Interferes with DNA Synthesis

DNA replication requires the activity of a class of enzymes called the topoisomerases. Topoisomerase II (DNA gyrase) relaxes supercoiled DNA molecules and initiates transient breakages and rejoins phosphodiester bonds in superhelical turns of closed-circular DNA of bacteria. This allows the DNA strand to be replicated by DNA or RNA polymerases. Quinolones are a key group of antibiotics that specifically interfere with bacterial topoisomerase II and not mammalian topoisomerases. Fluoroquinolones, second-generation quinolones that include levofloxacin, norfloxacin, and ciprofloxacin, are active against both Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria. Inhibitors that are effective against mammalian topoisomerases, such as irinotecan and etoposide, are used as antineoplastic drugs to kill cancer cells.

Some antibiotics specifically interfere with RNA synthesis by inhibiting RNA polymerases. Rifampicin blocks initiation of RNA synthesis by specifically inhibiting bacterial RNA polymerase. It does not interact with mammalian RNA polymerases, making it specific for Gram-positive bacteria and some Gram-negative bacteria. Antibiotics such as doxorubicin and actinomycin D (dactinomycin), are not specific for bacteria and interfere with both bacterial and mammalian systems. These are most often used as antineoplastic and antitumor drugs, attacking rapidly growing malignant cells as well as normal cells. Because cancerous cells are growing at a faster rate than surrounding normal tissue, a higher percentage of malignant cells are attacked by cytotoxic drugs.

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A1410 Actinomycin D from Streptomyces sp., ~98% (HPLC)
A9415 Actinomycin D from Streptomyces sp., suitable for cell culture, ≥95%
A4262 Actinomycin D from Streptomyces sp., ≥95% (HPLC)
01815 Actinomycin D for fluorescence, ≥90% (HPLC), from Streptomyces sp.
A5156 Actinomycin D–Mannitol lyophilized powder
A4669 Acycloguanosine ≥99% (HPLC), powder
A5762 Adenine 9-β-D-arabinofuranoside ≥99%
A9400 7-Aminoactinomycin D ~97% (HPLC), powder
A0781 Aphidicolin from Nigrospora sphaerica ≥98% (HPLC), powder
A2385 5-Azacytidine ≥98% (HPLC)
A1287 5-Azacytidine Hybri-Max, γ-irradiated, lyophilized powder, BioXtra, suitable for hybridoma
B1793 Bafilomycin A1 from Streptomyces griseus ≥90% (HPLC)
B5507 Bleomycin sulfate from Streptomyces verticillus crystalline, 1.5-2.0 units/mg solid
B8416 Bleomycin sulfate from Streptomyces verticillus 1.5-2.0 units/mg solid, BioReagent, suitable for cell culture
15361 Bleomycin sulfate from Streptomyces verticillus for fluorescence, mixture of bleomycin sulfate salts, lyophilized, powder, white to off-white
B2434 Bleomycin sulfate from Streptomyces verticillus BioXtra, crystalline
C9911 (S)-(+)-Camptothecin ≥90% (HPLC), powder
C4142 Capreomycin sulfate from Streptomyces capreolus antibacterial peptide
C4991 Cephalomannine ≥97% (HPLC), solid
C2659 Chromomycin A3 from Streptomyces griseus ≥95% (HPLC)
C8645 Cinoxacin
17850 Ciprofloxacin ≥98.0% (HPLC)
C3394 Cordycepin from Cordyceps militaris
C9270 Coumermycin A1
C8273 Cytochalasin D from Zygosporium mansonii, ≥98% (TLC and HPLC), powder
C6762 Cytochalasin B from Drechslera dematioidea ≥98% (HPLC), powder
D2390 Dacarbazine antineoplastic purine analog
D8809 Daunorubicin hydrochloride meets USP testing specifications
30450 Daunorubicin hydrochloride ≥90% (HPLC)
D3676 10-Deacetylbaccatin III from Taxus baccata ≥95% (HPLC)
479306 cis-Diamineplatinum(II) dichloride ≥99.9% trace metals basis
P4394 cis-Diammineplatinum(II) dichloride crystalline
D1515 Doxorubicin hydrochloride 98.0-102.0% (HPLC)
44583 Doxorubicin hydrochloride suitable for fluorescence, 98.0-102.0% (HPLC)
17849 Enrofloxacin ≥98.0% (HPLC)
33699 Enrofloxacin VETRANAL, analytical standard
E1383 Etoposide synthetic, ≥98%, powder
F7016 Flumequine
45735 Flumequine VETRANAL, analytical standard
F7129 5-Fluorocytosine nucleoside analog
F6771 Fumagillin from Aspergillus fumigatus ≥90%, powder
G2536 Ganciclovir ≥99% (HPLC), powder
G9893 Gliotoxin from Gliocladium fimbriatum
252565 8-Hydroxyquinoline ACS reagent, 99%
H6878 8-Hydroxyquinoline crystalline
L2906 Lomefloxacin hydrochloride
M3761 Metronidazole analytical standard
M1547 Metronidazole BioXtra
46461 Metronidazole VETRANAL, analytical standard
M6891 Mithramycin A from Streptomyces plicatus ≥90% (HPLC)
10107409001 Mitomycin C
M0503 Mitomycin C from Streptomyces caespitosus powder, contains NaCl as solubilizer
M4287 Mitomycin C from Streptomyces caespitosus powder, BioReagent, suitable for cell culture
M0440 Mitomycin C from Streptomyces caespitosus ≥970 μg/mg (USP XXIV)
SMB00375 Nadifloxacin ≥98% (HPLC)
N8878 Nalidixic acid ≥98%
N5035 Nalidixic acid meets USP testing specifications
N4382 Nalidixic acid sodium salt powder
N3143 Nalidixic acid sodium salt powder
N9162 Neocarzinostatin from Streptomyces carzinostaticus ≥90% (SDS-PAGE), ~0.5 mg/mL
72195 Netropsin dihydrochloride hydrate ≥96.0% (HPCE)
N7878 Nitrofurantoin crystalline
46502 Nitrofurantoin VETRANAL, analytical standard
74155 Nonactin from Streptomyces sp., ≥97.0% (TLC)
N2286 Nonactin from Streptomyces griseus, ≥98% (function tested, HPLC)
N6160 Novobiocin sodium meets USP testing specifications
N1628 Novobiocin sodium salt ≥90% (HPLC)
74675 Novobiocin sodium salt ≥93% (HPLC)
46531 Novobiocin sodium salt VETRANAL, analytical standard
O8757 Ofloxacin fluoroquinolone antibiotic
O0877 Oxolinic acid quinolone antibiotic
T7402 Paclitaxel from Taxus brevifolia, ≥95% (HPLC), powder
T1912 Paclitaxel from Taxus yannanensis, powder
T7191 Paclitaxel from semisynthetic (from Taxus sp.), ≥97%
P0106 Pefloxacin mesylate dihydrate
P9625 Phenazine methosulfate ≥90% (UV)
P9564 Phleomycin from Streptomyces verticillus powder
P7903 Pipemidic acid
36524 8-Quinolinol PESTANAL®, analytical standard
55070 8-Quinolinol puriss. p.a., ACS reagent, for the detection and determination of Al, Mg and others, ≥99.0% (NT)
32502 8-Quinolinol puriss. p.a., ACS reagent, reag. Ph. Eur., ≥99% (perchloric acid titration)
55100 8-Quinolinol hemisulfate salt ≥98.0% (dry substance, T), yellow
R4900 Rebeccamycin solid, ≥98% (HPLC), from Saccharothrix aerocolonigenes
S8559 Sinefungin 95% (HPLC), powder
S1014 Streptonigrin from Streptomyces flocculus ≥98%
S0130 Streptozocin ≥75% α-anomer basis, ≥98% (HPLC), powder
S8752 Succinylsulfathiazole ≥98%
S8626 Sulfadiazine ≥99.0%
35033 Sulfadiazine VETRANAL, analytical standard
S7007 Sulfadimethoxine analytical standard, ≥98.5% (TLC)
46794 Sulfadimethoxine VETRANAL, analytical standard
S8751 Sulfaguanidine
S6256 Sulfamethazine ≥99%
46802 Sulfamethazine VETRANAL, analytical standard
S5637 Sulfamethazine sodium salt ≥98%
S0508 Sulfamonomethoxine
S9251 Sulfanilamide ≥99%
46874 Sulfanilamide VETRANAL, analytical standard
33626 Sulfanilamide puriss. p.a., ≥99% (calc. to the dried substance)
S7382 Sulfaquinoxaline sodium salt ≥92.5%
S0883 Sulfasalazine analytical standard, ≥98% (HPLC)
S0127 Sulfathiazole sodium salt ≥99%
T7883 Trimethoprim ≥98% (HPLC)
46984 Trimethoprim VETRANAL, analytical standard
92131 Trimethoprim crystallized, ≥99.0% (HPLC)
T0667 Trimethoprim lactate salt ≥98%
T0642 Tubercidin from Streptomyces tubercidicus, ~95%
V9889 Valacyclovir hydrochloride hydrate ≥98% (HPLC), solid