Antibodies to Actin Gene Family Isoforms

The Actin Gene Family
Actin and myosin are the two major cytoskeletal proteins implicated in cell motility. As constituents of many cell types, actin and myosin are involved in a myriad of cellular process including locomotion, secretion, cytoplasmic streaming, phagocytosis, and cytokinesis. Actin is one of the most conserved eukaryotic proteins with at least six isoforms. Four of the isoforms represent the differentiation markers of muscle tissues and two are found in almost all cells. There are three α-actins (skeletal, cardiac, and smooth muscle), one β-actin (β-nonmuscle), and two γ-actins (γ-smooth muscle and γ-nonmuscle). Actin isoforms show greater than 90% overall sequence homology, but only 50–60% homology in their 18 NH2-terminal residues. The NH2-terminal region of actin appears to be a major antigenic region and may be involved in the interaction of actin with other proteins such as myosin.

Note: Historically, due to its ubiquitous nature, β-Actin was used as an internal standard for Western blotting. More recently its levels have been shown to fluctuate following different treatments. Therefore, GAPDH is becoming more popular as a housekeeping gene.

Human Actin Gene Family
 

Gene Name NCBI Gene ID Ensembl† Synonyms Monoclonals (clone)
Product No.
Polyclonals
Product No.
ACTA1 Actin, alpha 1, skeletal muscle        58 ENSG00000143632 ACTA, Actin,
alpha skeletal muscle, Alpha-actin-1, ASTMA, CFTD, CFTDM, MPFD, myopathy with fiber type disproportion, NEM1, NEM2, NEM3
A2172 (5C5)

A3853 (AC-40)*
A2668
A2066
A5060
A2103
ACTA2 Actin, alpha 2, smooth muscle, aorta              59 ENSG00000107796 Actin, aortic smooth muscle, ACTSA, ACTVS, Alpha-actin-2, Actin, vascular smooth muscle A5228 (1A4)*

A3853 (AC-40)*
A2103
ACTC1 Actin, alpha, cardiac muscle 70 ENSG00000159251 ACTC, Actin,
alpha cardiac, Alpha-cardiac actin, CMD1R
A3853 (AC-40)*

A2172 (5C5)
A2103
ACTB Actin, beta      
60 ENSG00000075624 Actin,
cytoplasmic 1, Beta-actin
A1978 (AC-15)*

A2228 (AC-74)*

A3853 (AC-40)*
A2103
ACTG1 Actin, gamma 1     
71 ENSG00000184009 ACT, ACTG, beta-actin, DFNA20,
DFNA26
A8481 (2-2.1.14.17)

A3853 (AC-40)*
A2103
ACTG2 Actin, gamma 2, smooth muscle, enteric             72 ENSG00000163017 ACT, ACTA3, ACTE, Actin, gamma-enteric smooth muscle, ACTL3, ACTSG, Alpha-actin-3, Smooth muscle gamma actin
A3853 (AC-40)* A2103

†Ensembl release 49—March 2008                                                                                    *Conjugated antibodies available

Monoconal Anti-GAPDH (Product No. G8795)
Anti-GAPDH (Product No. G9545)

Materials

     
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