mg/m³) TWA; 150 ppm (560 mg/m³) STEL
NIOSH (IDHL) 500 ppm
Xylene (o-, p-, m- isomers)
OSHA (PEL) for General Industry: 100 ppm (435 mg/m³) TWA
for Construction Industry: 100 ppm (435 mg/m³) TWA
for Maritime: 100 ppm (435 mg/m³) TWA
ACGIH (TLV) 100 ppm (434 mg/m³) TWA; 150 ppm (651 mg/m³) STEL; Not a human carcinogen
NIOSH (REL) 100 ppm (435 mg/m³) TWA; 150 ppm (655 mg/m³) STEL
NIOSH (IDHL) 900 ppm
Petroleum Distillate Fractions (naphtha)
OSHA (PEL) for General Industry: 500 ppm, (2000 mg/m³) TWA
for Construction Industry: Gasoline and/or Petroleum distillates. The composition of these materials varies greatly and thus a single TLV for all types of these materials is no longer applicable. The content of benzene, other aromatics and additives should be determined to arrive at the appropriate TLV.
for Maritime: Gasoline and/or Petroleum distillates. The composition of these materials varies greatly and thus a single TLV for all types of these materials is no longer applicable. The content of benzene, other aromatics and additives should be determined to arrive at the appropriate TLV.
ACGIH (TLV) 100 ppm (434 mg/m³) TWA; 150 ppm (651 mg/m³) STEL; Not a human carcinogen
NIOSH (REL) 350 mg/m³ TWA; 1800 mg/m³ Ceiling (15 Minutes)
NIOSH (IDHL) 1,101 ppm (LEL)
2-Butoxyethanol
OSHA (PEL) for General Industry: 50 ppm (240 mg/m³) TWA; Skin
for Construction Industry: 50 ppm (240 mg/m³) TWA; Skin
for Maritime: 50 ppm (240 mg/m³) TWA; Skin
ACGIH (TLV) 20 ppm; Appendix A3 - Confirmed Animal Carcinogen with Unknown Relevance to Humans
NIOSH (REL) 5 ppm (24 mg/m³) TWA
NIOSH (IDHL) 700 ppm
Ethyl Benzene
OSHA (PEL) for General Industry: 100 ppm (435 mg/m³) TWA
for Maritime: 100 ppm (435 mg/m³) TWA
ACGIH (TLV) 100 ppm TWA; 125 ppm STEL; Confirmed Animal Carcinogen
NIOSH (REL) 100 ppm (435 mg/m³) TWA; 125 ppm (545 mg/m³) STEL; Confirmed Animal Carcinogen
NIOSH (IDHL) 800 ppm
(TWA=Time-weighted average; TLV=Threshold Limit Value; STEL=Short-term Exposure Limit; MCL=Maximum Contamination Limit, PEL=Personal Exposure Limit, REL=Recommended Exposure Limit; IDHL=Immediately Dangerous to Life and Health concentration; LEL=Lethal Exposure Limit)

 

References
OSHA Benzene Standard (29 CFR 1910.1028)

 

Air Sampling Media by Regulatory Method
Method Contaminants of Interest Sampling Media
OSHA 7 Organic Vapors Sorbent Tube – Coconut Charcoal; ORBO-32S (20267-U)
Passive Sampling – Radiello BTEX/VOCs (RAD130)
OSHA 12 Benzene Sorbent Tube – Coconut Charcoal; ORBO-32S (20267-U)
Passive Sampling – Radiello BTEX/VOC (RAD130)
OSHA 48 Petroleum Distillates Sorbent Tube – Coconut Charcoal; ORBO-32S (20267-U)
OSHA 83 2-Butoxyethanol Sorbent Tube – Coconut Charcoal; ORBO-32S (20267-U)
Passive Sampling – Radiello BTEX/VOC (RAD130)
OSHA 111 Toluene Sorbent Tube – Coconut Charcoal; ORBO-32S (20267-U)
Passive Sampling – Radiello BTEX/VOCs (RAD130 / RAD145)
OSHA 1002 Xylenes / Ethylbenzene Sorbent Tube – Coconut Charcoal; ORBO-32S (20267-U)
Passive Sampling – Radiello BTEX/VOCs (RAD130 / RAD145)
OSHA 1005 Benzene Sorbent Tube – Coconut Charcoal; ORBO-32S (20267-U)
Passive Sampling – Radiello BTEX/VOCs (RAD130)
Passive Sampling – Radiello BTEX/VOCs (RAD130 / RAD145)
OSHA PV2051 Propylene Glycol OSHA Versatile Sampler – OVS-7 (Custom-Inquire)
NIOSH 3700 Benzene by Portable GC Sorbent Tube – Coconut Charcoal; ORBO-32S (20267-U)
Passive Sampling – Radiello BTEX/VOCs (RAD130)
NIOSH 5042 Benzene-Soluble Fraction & Total Particulate (Asphalt Fume) Filter – PTFE, 5 mm, 37mm (23383), Cassette (23370-U), Support Pad (23385)
ASTM D3686 Organic Vapors Sorbent Tube – Coconut Charcoal; ORBO-32S (20267-U)
Passive Sampling – Radiello BTEX/VOCs (RAD130)
ASTM D6196 Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs) Thermal Desorption Tubes
Passive Sampling – Radiello BTEX/VOCs (RAD145)
EPA TO-15 Toxic Organic Compounds in Ambient Air Thermal Desorption Tubes
Passive Sampling – Radiello BTEX/VOCs (RAD130 / RAD145)
EPA TO-17 Polar and non-polar VOCs, select aldehydes Sorbent Tube – Solvent Desorption & DNPH Tubes,
   Thermal Desorption Tubes
Passive Sampling – Radiello BTEX/VOCs (RAD130 / RAD145)
ORBO-65P (20029-U), 65M (20028-U)

 

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