Fluorescent Indicators and Probes

Fluorescent probes, in a strict sense and in contrast to labels, can be used to report the microenvironment, e.g. within a cell or cell compartment. Parameters measured can include micropolarity, viscosity, temperature, and rate of diffusion.

Useful Reference Literature:
1. J.R. Lakowicz, Principles of Fluorescence Microscopy, Plenum, New York, 1998.
2. X.F. Wang, B. Herman, Fluorescence Imaging Spectroscopy and Microscopy.
3. W.T. Mason, Fluorescent Probes for Biological Activity, Academic Press, New York, 1993.
4. O.S. Wolfbeis, Fluorescence Spectroscopy: New Methods and Applications, Springer, Heidelberg, 1993.

Most commonly used probes include: