HyStem™ Cell Culture

Scientific Background

What is Hyaluron?

Hyaluronic acid (HA) is the simplest glycosaminoglycan (a class of negatively charged polysaccharides) and a major constituent of the extracellular matrix (ECM)1. Hyaluronan is a scaffold secreted by cells that surrounds them in vivo2. HA is a linear, non-sulfated polysaccharide that provides compression strength, lubrication and hydration within the ECM2. It also regulates cell adhesion and motility3,4 and mediates cell proliferation and differentiation5 making it not only a structural component of tissues, but also an active, signaling molecule.  Read More

What is Heparin?

Heparan sulfate (HS) is a component of the extracellular matrix1,2. It is a glycosaminoglycan that is covalently attached to core proteins to form proteoglycans. Its structure is amazingly diverse since during synthesis it undergoes extensive sulfation and epimerization1. Heparin is distinct from HS in that it is produced primarily by mast cells, whereas, HS is produced by all cell types1. Note that there is not a single HS or heparin structure. Instead, the basic polysaccharide components that make up these molecules vary depending upon the tissue and the developmental stage.  Read More

What is Endotoxin?

There is growing concern that the presence of bacterial endotoxins in media and matrices used in cell culture, cell therapy, and tissue engineering applications may induce aberrant cell function and host immune reactions. In vivo endotoxins elicit a pyrogen-like response in proportion to their concentration. To minimize these concerns, it is essential to use reagents and biomaterials which are virtually endotoxin-free for both in vitro and in vivo biomedical research.

Glycosan BioSystems’ HyStem™ line of ultrapure, low-endotoxin hydrogels help researchers obtain more reliable results by minimizing cell or host response to these contaminants.  Read More

What is a Cell Delivery Vehicle?

A cell delivery vehicle is a matrix (made from natural or synthetic materials or a combination of the two) which can be combined with cells to be transplanted into a human or animal host.  Read More

What is an Extracellular Matrix?

The extracellular matrix (ECM) is secreted by cells and surrounds them in tissues. It has long been understood to be the structural support for cells since its characteristics set the characteristics of the tissue (i.e. bone compared to cartilage compared to brain)1. However, instead of simply being a passive, mechanical support for cells, it is in fact an extraordinarily complex scaffold composed of a variety of biologically active molecules that are highly regulated and critical for determining the action and fate of the cells that it surrounds4Read More

Why Optimize ECM?

Each different cell type in a multicellular organism has its own unique microenvironment which is composed of several factors influencing the cell’s proliferative and differentiation status. In general, these factors fall into one of two categories: soluble cues (growth factors, metabolites, dissolved gases) and insoluble cues (the composition, architecture, and elasticity of the extracellular matrix (ECM) and cell-cell interactions)1,2Read More

Hydrogel Rigidity

Compliance is a material property that is often used to describe the stiffness, rigidity, or elasticity of a substance. The use of these terms can be confusing, since stiffness and rigidity are the opposites of elasticity and compliance – something that is highly compliant or elastic tends to exhibit low stiffness and rigidity.  Read More

back to top