Microreactor Explorer Kit 19979

FAQ

  1. What do I do if the reactor gets blocked? How can the system be unblocked?
  2. To what extent can particle-dependent reactions be performed in a glass reactor?
  3. What is the temperature range at which reactions can be carried out?
  4. What is the maximum permissible pressure in the system?
  5. What is the volume of the included glass reactor?
  6. Which flow rates can be achieved?
  7. Can hydrolysis-sensitive reactants be used in a reaction?
  8. The glass reactor has only two inputs (reactant connections). Can three or more components in the micro-reaction system be used in a reaction simultaneously?
  9. Can reactions be carried out on the micro-reaction system that are usually carried out in reflux?
  10. Can reactions, during which volatile vapours and gases are produced, be carried out?
  11. Which materials are used for the parts of the system that have contact with the reactants?
  12. To what extent is the system automated, can various sets of parameters be executed simultaneously?
  13. What is the loss in pressure in the system with water at a specified temperature and specified flow rate?
  14. What is the specific heat conductance of the glass reactor?


  1. What do I do if the reactor gets blocked? How can the system be unblocked?
    For cleaning purposes the reactor can be treated without harm with ultrasound, surfactants or diluted acids and bases.


  2. To what extent can particle-dependent reactions be performed in a glass reactor?
    Generally the microreactor is only suitable for solution-phase chemistry. The formation or feeding of solid particles should be avoided. Nevertheless it can be observed that particles with a maximum diameter of about 100 mm pass the reactor without blocking the channel.


  3. What is the temperature range at which reactions can be carried out?
    –70 to +150 °C


  4. What is the maximum permissible pressure in the system?
    Reactions can be carried out at a maximum of 6.5 bar.


  5. What is the volume of the included glass reactor?
    The following values can vary somewhat based on production tolerances (+/-10 %):

    Pre-heating section (pre-heating volumes): 0.08 mL per (2 channels)
    Mixing section (mixing volume): 0.03 mL
    Retention section (retention volume): 0.66 mL
    Total volume: 0.85 ml


  6. Which flow rates can be achieved?
    0.2 to 15 mL/min/pump (full temperature range). If system pressure allows the pumps will be able to deliver a significantly higher flow rate (up to 90 mL/min).


  7. Can hydrolysis-sensitive reactants be used in a reaction?
    Since the microreactor already is a self-contained system no additional means have to be taken to exclude humidity. The reactor should simply be flushed with dry solvent prior to the reaction. The reactants can be easily supplied from sealed vessels.


  8. The glass reactor has only two inputs (reactant connections).
    Can three or more components in the micro-reaction system be used in a reaction simultaneously?

    In most cases it is possible to distribute all components needed for a specific reaction to only two different solutions. If this is not applicable several microreactors can be operated in a line. I.e. a first microreactor is used to mix the first two solutions. The output is pumped directly into a second microreactor where it can be mixed with a third solution.


  9. Can reactions be carried out on the micro-reaction system that are usually carried out in reflux?
    Reactions in the microreactor should be carried out at least 5 °C below the boiling temperature of the solvent. The formation of gas or bubbles will diminish retention times unpredictably. By applying a pressure valve (not included in the kit) at the product outlet it is possible to run reactions at elevated pressure up to 6.5 bar. This makes working at higher temperatures possible.


  10. Can reactions, during which volatile vapours and gases are produced, be carried out?
    The formation of gas or bubbles will diminish retention times unpredictably and should be avoided.


  11. Which materials are used for the parts of the system that have contact with the reactants?
    PTFE, borosilicate glass, ceramics. This metal-free construction enables safe handling of aggressive compounds (e.g. acids, acid halides, nitration reagents etc.).


  12. To what extent is the system automated, can various sets of parameters be
    executed simultaneously?

    For your convenience the Microreactor Explorer Kit 19979 was designed to be operated as simple as possible. If needed the built in control unit can be upgraded with an advanced interface for sophisticated automation.


  13. What is the loss in pressure in the system with water at a specified temperature
    and specified flow rate?

    The pressure may deviate somewhat: at room temperature the pressure loss in the glass reactor at a total flow of 10 ml water is 0.7 bar. At a total flow of 20 ml water, the pressure loss increases to about 1.7 bar.


  14. What is the specific heat conductance of the glass reactor?
    The glass reactor is made of borosilicate glass (Borofloat 33 Duran®). This material has a specific heat conductance of l (90 °C) = 1.2 W/m/K. On request glass reactors that have one side made of silicon may also be produced. The specific heat conductance l of silicon is approx. 146 W m-1K-1, which is significantly better than that of stainless steel (Fe/Cr18/Ni 8) with l (23°C) = 16.3 W m-1K-1.

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Sigma-Aldrich MRE kit 19979