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D5321 D36 hydrate ≥98% (HPLC) Androgen receptors (ARs) are nuclear hormone receptors/transcription factors.
 
D5571   D3T ≥98% (NMR) D3T is a cancer chemopreventive agent.
 
D1944 D4476 ≥98% (HPLC), solid D4476 is a potent, selective ATP-competitive inhibitor of CK1 (casein kinase 1).
 
D2321   DAF-FM DA solution 5 mM in DMSO, ≥98% (HPLC) DAF-FM DA is a cell-permeable fluorescent probe for the detection of nitric oxide (NO). DAF-2 is the original compound and is widely used, but DAF-FM and DAF-FM DA are more sensitive to nitric oxide (NO) compared with DAF-2 and more photo-stable and less pH sensitive. DAF-FM DA permeates well into living cells and is rapidly transformed into water-soluble DAF-FM by cytosolic esterases.
 
D2196   DAF-FM solution 5 mM in DMSO, ≥98% (HPLC) DAF-FM is a highly sensitive, photo-stable fluorescent probe for the detection of nitric oxide (NO). DAF-2 is the original compound and is widely used, but DAF-FM is more sensitive to nitric oxide (NO) compared with DAF-2. DAF-FM (Ex: 500 nm; Em: 515 nm; dectection limit: 3 nM) is more photo-stable and less pH sensitive than DAF-2. DAF-FM is not quite as cell-permeable as the diacetate derivative, but it does not need to be activated by cytosolic enzymes.
 
D7802 Daidzein ≥98%, synthetic Daidzein is a phytoestrogen that is suggested to play a role in preventing hormone-induced cancers.2 Arrests cell cycle at G1 in Swiss 3T3 cells.3
Soy isoflavone daidzein protects against oxidative damage in liver cells induced by 7,12-dimethylbenz[a]anthracene (DMBA). Catalase and superoxide dismutase activity, down-regulated by DMBA, was restored by daidzein.1
human ... ESR1(2099), ESR2(2100), UGT1A4(54657)
mouse ... Aldh1a2(19378), Hexa(15211), Maoa(17161)
rat ... Aldh1a2(116676)
30408 Daidzin ≥95.0% (HPLC) Daidzin is an isoflavone reported to have anti-oxidant, anti-carcinogenic, and anti-artherosclerotic activities. Daidzin is the major active component of the traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) derived from radix puerariae (Kudzu) that is commonly used to treat alcohol abuse. Daidzin is a potent and selective inhibitor of mitochondrial aldehyde dehydrogenase 2 (ALDH-2).
Daidzin was the most potent isoflavone glycoside tested in modulating differentiation of bone marrow stromal cells toward osteoblasts and away from adipocytes.1
mouse ... Aldh1a2(19378), Maoa(17161)
rat ... Aldh1a2(116676)
D7441 Daltroban >98% (HPLC) Selective thromboxane A2 receptor antagonist
human ... TBXA2R(6915)
SML0255 4-DAMP ≥98% (HPLC) 4-DAMP is a M3 preferring cholinergic receptor antagonist.
 
D8399 Danazol ≥98% Danazol is a weak androgen; anterior pituitary suppressant.
 
D9175 Dantrolene sodium salt Inhibitor of Ca2+ release from sarcoplasmic reticulum; muscle relaxant.
 
D3943 DAPH ≥98% (HPLC), solid DAPH is an inhibitor of Aβ fibril formation; Protein tyrosine kinase inhibitor, specific for EGFR.
human ... EGFR(1956)
D5942 DAPT ≥98% (HPLC), solid DAPT is a γ-secretase inhibitor and indirectly an inhibitor of Notch, a γ-secretase substrate. Other γ-secretase substrates include LDL receptor-related protein, E-cadherin and ErbB-4. As an inhibitor of γ-secretase, DAPT may be useful in the study of β-amyloid (Aβ) formation. DAPT has been shown to inhibit Notch signaling in studies of autoimmune and lymphoproliferative diseases, such as ALPS and lupus erythematosus (SLE), as well as in cancer cell growth, angiogenesis, and differentiation of human induced pluripotent stem cells (hIPSC).
human ... APH1A(51107), APH1B(83464), NCSTN(23385), NOTCH1(4851), NOTCH2(4853), NOTCH3(4854), NOTCH4(4855), PSEN1(5663), PSEN2(5664), PSENEN(55851)
mouse ... Aph1a(226548), Aph1b(208117), Ncstn(59287), Notch1(18128), Notch2(18129), Notch3(18131), Notch4(18132), Psen1(19164), Psen2(19165), Psenen(66340)
rat ... Aph1a(365872), Aph1b(300802), Ncstn(289231), Notch1(25496), Notch2(29492), Notch3(56761), Notch4(406162), Psen1(29192), Psen2(81751), Psenen(292788)
D8809 Daunorubicin hydrochloride meets USP testing specifications Naturally fluorescent anthracycline antibiotic, anticancer drug. Substrate for Pgp, MRP-1 and BCRP. Fluorescent property has been exploited for the measurement of drug efflux pump activities as well as resolving the important question of intracellular localization of various multidrug resistance proteins and the role of subcellular organelles (golgi and lysosome) in the sequestration of drugs and its implication in drug resistant phenotypes. Daunorubicin is sequestered into lysosomes according to a pH partitioning type mechanism.1,2 Strong inhibitor of DNA and RNA synthesis.
Potent anticancer agent. Inhibits DNA and RNA synthesis as sequence specific ds-DNA intercalating agent. Properties
 
30450 Daunorubicin hydrochloride ≥90% (HPLC) Daunorubicin inhibits DNA and RNA synthesis as sequence specific ds-DNA intercalating agent. On binding to DNA, daunomycin intercalates, with its daunosamine residue directed toward the minor groove. Daunomycin effectively binds to every 3 base pairs which causes unwinding.
Potent anticancer agent. Inhibits DNA and RNA synthesis as sequence specific ds-DNA intercalating agent. Properties
 
SML0031 DBeQ ≥98% (HPLC) DBeQ is a potent and specific inhibitor of ATPase p97, an integral component of the ubiquitin-fusion degradation (UFD) pathway. DBeQ inhibits the degradation of ubiquitinated proteins, the endoplasmic reticulum-associated degradation pathway, and autophagosome maturation. The compound also potently inhibits cellular proliferation and induces caspase 3/7 activity and apoptosis.
 
D7938 DBO-83 solid Novel nicotinic acetylcholine receptor agonist, structurally related to epibatidine, with antinociceptive properties in rodents.
human ... CHRNA1(1134), CHRNA10(57053), CHRNA2(1135), CHRNA3(1136), CHRNA4(1137), CHRNA5(1138), CHRNA6(8973), CHRNA7(1139), CHRNA9(55584), CHRNB1(1140), CHRNB2(1141), CHRNB3(1142), CHRNB4(1143)
D1068 DCB ≥98% (HPLC), solid Neutral allosteric modulator of the metabotropic glutamate receptor mGluR5.
 
379115 DCC 1.0 M in methylene chloride   human ... EPHX2(2053)
mouse ... Ephx2(13850)
36650 DCC puriss., ≥99.0% (GC)   human ... EPHX2(2053)
mouse ... Ephx2(13850)
D80002 DCC 99%   human ... EPHX2(2053)
mouse ... Ephx2(13850)
D9190 DCEBIO ≥98% (HPLC), solid DCEBIO facilitates Cl secretion in the epithelia by activating K+ and Cl currents.
human ... HTR1A(3350), HTR1B(3351), HTR1D(3352), HTR1E(3354), HTR1F(3355), HTR2A(3356), HTR2B(3357), HTR2C(3358), HTR3A(3359), HTR3B(9177), HTR3C(170572), HTR3D(200909), HTR3E(285242), HTR4(3360), HTR5A(3361), HTR5B(645694), HTR6(3362), HTR7(3363)
D5569 DCHC ≥98% (HPLC), solid DCHC is a SIRT1 activator. It increases peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma co-activator 1α (PGC1α) expression, resulting in mitochondrial biogenesis. DCHC activates SIRT1 at low micromolar concentrations (5–10 μM) and increases SIRT1 activity at 100 μM. It is different from 5,7,4′-T in that it induces the activation of recombinant SIRT1, but does not increase SIRT1 expression.
 
35485 2,4′-DDD PESTANAL®, analytical standard   rat ... Ar(24208)
49015 2,4′-DDD analytical standard   rat ... Ar(24208)
35486 4,4′-DDD PESTANAL®, analytical standard   mouse ... Esr1(13982)
rat ... Ar(24208)
48680 4,4′-DDD solution 20 μg/mL in methanol, analytical standard   mouse ... Esr1(13982)
rat ... Ar(24208)
40092 4,4′-DDD solution 5000 μg/mL in methanol, analytical standard   mouse ... Esr1(13982)
rat ... Ar(24208)
35487 4,4′-DDE PESTANAL®, analytical standard   mouse ... Esr1(13982)
rat ... Ar(24208)
48968 4,4′-DDE solution 200 μg/mL in isooctane, analytical standard   mouse ... Esr1(13982)
rat ... Ar(24208)
40091 4,4′-DDE solution 5000 μg/mL in methanol, analytical standard   mouse ... Esr1(13982)
rat ... Ar(24208)
48679 4,4′-DDE solution 20 μg/mL in methanol, analytical standard   mouse ... Esr1(13982)
rat ... Ar(24208)
49018   2,4′-DDT analytical standard   mouse ... Esr1(13982)
rat ... Ar(24208)
386340 4,4′-DDT 98%   mouse ... Esr1(13982)
rat ... Ar(24208)
36662 4,4′-DDT solution 100 ng/μL in methanol, PESTANAL®, analytical standard   mouse ... Esr1(13982)
rat ... Ar(24208)
48980 4,4′-DDT solution 200 μg/mL in isooctane, analytical standard   mouse ... Esr1(13982)
rat ... Ar(24208)
40124 4,4′-DDT solution 5000 μg/mL in methanol, analytical standard   mouse ... Esr1(13982)
rat ... Ar(24208)
D8296 3-Deazaadenosine Possesses antiviral activity1 inhibitor of leukocyte adhesion to TNF-treated endothelial cells.2
rat ... Adora1(29290), Adora2a(25369), Adora3(25370)
D1306 Debrisoquine sulfate Its metabolite may induce Parkinsonism.
 
W236004 γ-Decalactone ≥98%, FG, FCC   human ... CYP1A2(1544)
W236128 δ-Decalactone natural, ≥98%, FCC, FG   human ... CYP1A2(1544)
W236101 δ-Decalactone ≥98%, FCC, FG   human ... CYP1A2(1544)
D1260 Decamethonium bromide crystalline Nicotinic acetylcholine receptor partial agonist and neuromuscular blocking agent; depolarizes striated muscles and blocks their activity.
human ... CHRNA1(1134), CHRNA10(57053), CHRNA2(1135), CHRNA3(1136), CHRNA4(1137), CHRNA5(1138), CHRNA6(8973), CHRNA7(1139), CHRNA9(55584), CHRNB1(1140), CHRNB2(1141), CHRNB3(1142), CHRNB4(1143)
D804 γ-Decanolactone 98%   human ... CYP1A2(1544)
298069 5-Decanolide ≥98%   human ... CYP1A2(1544)
68228 2-Decanone analytical standard   human ... CES1(1066)
W510637 2-Decanone ≥98%   human ... CES1(1066)
196207 2-Decanone 98%   human ... CES1(1066)
D9565   β-Defensin 1 human ≥98% (HPLC and SDS-PAGE), recombinant, expressed in E. coli, lyophilized powder (from 10 mM acetic acid) A small cationic peptide which demonstrates anti-microbial activity. Originally isolated from human plasma, this substance is constitutively expressed in mucosal membrane epithelium.
human ... DEFB1(1672)
D9690   β-Defensin 2 human recombinant, expressed in E. coli, lyophilized powder (from 10 mM acetic acid) A small cationic peptide which demonstrates anti-microbial activity and is expressed in keratinocytes and the epithelia of many organs.
human ... DEFB4(1673)
D2043 Defensin HNP-1 human ≥80% (HPLC) This is an endogenous antibiotic peptide and monocyte chemotactic peptide produced by human neutrophils. Defensins are a family of 3-4 kDa (29-34 amino acids) peptides found in the granules of mammalian phagocytes. The members of this family are variably arginine-rich and share six conserved cysteine residues that participate in intramolecular disulfide bonds.
human ... DEFA1(1667)
D6790 Defensin HNP-2 human ≥95% (HPLC) This is an endogenous antibiotic peptide and monocyte chemotactic peptide produced by human neutrophils. Defensins are a family of 3-4 kDa (29-34 amino acids) peptides found in the granules of mammalian phagocytes. The members of this famuly are variably arginine-rich and all share 6 conserved cysteine residues that participate in intramolecular disulfide bonds.
human ... DEFA1(1667)
D9533 Deferoxamine mesylate salt powder, ≥92.5% (TLC) An iron chelator used often in the studies of cell proliferation and apoptosis. Has been shown to have anti-proliferative effects on vascular smooth muscle cells in vitro and in vivo and to arrest cells in the G1 phase. Also reported to induce p53. Induces apoptosis in HL-60 cells by chelating iron. After 48 hrs treatment with 1μM deferoxamine, DNA fragmentation was apparent. Cells treated with 0.1 μM deferoxamine for as little as 24 hours were committed to apoptosis; by 48 hrs nuclear collapse was observed. In some studies it has been shown to have antioxidant properties and to protect cells against H2O2-induced damage.
Deferoxamine is used as a hypoxia-mimetic agent to stabilize Hypoxia Inducible Factor 1 (HIF-1). Deferoxamine stabilizes HIF-1 through the inhibition of Prolyl Hydroxylases (PHDs) which target HIF-1 through degradation. The mechanism of deferoxamine inhibition is likely through the chelation of Fe2+ bound to the active site of PHD which is required for enzymatic activity.
 
SML0123 Deflazacort ≥98% (HPLC) Deflazacort is an anti-inflammatory and immunosuppressant glucocorticoid.
 
D0817 (−)-Deguelin >98% (HPLC), powder Inhibitor of activated Akt. Does not affect MAPK, ERK1/2, or JNK. Anticancer, chemoprotective agent.
 
D4000 trans-Dehydroandrosterone ≥99% Dehydroandrosterone (DHEA) is a negative modulator of GABAA receptors. It is a steroid secreted by the adrenal gland with both estrogenic and androgenic properties. DHEAs conversion to 5-androstenediol, a potent estrogen, enhances the growth and survival of estrogen-sensitive breast tumors.
Negative modulator of GABAA receptors. Steroid secreted by the adrenal gland with both estrogenic and androgenic properties. Its conversion to 5-androstenediol, a potent estrogen, enhances the growth and survival of estrogen-sensitive breast tumors. At high but physiologically valid concentrations, DHEA inhibits proliferation of chromaffin progenitor cells and induces dopaminergic differentiation.
human ... GABRA1(2554), GABRA2(2555), GABRA3(2556), GABRA4(2557), GABRA5(2558), GABRA6(2559), GABRB1(2560), GABRB2(2561), GABRB3(2562), SERPINA6(866)
rat ... Ar(24208)
D5297 Dehydroisoandrosterone 3-sulfate sodium salt dihydrate ≥98%, powder Dehydroisoandrosterone 3-sulfate sodium salt dihydrate is a negative allosteric modulator of GABAA receptors.
human ... GABRA1(2554), GABRA2(2555), GABRA3(2556), GABRA4(2557), GABRA5(2558), GABRA6(2559), GABRB1(2560), GABRB2(2561), GABRB3(2562)
D4196 Dehydroleucodine ≥98% (HPLC) Dehydroleucodine is a sesquiterpene lactone isolated from Artemisia douglasiana Besser; mast cell stabilizers. An extract from the plant is widely used in Cuyo region (Argentina) as folk medicine for the treatment of gastric ailments. The compound prevents gastric and duodenal damages in response to necrosis-inducing agents. Stabilization of mast cells may be a key mechanism to protect the gastrointestinal tract from injury and ulceration. Recently, it was established that dehydroleucodine and xanthatin inhibit mast cell degranulation induced by compound 48/80.
 
D5125 16-Dehydropregnenolone oxime   human ... CYP17A1(1586)
D4202 16-Dehydroprogesterone 97%   human ... CYP17A1(1586)
D9315 Deltamethrin ≥98% Deltamethrin is a type II semi-synthetic pyrethrin, which acts as a potent inhibitor of calcineurin (protein phosphatase 2B) and has an IC50 of about 100 pM.1 This inhibitory action results in cellular hyperexcitability by causing non-mutated calcium channels to remain open for an extended period of time allowing an abundance of Ca2+ to enter the cell. Some sodium channel mutations such as the L993F mutation in Xenopus oocytes show decreased sensitivity to deltamethrin.2
 
T0675 [D-Ala2]-Deltorphin II ≥97% (HPLC) Selective δ2 opioid receptor agonist
human ... OPRD1(4985), OPRK1(4986), OPRM1(4988)
mouse ... Oprd1(18386), Oprm1(18390)
rat ... Oprd1(24613), Oprm1(25601)
D7385 Demecolcine ≥98% (HPLC) Depolymerizes microtubules; blocks mitosis at metaphase.
Often in karyotyping and cell cycle research it is desirable to increase the yield of mitotic cells in a particular phase of the cell cycle. This can be achieved in a variety of ways with the most popular being the use of a cell cycle synchronizing agent such as demecolcine. Demecolcine will arrest cells in metaphase with no remarkable effect on the biochemical events in mitotic cells or in synchronized G1 and S phase cells. White blood cells are often treated with demecolcine to arrest cells in metaphase.
 
D1925 Demecolcine solution 10 μg/mL in HBSS, ACF Qualified, BioXtra    
D9667   α-Dendrotoxin Blocks slowly inactivating outward K+ current; blocks voltage-gated K+-channels in rat brain synaptosomes; increases acetylcholine release at neuromuscular junction.
 
D4813 Dendrotoxin-K ≥98% (HPLC), lyophilized powder Dendrotoxin-K inhibits potassium channels that contain Kv1.1 protein only.1
 
D7815 R(−)-Denopamine ≥98% (HPLC), powder β1-adrenoceptor agonist.
human ... ADRB1(153)
D2510 Deoxycholic acid ≥98% (HPLC) Bile Acid
human ... ATIC(471)
D4297 Deoxycholic acid BioXtra, ≥98% (HPLC)   human ... ATIC(471)
30960 Deoxycholic acid ≥99.0% (T)   human ... ATIC(471)
361275 3′-Deoxy-3′-fluorothymidine 97%   human ... TK2(7084)
D5011 5′-Deoxy-5′-(methylthio)adenosine   human ... ADORA2B(136), ADORA3(140)
mouse ... Mtap(66902)
rat ... Adora1(29290), Adora2a(25369)
D9305 1-Deoxynojirimycin hydrochloride α-Glucosidase inhibitor
human ... GAA(2548)
D7314 Deoxypeganine hydrochloride dihydrate ≥99% (HPLC), solid Inhibits cholinesterases reversibly.
 
D8440 15-Deoxy-Δ12,14-prostaglandin J2 ≥95% (HPLC), 1 mg/mL in methyl acetate Selective agonist to PPARγ (peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors). Inhibits the proliferation of cancer cell lines that express PPARγ and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2).
 
31175 3′-Deoxythymidine ≥95% (HPLC)   mouse ... Esr1(13982)
323616 3′-Deoxythymidine 98%   mouse ... Esr1(13982)
D5412 2′-Deoxyuridine 99-100%   mouse ... Slc29a1(63959)
M003 R-(−)-Deprenyl hydrochloride powder, ≥98% (HPLC) Selective MAO-B inhibitor; anti-Parkinsonian agent.
human ... MAOB(4129)
D5816 (−)-Depudecin >95% (HPLC), from microbial Inhibitor of histone deacetylase (HDAC) both in vivo and in vitro. Alters the spindle shaped morphology of v-Ha-ras-transformed NIH3T3 cells to a flattened shape and induces an intricate actin stress fiber network in these cells and in MG63 osteosarcoma cells. Also exhibits anti-angiogenic activity.
 
D3768 Dequalinium chloride hydrate ≥95% (titration) Selective blocker of apamin-sensitive K+ channels and inhibitor of XIAP (X-linked inhibitor of apoptosis protein). Shown to induce cytotoxicity in human acute promyelocytic leukemia NB4 cells through disturbance of mitochondrial function, oxidative stress, and downregulation of Raf/MEK/ERK and PI3K/Akt signaling pathways.
 
D3900 Desipramine hydrochloride ≥98% (TLC), powder Tricyclic antidepressant that is a more potent inhibitor of the norepinephrine transporter (Ki = 4 nM) than the serotonin transporter (Ki = 61 nM).
 
D1069 Desloratadine powder, ≥98% (HPLC) Desloratadine is a selective and nonsedating histamine H1 receptor antagonist, an active metabolite of loratadine (Claritin), used to relieve hay fever and allergy symptoms with less drowsiness than other antihistamines; does not significantly inhibits cardiac K+ channels at clinically achievable blood levels. Free from antimuscarinic/anticholinergic effects.
 
D5676 N-Desmethylclozapine Major metabolite of clozapine; potent 5-HT2 serotonin receptor antagonist and a ligand for the cloned 5-HT6 and 5-HT7 serotonin receptors. Also an allosteric potentiator of M1 muscarinic receptors.
human ... KCNH1(3756)
D7282 Desmethyldiazepam analytical standard Primary metabolite of diazepam; ligand for the GABAA receptor benzodiazepine modulatory site.
rat ... Tspo(24230)
UC305 O-Desmethylnaproxen CYP2C9 metabolite of naproxen
 
D204 S-(+)-O-Desmethylraclopride hydrobromide solid, ≥98% (HPLC)    
D9069 N-Desmethyltamoxifen HCl ≥98% (HPLC), solid N-Desmethyltamoxifen HCl is the primary metabolite of tamoxifen. N-Desmethyltamoxifen HCl is an estrogen response modifer and protein kinase C inhibitor.
 
UC304 O-Desmethyltramadol Metabolite of tramadol
 
D4921 Destruxin A from Metarrhizium anisopliae ≥90% (HPLC) Destruxin A is a cyclic hexadepsipeptide produced by fungus causing paralysis and death in insects. May suppress the insect immune response.1 Possesses an inhibitory activity on leukemic cell proliferation, decreasing the number of cells in G2/M phase.2 It is virustatic against arboviruses.3
 
D2069 Desvenlafaxine hydrochloride ≥98% (HPLC), powder Desvenlafaxine hydrochloride is a dual SERT/NET reuptake inhibitor. It is a major active metabolite of venlafaxine (#542); brain penetrant; Ki = 40 nM and 122 nM for hSERT and hNET, respectively (weak binding at the hDAT). Inhibition of [3H]5-HT or [3H]NE uptake for the hSERT or hNET produced IC50 values of 47 and 531 nM.
 
D3821 Devazepide ≥98% (HPLC), powder Devazepide is a CCK1 (CCK-A) receptor antagonist and a CCK8 antagonist.
 
D1756 Dexamethasone ≥98% (HPLC), powder Glucocorticoid anti-inflammatory agent. Regulates T cell survival, growth, and differentiation. Inhibits the induction of nitric oxide synthase.
human ... ABCB1(5243), CYP3A4(1576), IL4(3565), IL5(3567), NR3C1(2908)
mouse ... Abcb1a(18671), Abcb1b(18669), Ifng(15978), Nos2(18126), Ptgs2(19225), Tnf(21926)
rat ... Ar(24208), Nr3c1(24413), Tnf(24835)
D4902 Dexamethasone powder, BioReagent, suitable for cell culture, ≥97% Glucocorticoid anti-inflammatory agent. Regulates T cell survival, growth, and differentiation. Inhibits the induction of nitric oxide synthase.
human ... ABCB1(5243), CYP3A4(1576), IL4(3565), IL5(3567), NR3C1(2908)
mouse ... Abcb1a(18671), Abcb1b(18669), Ifng(15978), Nos2(18126), Ptgs2(19225), Tnf(21926)
rat ... Ar(24208), Nr3c1(24413), Tnf(24835)
D8893 Dexamethasone powder, γ-irradiated, BioXtra, suitable for cell culture, ≥80% (HPLC) Glucocorticoid anti-inflammatory agent. Regulates T cell survival, growth, and differentiation. Inhibits the induction of nitric oxide synthase.
human ... ABCB1(5243), CYP3A4(1576), IL4(3565), IL5(3567), NR3C1(2908)
mouse ... Abcb1a(18671), Abcb1b(18669), Ifng(15978), Nos2(18126), Ptgs2(19225), Tnf(21926)
rat ... Ar(24208), Nr3c1(24413), Tnf(24835)
D9184 Dexamethasone meets USP testing specifications Glucocorticoid anti-inflammatory agent. Regulates T cell survival, growth, and differentiation. Inhibits the induction of nitric oxide synthase.
human ... ABCB1(5243), CYP3A4(1576), IL4(3565), IL5(3567), NR3C1(2908)
mouse ... Abcb1a(18671), Abcb1b(18669), Ifng(15978), Nos2(18126), Ptgs2(19225), Tnf(21926)
rat ... Ar(24208), Nr3c1(24413), Tnf(24835)
46165 Dexamethasone VETRANAL, analytical standard Glucocorticoid anti-inflammatory agent. Regulates T cell survival, growth, and differentiation. Inhibits the induction of nitric oxide synthase.
human ... ABCB1(5243), CYP3A4(1576), IL4(3565), IL5(3567), NR3C1(2908)
mouse ... Abcb1a(18671), Abcb1b(18669), Ifng(15978), Nos2(18126), Ptgs2(19225), Tnf(21926)
rat ... Ar(24208), Nr3c1(24413), Tnf(24835)
31375 Dexamethasone Ph Eur Dexamethasone is a glucocorticoid anti-inflammatory agent. It regulates T cell survival, growth, and differentiation. Additionally, dexamethasone inhibits the induction of nitric oxide synthase. It induces apoptosis by initiating the initial cleavage of DNA into high molecular weight fragments.3
Glucocorticoid anti-inflammatory agent. Regulates T cell survival, growth, and differentiation. Inhibits the induction of nitric oxide synthase.
human ... ABCB1(5243), CYP3A4(1576), IL4(3565), IL5(3567), NR3C1(2908)
mouse ... Abcb1a(18671), Abcb1b(18669), Ifng(15978), Nos2(18126), Ptgs2(19225), Tnf(21926)
rat ... Ar(24208), Nr3c1(24413), Tnf(24835)
D1881 Dexamethasone 21-acetate ≥99% An anti-inflammatory glucocorticoid.
 
D1159 Dexamethasone 21-phosphate disodium salt ≥98% An anti-inflammatory glucocorticoid, a pro-drug that is converted to dexamethasone in vivo; stimulates glutamine uptake in the cerebral cortex
 
D2915 Dexamethasone-Water Soluble suitable for cell culture, BioReagent    
D2006 Dextrin from corn Type I, powder   human ... PYGM(5837)
D2131 Dextrin from corn commercial grade, Type II, powder   human ... PYGM(5837)
D4894 Dextrin from potato starch Type IV, powder   human ... PYGM(5837)
31400 Dextrin from potato starch for microbiology   human ... PYGM(5837)
D9684 Dextromethorphan hydrobromide meets USP testing specifications    
UC205 Dextrorphan   human ... GRIN2A(2903)
rat ... Grin2a(24409)
D127 Dextrorphan tartrate powder Noncompetitive NMDA glutamate receptor antagonist that attenuates glutamate neurotoxicity in cortical cell cultures.
human ... GRIN1(2902), GRIN2A(2903), GRIN2B(2904), GRIN2C(2905), GRIN2D(2906), GRINA(2907)
D9434 Dextrose meets EP, BP, JP, USP testing specifications, anhydrous   human ... PYGM(5837)
D8066 Dextrose meets EP, BP, JP, USP testing specifications   human ... PYGM(5837)
D0943 DFB ≥98% (HPLC), solid Positive allosteric modulator of the metabotropic glutamate receptor mGluR5
human ... GRM5(2915)
D5919 Diacylglycerol Kinase Inhibitor I solid Diacylglycerol kinase inhibitor. Inhibits formation of [38P]1-Oleoxyl-2-acetylglyceryl-3-phosphoric acid (OAPA) in red blood cell membranes: IC50 = 3.3 μM.
 
D5794 Diacylglycerol Kinase Inhibitor II solid Diacylglycerol kinase inhibitor. Inhibits formation of [38P]1-Oleoyl-2-acetylglyceryl-3-phosphoric acid (OAPA) in red blood cell membranes: IC50 = 3.3 μM.
 
P7769 1,2-Diacyl-sn-glycero-3-phospho-L-serine ≥97% (TLC), from bovine brain, amorphous powder A slowly metabolized structural phospholipid found mainly in gray matter.
 
P6641 1,2-Diacyl-sn-glycero-3-phospho-L-serine solution ≥97%, from bovine brain, chloroform:methanol solution A slowly metabolized structural phospholipid found mainly in gray matter.
 
D1262 P1,P4-Di(adenosine-5′) tetraphosphate ammonium salt ≥95% (HPLC), powder Diadenosine polyphosphate functions as a second messenger in pancreatic cells, stimulates phospholipase D, changes intracellular calcium levels, induces nitric oxide release, activates 5′-nucleotidase, and inhibits adenosine kinase activity in vitro.
Diadenosine polyphosphate is stored in secretory granules of thrombocytes, chromaffin, and neuronal cells. After release into the extracellular space, it affects a variety of biological activities in a wide range of target tissues. It appears to function as a second messenger in pancreatic cells. In rat liver cells. it stimulates phospholipase D and changes intracellular calcium levels. It has been shown to induce nitric oxide release from endothelial cells. In the nervous system it acts through various purinoceptors. It also activates 5′-nucleotidase and inhibits adenosine kinase activity in vitro. Ap4A is metabolized by soluble enzymes in the blood plasma and by membrane-bound ectoenzymes of a number of cell types including endothelial cells, smooth muscle cell.
human ... PLD1(5337), PLD2(5338), PLD3(23646), PLD4(122618), PLD5(200150)
32790 1,4-Diaminobutane puriss., ≥99.0% (GC)   rat ... Odc1(24609)
32791 1,4-Diaminobutane purum, ≥98.0% (GC)   rat ... Odc1(24609)
D13208 1,4-Diaminobutane 99%   rat ... Odc1(24609)
32810 1,4-Diaminobutane dihydrochloride purum, ≥99.0% (AT) Binds to the polyamine modulatory site of the NMDA receptor and potentiates NMDA-induced currents; precursor of spermidine.
 
31640 4,4′-Diaminodiphenylmethane analytical standard   mouse ... Slc6a2(20538)
rat ... Slc6a3(24898), Slc6a4(25553)
32950 4,4′-Diaminodiphenylmethane ≥97.0% (GC)   mouse ... Slc6a2(20538)
rat ... Slc6a3(24898), Slc6a4(25553)
D224   4,5-Diaminofluorescein 5 mM in DMSO    
D225 4,5-Diaminofluorescein diacetate solution 5 mM in DMSO    
491160 1,6-Diaminohexane-1,6-13C2 99 atom % 13C   rat ... Ppm1a(24666)
487481 1,6-Diaminohexane-15N2 98 atom % 15N   rat ... Ppm1a(24666)
861634 2,4-Diamino-6-(hydroxymethyl)pteridine 95%   rat ... Dhfr(24312)
D23602 1,3-Diaminopropane ≥99%   rat ... Grin2a(24409)
D18609 1,3-Diamino-2-propanol 95%   rat ... Grin2a(24409)
33262 1,3-Diamino-2-propanol purum, ≥98.0% (GC)   rat ... Grin2a(24409)
P4394 cis-Diammineplatinum(II) dichloride crystalline Potent chemoimmunotherapeutic drug; stimulates the immune responses by activating macrophages and other cells of the immune system. Cisplatin-treated macrophages show increased antigen presentation function in vitro. Treatment increased cellular NF-κB content and translocation in macrophages. Cisplatin effects are regulated by kinases, phosphatases, and Ca2+/calmodulin. Forms cytotoxic adducts with the DNA dinucleotide d(pGpG), inducing intrastrand crosslinks.
Potent platinum-based antineoplastic agent. Forms cytotoxic adducts with the DNA dinucleotide d(pGpG), inducing intrastrand cross-links.
 
D9516 Diaveridine ≥99.0% (TLC)   rat ... Dhfr(24312)
46174 Diaveridine VETRANAL, analytical standard   rat ... Dhfr(24312)
D0899 Diazepam Benzodiazepine anxiolytic; prototype ligand for the GABAA receptor benzodiazepine modulatory site.
human ... GABRA1(2554), GABRA2(2555), GABRA3(2556), GABRA5(2558), GABRA6(2559)
rat ... Gabra1(29705), Gabra2(29706)
D9900 Diazepam solution 1.0 mg/mL in methanol, analytical standard, for drug analysis   human ... GABRA1(2554), GABRA2(2555), GABRA3(2556), GABRA5(2558), GABRA6(2559), GABRG2(2566)
mouse ... Gabrg2(14406)
rat ... Gabra1(29705), Gabra2(29706)
D9035 Diazoxide Selective ATP-sensitive K+ channel activator in both vascular smooth muscle and pancreatic β-cells; antihypertensive.
human ... KCNA1(3736), KCNJ11(3767), KCNMA1(3778)
mouse ... Kcnj1(56379), Kcnj11(16514)
rat ... Gria1(50592), Kcna1(24520), Kcnj1(24521), Kcnj11(83535), Kcnj8(25472)
D7191 Dibenzylfluorescein    
W0641 W-84 dibromide ≥98% (HPLC), solid Potent allosteric modulator of M2 muscarinic acetylcholine receptors.
 
17970 2,4′-Dibromoacetophenone puriss., ≥98.5% (HPLC)   human ... PLA2G2A(5320)
rat ... Pla2g2a(29692)
D38308 2,4′-Dibromoacetophenone >98%   human ... PLA2G2A(5320)
rat ... Pla2g2a(29692)
33990 1,4-Dibromobenzene purum, ≥97.0% (GC)   human ... CYP2A6(1548)
mouse ... Cyp2a5(13087)
D39029 1,4-Dibromobenzene 98%   human ... CYP2A6(1548)
mouse ... Cyp2a5(13087)
328057 4,4′-Dibromobenzil 90%, technical grade   human ... ACHE(43), BCHE(590), CES1(1066)
402176 6,8-Dibromo-3-formylchromone 99%   human ... PTPN1(5770)
258164 2,4-Dibromophenol 95%   human ... ALOX12(239), ALOX15(246)
442312 2,4-Dibromophenol analytical standard   human ... ALOX12(239), ALOX15(246)
252018 2,6-Dibromophenol 99%   human ... ALOX12(239), ALOX15(246), GABRA1(2554)
442324 2,6-Dibromophenol analytical standard   human ... ALOX12(239), ALOX15(246), GABRA1(2554)
157457 3,5-Di-tert-butyl-o-benzoquinone 98%   human ... ACHE(43), BCHE(590), CES1(1066)
34640 N,N′-Di-tert-butylcarbodiimide purum, ≥99.0% (GC)   human ... EPHX2(2053)
mouse ... Ephx2(13850)
235563 N,N′-Di-tert-butylcarbodiimide 99%   human ... EPHX2(2053)
mouse ... Ephx2(13850)
47168 3,5-Di-tert-4-butylhydroxytoluene (BHT) analytical standard   human ... CAPN1(823)
rat ... Capn1(29153), Nos1(24598)
B1378 2,6-Di-tert-butyl-4-methylphenol ≥99.0% (GC), powder Butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT) is a phenolic antioxidant. It has been shown to inhibit lipid peroxidation. It causes lung injury and promotes tumors in mice, but this may be due to a metabolite of BHT, 6-tert-butyl-2-[2′-(2′-hydroxymethyl)-propyl]-4-methylphenol. Metabolites of BHT have also been reported to induce DNA strand breaks and internucleosomal DNA fragmentation (a characteristic of apoptosis) in cultured cells. In rats, a single intraperitoneal injection of BHT (60 mg/kg body mass) results in a significant increase in nuclear DNA methyl transferase activity in the liver, kidneys, heart, spleen, brain and lungs. Incubation of alveolar macrophages with BHT significantly reduced the level of TNF-α which may explain the mechanism by which this antioxidant reduces inflammation. Preincubation of aspirin-treated platelets with BHT inhibits the secretion, aggregation, and protein phosphorylation induced by protein kinase C activators. BHT was also found to inhibit the initiation of hepatocarcinogenesis by aflatoxin B1.
human ... CAPN1(823)
rat ... Capn1(29153), Nos1(24598)
34750 2,6-Di-tert-butyl-4-methylphenol purum, ≥99.0% (GC)   human ... CAPN1(823)
rat ... Capn1(29153), Nos1(24598)
03762 2,6-Di-tert-butyl-4-methylphenol tested according to Ph.Eur.   human ... CAPN1(823)
rat ... Capn1(29153), Nos1(24598)
137731 2,4-Di-tert-butylphenol 99%   human ... GABRA1(2554)
D48400 2,6-Di-tert-butylphenol 99%   human ... GABRA1(2554)
D2270 Dibutyl phthalate   mouse ... Esr1(13982)
152439 Dibutyl phthalate ReagentPlus®, ≥99%   mouse ... Esr1(13982)
524980 Dibutyl phthalate 99%   mouse ... Esr1(13982)
80100 Dibutyl phthalate Selectophore   mouse ... Esr1(13982)
36736 Dibutyl phthalate PESTANAL®, analytical standard   mouse ... Esr1(13982)
D49598 N,N′-Dibutylthiourea 97%   human ... EPHX2(2053)
mouse ... Ephx2(13850)
D0260 N6,2′-O-Dibutyryladenosine 3′,5′-cyclic monophosphate sodium salt ≥97% (HPLC), powder Cell-permeable cAMP analog that activates cAMP dependent protein kinase (PKA).
 
36545 Dichloroacetic acid PESTANAL®, analytical standard   human ... ALDH1A1(216), PDK1(5163)
rat ... Pdk1(116551)
D54702 Dichloroacetic acid ReagentPlus®, ≥99%   human ... ALDH1A1(216), PDK1(5163)
rat ... Pdk1(116551)
442559 Dichloroacetic acid analytical standard   human ... ALDH1A1(216), PDK1(5163)
rat ... Pdk1(116551)
49431 Dichloroacetic acid solution for DNA synthesis, 3% in methylene chloride   human ... ALDH1A1(216), PDK1(5163)
rat ... Pdk1(116551)
D8190   3′,4′-Dichlorobenzamil hydrochloride >98% (HPLC) Inhibits Na+/Ca2+ exchanger, Na+ transport and sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca2+ release channels.
 
35775 1,4-Dichlorobenzene PESTANAL®, analytical standard   human ... CYP2A6(1548)
mouse ... Cyp2a5(13087)
D56829 1,4-Dichlorobenzene ≥99%   human ... CYP2A6(1548)
mouse ... Cyp2a5(13087)
630012 2,2′-Dichlorobenzil 97%   human ... ACHE(43), BCHE(590), CES1(1066)
D1916 5,6-Dichlorobenzimidazole 1-β-D-ribofuranoside Inhibitor of RNA synthesis; causes premature termination of transcription. CK2 (casein kinase-2) inhibitor.
human ... CSNK2A1(1457), CSNK2B(1460)
BCR289 2,4′-Dichlorobiphenyl BCR® certified Reference Material   rat ... Ar(24208)
123897 1,1-Dichloro-2,2-bis(4-chlorophenyl)ethene 99%   mouse ... Esr1(13982)
rat ... Ar(24208)
D7910 3,4-Dichloroisocoumarin serine protease inhibitor    
D138 5,7-Dichlorokynurenic acid monohydrate solid, ≥98% (HPLC) Potent excitatory amino acid receptor antagonist; active at the strychnine-insensitive glycine binding site of the NMDA glutamate receptor.
human ... GRIN1(2902), NGFR(4804)
mouse ... Gria1(14799), Grin2a(14811)
rat ... Gria1(50592), Grik1(29559), Grin2a(24409), Grin2b(24410)
D4434 Dichloromethylenediphosphonic acid disodium salt Analog of pyrophosphate ion that inhibits the osteoclastic activity leading to bone resorption and osteoporosis. The compound is used in cancer research, especially in skeletal metastases and breast carcinoma.1,2 When entrapped in liposomes, it is used for macrophage-selective depletion (macrophage "suicide" technique), especially in spleen and liver.3 Found also to inhibit collagenase and matrix metalloproteinase1.4
rat ... Man2a1(25478), Si(497756)
D8942 Dichlorophenyl-ABA ≥98% (HPLC), solid Inhibitor of transthyretin amyloid fibril formation in vitro.
human ... TTR(7276)
D133   6,7-Dichloroquinoxaline-2,3-dione Antagonist at the NMDA glutamate receptor glycine site.
human ... ACHE(43), BCHE(590), CES1(1066), GRIN1(2902)
rat ... Gria1(50592), Grik1(29559), Grin2a(24409)
D6899 Diclofenac sodium salt Standard NSAID and cyclooxygenase (COX) inhibitor. Major metabolites are 4´-hydroxydiclofenac and 5´-hydroxydiclofenac. Has been used as substrate selective for CYP2C9.
human ... PTGS1(5742)
D80800 N,N′-Dicyclohexylurea 98%   human ... EPHX2(2053)
mouse ... Ephx2(13850)
D7909 Dicyclomine hydrochloride ≥99% (TLC), powder Competitive muscarinic acetylcholine receptor antagonist.
human ... CHRM1(1128), CHRM2(1129), CHRM3(1131), CHRM4(1132), CHRM5(1133)
D1413 2′,3′-Didehydro-3′-deoxythymidine ≥98% (TLC) Nucleoside analog which inhibits HIV replication in vitro.
 
D1285 2′,3′-Dideoxyadenosine ≥97% (HPLC)   human ... DCK(1633)
D7408 2′,5′-Dideoxyadenosine ≥95% (HPLC), solid Cell-permeable adenylyl cyclase inhibitor. IC50 = 2.7 μM in detergent-dispersed rat brain preparations.
rat ... Adcy2(81636)
D0939 2′,5′-Dideoxyadenosine 3′-triphosphate tetrasodium salt >91% (HPLC) Potent inhibitor of adenylyl cyclase. Not cell-permeable. IC50 = 40 nM in detergent-dispersed rat brain preparation.
 
36775 2′,3′-Dideoxycytidine ≥99.0% (HPLC) Infection of NIH Swiss 3T3 cells by 334C murine leukemia virus is inhibited by 50 μM ddCyd without effecting cell growth;1 ddCyd inhibits the in vitro infectivity and cytopathic effects of human Tlymphotropic virus type III/ lymphadenopathy-associated virus (HTLV-III/LAV).2
 
D5782 2′,3′-Dideoxycytidine ≥98% (HPLC)    
D8174 9,11-Dideoxy-11α,9α-epoxymethanoprostaglandin F solution, 10 mg/mL in methyl acetate Thromboxane receptor agonist.
 
D0400 9,11-Dideoxy-9α,11α-epoxymethanoprostaglandin F Prostaglandin F analogue; thromboxane A2/prostaglandin H2 mimetic.
 
D3658 1,9-Dideoxyforskolin from Coleus forskohlii ≥97%, solid Biologically inactive forskolin analog. Does not stimulate adenylyl cyclase.
 
D7409 2′,3′-Dideoxyguanosine 5′-triphosphate sodium salt ≥90% (HPLC)   human ... HRAS(3265)
42414 2′,3′-Dideoxyguanosine 5′-triphosphate sodium salt solution for MALDI MS, ≥98.0% (HPLC), 10.0-11.0 (UV)   human ... HRAS(3265)
D1542 1,4-Dideoxy-1,4-imino-D-arabinitol hydrochloride enzyme inhibitor Inhibitor of glycogen phosphorylase1 and α-glucosidases.2
human ... PYGB(5834), PYGBL(5835), PYGL(5836), PYGM(5837)
mouse ... Gaa(14387), Glb1(12091), Treh(58866)
rat ... Man2a1(25478), Pygl(64035), Si(25588)
D0162 2′,3′-Dideoxyinosine ≥98% (HPLC) Nucleotide antagonist
 
D184 Diethylamine NONOate sodium salt hydrate ≥97% (NMR) Diethylamine NONOate is a complex of diethylamine with nitric oxide used to generate a controlled release of nitric oxide in solution.
 
560510 3-(Diethylamino)propyl isothiocyanate 97%   human ... HBA2(3040), HBB(3043)
213810 Diethylcyanamide 99%   human ... CTSB(1508), CTSK(1513), CTSL1(1514)
D93201 Diethyl 2,4-dimethylpyrrole-3,5-dicarboxylate 97%   rat ... Grm1(24414)
372889 1,3-Diethyl-1,3-diphenylurea 99%   human ... EPHX2(2053)
mouse ... Ephx2(13850)
D185 Diethylenetriamine/nitric oxide adduct ≥97% (CHN/NMR), solid    
478601 2,6-Diethylphenyl isocyanate 98%   human ... GABRA1(2554)
D4628 Diethylstilbestrol ≥99% (HPLC) Diethylstilbestrol is a synthetic estrogen with carcinogenic properties. Causes renal clear-cell carcinoma in Syrian hamster. In humans it causes increased risk of breast cancer, clear cell adenocarcinoma (CCA) of the vagina and cervix, and reproductive anomalies. Used in the treatment of prostate cancer to block the production of testosterone.
human ... ESR1(2099), ESR2(2100), ESRRG(2104)
mouse ... Esr1(13982)
rat ... Ar(24208), Esr1(24890)
46207 Diethylstilbestrol VETRANAL, analytical standard   human ... ESR1(2099), ESR2(2100), ESRRG(2104)
mouse ... Esr1(13982)
rat ... Ar(24208), Esr1(24890)
218944 Diethylstilbestrol, mixture of cis and trans 97%   human ... ESR1(2099), ESR2(2100), ESRRG(2104)
mouse ... Esr1(13982)
rat ... Ar(24208), Esr1(24890)
D100900 N,N′-Diethylthiourea 98%   human ... EPHX2(2053)
mouse ... Ephx2(13850)
D7692 Diethylumbelliferyl phosphate ≥98% (HPLC), oil Diethylumbelliferyl phosphate is a selective, potent cholesterol esterase inhibitor. It blocks steroidogenesis primarily by preventing cholesterol transport into the mitochondria of steroidogenic cells. Inhibitors of cholesterol esterase are anticipated to limit the absorption of dietary cholesterol. IC50 = 11.6 μM.
 
D101087 1,3-Diethylurea 97%   human ... EPHX2(2053)
mouse ... Ephx2(13850)
D0567 DIF-3 ≥99% (HPLC), solid DIF-3 Inhibits cell cycle by inducing G0/G1 arrest.
 
D3281 Diflunisal analytical standard   human ... ALB(213)
381322 4,4′-Difluorobenzil 98%   human ... ACHE(43), BCHE(590), CES1(1066)
472670 9,10-Difluoro-2,3-dihydro-3-methyl-7-oxo-7H-pyrido[1,2,3-de]-1,4-benzoxazine-6-carboxylic acid 97%   human ... CSNK2A1(1457)
D193 DL-α-Difluoromethylornithine hydrochloride hydrate solid, ≥97% (NMR) Difluoromethylornithine (Eflornithine) inhibits polyamine biosynthesis by the selective, irreversible inhibition of ornithine decarboxylase (ODC). A chemoprotective agent that blocks angiogenesis.
human ... ODC1(4953)
D8941 2,6-Difluoro-4-[2-(phenylsul­fonyl­amino)­ethyl­thio]­phenoxy­acet­amide ≥98% (HPLC), solid 2,6-Difluoro-4-[2-(phenylsul­fonyl­amino)­ethyl­thio]­phenoxy­acet­amide is a structurally novel, selective, high affinity AMPA ionotropic glutamate receptor agonist that reduces ischemia-induced performance deficits in rats.
human ... GRIA1(2890), GRIA2(2891), GRIA3(2892), GRIA4(2893)
SRP3258   DKK-1 human recombinant, expressed in HEK 293 cells, ≥97% (SDS-PAGE), ≥97% (HPLC), cell culture tested DKK-1 is a member of the DKK protein family which also includes DKK-2, DKK-3 and DKK-4. Recombinant human DKK-1 expressed in human 293 cells is a 35-40 kDa glycoprotein containing 235 amino-acid residues.
human ... DKK1(22943)