Primary antibodies that recognize and bind with high affinity and specificity to unique epitopes across a broad spectrum of biomolecules are available as high specificity monoclonal antibodies and/or as polyclonal antibodies. These antibodies are useful not only to detect specific biomolecules but also to measure changes in their level and specificity of modification by processes such as phosphorylation, methylation, or glycosylation. A primary antibody can be very useful for the detection of biomarkers for diseases such as cancer, diabetes, Parkinson′s and Alzheimer′s disease and they are used for the study of ADME and multi-drug resistance (MDR) of therapeutic agents.
Primary antibodies are useful reagents for studies in many scientific disciplines including Analytical Cytology, Cell Biology and Molecular Biology. Primary antibodies are used in Analytical Cytology to study leukocyte antigen and cytokine expression. Examples of leukocyte antigens include CD antigens that help distinguish cell lineage, and functional subsets; an integrins, selectins, human leukocyte (HLA) antigens (histocompatibility antigens (glycoproteins)), interferons, interleukins, and tumor necrosis factor (TNF).
Primary antibodies are used to study Cell Biology and for proteosome research. This is a vast field that includes the study of cell processes such as apoptosis, cell stress, cell cycle progression, cell signaling, cytoskeleton and extracellular matrix (ECM) organization, gene expression, metabolism, protein synthesis and degradation, enzyme phenotype profiling and ion channel transport.
In the field of molecular biology, you can use a primary antibody to create detection systems to monitor gene expression. Detection systems are often developed using markers such as b-galactosidase, biotin, digoxin and DNP as well as protein fusion tags comprised of alkaline phosphatase, FLAG, glutathione-S-transferase (GST), hemagglutinin (HA), maltose binding protein (MBP), c-myc, polyhistidine, thioredoxin, and peroxidase. Primary antibodies are especially useful to dissect changes in phenotypes and status of the proteosome under normal and diseased conditions.
Sigma® Life Science offers over 50,000 primary antibodies for your research needs. Search below for the primary antibody for your application of interest or species specificity.
Once you′ve found your primary antibody, visit the Antibody Explorer to learn more about selecting secondary antibodies.