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D5878 Digitoxin ≥92% (HPLC), powder    
D6770 Digoxin analytical standard A cardiac glycoside, substrate for Pgp, upregulates Pgp expression and down regulates SXR (Steroid Xenobiotic Receptor).
human ... ABCB1(5243), CYP3A4(1576)
mouse ... Abcb1a(18671), Abcb1b(18669)
rat ... Atp1a1(24211)
D8555 N,N-Dihexyl-2-(4-fluorophenyl)indole-3-acetamide High affinity ligand for glial mitochondrial benzodiazepine receptors; stimulates neurosteroid biosynthesis; does not bind GABAA receptors
human ... BZRAP1(9256)
rat ... Tspo(24230)
M1022 Dihydrocapsaicin from Capsicum sp., ≥85% VR1 vanilloid receptor agonist.
human ... TRPV1(7442)
rat ... Trpv4(66026)
C7980 Dihydroceramide C2 ≥98% (TLC), solid Inactive form of C2 ceramide; may be used as a negative control.
C8230 Dihydroceramide C6 solid Inactive form of C6 ceramide for use as a negative control.
C8605 Dihydroceramide C8 98%, waxy solid Inactive form of C8 ceramide for use as a negative control.
D4321 Dihydroeponemycin ≥98% (HPLC) Dihydroeponemycin is an active derivative of eponemycin an antitumor antibiotic isolated from Streptomyces hygroscopicus. Dihydroeponemycin labels the catalytic threonine residues of the immunoproteasome subunits LMP2 and LMP7 and the constitutive proteasome subunit X, while epoxomicin covalently modifies the N-terminal catalytic threonine residues of the constitutive proteasome (X and Z) and immunoproteasome (LMP7 and MECL1) subunits.
D1064 Dihydrokainic acid ≥98% (HPLC), powder Dihydrokainic acid is a selective inhibitor of the GLT-1 glutamate transporter. At higher concentrations, dihydrokainate is a weak inhibitor of AMPA/kainate glutamic acid receptors.
human ... SLC1A1(6505), SLC1A2(6506), SLC1A3(6507)
rat ... Slc1a2(29482), Slc1a3(29483)
SML0295 Dihydromyricetin ≥98% (HPLC) Dihydromyricetin (Ampelopsin) is a flavanonol with antioxidant and anti-cancer activity, found to have anti-alcohol intoxication effects. Its anti-alcohol effects appear to be by its actions as a positive modulator of GABA-A receptors at the benzodiazepine site.
D3314 D-erythro-Dihydrosphingosine ≥98% Biosynthetic precursor to sphingosine; inhibits protein kinase C.
D4681 L-threo-Dihydrosphingosine ≥95% (TLC) Sphingosine kinase inhibitor; protein kinase C alpha (PKCα) -specific inhibitor; Sphingosine analog; potentiates the effect of doxorubicin (DOX) in tumor-bearing animals.
D6783 DL-Dihydrosphingosine ≥98%, synthetic Biosynthetic precursor of sphingosine.
D3439 D-erythro-Dihydrosphingosine 1-phosphate ≥98% (TLC), waxy solid Negative control for sphingosine-1-phosphate.
human ... S1PR1(1901), S1PR2(9294), S1PR3(1903), S1PR4(8698), S1PR5(53637)
UC441 6´,-7´-Dihydroxybergamottin CYP3A4 inhibitor.
SML0541 7α,25-Dihydroxycholesterol ≥98% (HPLC) 7α,25-Dihydroxycholesterol (7α,25-OHC) is a potent and selective endogenous ligand for the orphan GPCR receptor EBI2 (GPR183) with an EC50 value in the picomolar range. The newly discovered EBI2–oxysterol signalling pathway has been shown to have an important role in the adaptive immune response, including a role in driving immune cell migration. In vitro and in vivo studies showed that 7,25-OHC can serve as a chemokine directing migration of B cells, T cells and dendritic cells.
D5564 7,8-Dihydroxycoumarin ≥97%, powder Inhibitor of protein kinases.
D1444   6,2′-Dihydroxyflavone ≥98% (HPLC), powder 6,2′-Dihydroxyflavone is a partial inverse agonist at GABAA receptors with α-subunit selectivity.
D5446 7,8-Dihydroxyflavone hydrate ≥98% (HPLC) 7,8-Dihydroxyflavone is a selective tyrosine kinase receptor B (TrkB) receptor agonist. It manifests all the therapeutic effects of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF)—such as protecting neurons from apoptosis, inhibiting kainic acid-induced toxicity, decreasing infarct volumes in stroke, and neuroprotecting in an animal model of Parkinson′s disease—without the poor pharmacokinetic profile of BDNF limiting its therapeutic potential.
SML0361 3’,4’-Dihydroxyflavonol ≥98% (HPLC) 3’,4’-Dihydroxyflavonol is a synthetic cardioprotective flavone that attenuates myocardial ischemia/reperfusion injury, which associated with its antioxidant activity.
D1507 L-3,4-Dihydroxyphenylalanine methyl ester hydrochloride solid Precursor to L-DOPA that crosses the blood-brain barrier; antiparkinsonian agent.
D3689 (S)-3,5-Dihydroxyphenylglycine hydrate ≥98% (HPLC), powder (S)-3,5-Dihydroxyphenylglycine hydrate is a group I metabotropic glutamate receptor agonist.
human ... GRM1(2911)
P2016 3α,21-Dihydroxy-5α-pregnan-20-one ≥95% Positive allosteric modulator of GABAA receptors.
human ... GABRA1(2554), GABRA2(2555), GABRA3(2556), GABRA4(2557), GABRA5(2558), GABRA6(2559), GABRB1(2560), GABRB2(2561), GABRB3(2562)
rat ... Gabra2(29706)
P5902 3α,12α-Dihydroxy-5β-pregnan-20-one 3,12-diacetate    
P6285 17α,20β-Dihydroxy-4-pregnen-3-one crystalline 17α,20β-Dihydroxy-4-pregnen-3-one, also known as maturation-inducing steroid (MIS), is the most potent steroid for inducing final oocyte maturation in several species of fish.
D0633 7-(2,3-Dihydroxypropyl)theophylline    
D0879 Diisopropylfluorophosphate Potent inhibitor of serine proteases such as trypsin and chymotrypsin, and of acetylcholinesterase; also inhibits cathepsin G, cholinesterase, coagulation factor Xa, leucocyte elastase, pancreatic elastase, tissue kallikrein, plasmin, subtilisin, and thrombin. Inhibition of acetylcholinesterase makes this compound especially toxic. Inhibits apoptosis induced by ricin and bacterial toxins.
human ... PTGS1(5742), PTGS2(5743)
D4565 2,3-Di-nor-8-isoprostaglandin F ≥98%, methyl acetate solution    
D5294 Dilazep dihydrochloride powder Adenosine uptake inhibitor; coronary and cerebral vasodilator; suppresses effects of ischemia; antiplatelet agent.
human ... ADORA1(134), ADORA2A(135), ADORA2B(136), ADORA3(140)
D2521 (+)-cis-Diltiazem hydrochloride ≥99% (HPLC) Blocks slow, or L-type Ca2+ channels; regulates Ca2+ release from intracellular stores in neutrophils; stimulates 1,4-dihydropyridine binding to Ca2+ channels; coronary vasodilator.
SML1508 C-DIM12 ≥98% (HPLC) C-DIM12 is a potent and selective nuclear receptor Nurr1 (NR4A2) activator that activates Nurr1 in urothelial carcinoma cells and in pancreatic cells. C-DIM12 suppresses inflammatory signaling in microglia.
D7571 Dimaprit dihydrochloride ≥98% (NMR) The histamine H2 receptor influences various cardiovascular responses, including vasodilation and cardiac rhythm, regulates gastric acid secretion, and also plays a role in the immune system by inhibiting antibody production, T cell proliferation and cytokine production. Histamine receptors are members of the GPCR family, and H2 mediates cell signaling via internalization and interaction with the GTPase dynamin.
D6196 Dimebon dihydrochloride hydrate ≥98% (HPLC) Mechanism of neuroprotection and cognition enhancement is not certain, but Dimebon blocks both cholinesterase and the NMDA receptor simultaneously and also appears to block the action of neurotoxic β-amyloid proteins and inhibit L-type calcium channels, and may exert a neuroprotective effect by blocking a novel target that involves mitochondrial pores.
D2396 Dimenhydrinate    
D5943 2-(3,4-Dimethoxy-benzoylamino)-4,5,6,7-tetrahydro-benzo[b]thiophene-3-carboxylic acid amide ≥98% (HPLC), solid Flt-3 (fms-related tyrosine kinase 3) inhibitor
D6571 3′,4′-Dimethoxyflavone 3′,4′-dimethoxyflavone is a competitive antagonist of the AhR that inhibits AhR-mediated induction of CYP1A1, and also displays antiestrogen activity in breast tumor cell lines. The compound blocks transformation of the cytosolic AhR complex, and formation of nuclear AhR complexes.
D5439   2,3-Dimethoxy-1,4-naphthoquinone ≥99%, solid    
D6068 N-[4-[(6,7-Dimethoxy-4-quinazolinyl)amino]phenyl]benzamide hydrochloride ≥98% (HPLC), solid Aurora Kinase Inhibitor
A4562 5-(N,N-Dimethyl)amiloride hydrochloride Selective blocker of Na+/H+ antiport; IC50 = 6.9 μM.
human ... SCNN1A(6337), SCNN1B(6338), SCNN1D(6339), SCNN1G(6340), SLC9A1(6548)
mouse ... Scnn1a(20276), Scnn1b(20277), Scnn1d(140501), Scnn1g(20278)
rat ... Scnn1a(25122), Scnn1b(24767), Scnn1g(24768), Slc9a1(24782), Slc9a2(24783), Slc9a3(24784)
D4268 NG,NG-Dimethylarginine dihydrochloride Reversible inhibitor of nitric oxide synthetase in vivo and in vitro.
human ... NOS1(4842), NOS2(4843), NOS2B(201288), NOS2C(645740), NOS3(4846)
D7196 2,5-Dimethyl-celecoxib ≥98% (HPLC) Celecoxib, and the inactive analog 2′,5′-dimethyl celecoxib both induce apoptosis in a many cancer cell lines by down-regulating the expression of survivin. This activiy is mediated via an AKT mediated pathway, and is unique to this class of cyclo-oxygenase inhibitors, as non-selective NSAIDs or other COX-2 specific inhibitors such as rofecoxib, do not effect survivin expression. Unlike celecoxib, 2′,5′-dimethyl celecoxib is devoid of any inhibitory activity against COX-2.
SML0905   Dimethylenastron ≥98% (HPLC) Dimethylenastron is specific, reversible inhibitor of the mitotic motor kinesin Eg5. Dimethylenastron inhibits bipolar spindle formation, and inhibits proliferation, migration and invasion of several pancreatic cancer cell lines in cell based assays.
D5891 1,1-Dimethyl-4-phenylpiperazinium iodide ≥98% (TLC or titration), powder Nicotinic acetylcholine receptor agonist.
human ... CHRNA1(1134), CHRNA10(57053), CHRNA2(1135), CHRNA3(1136), CHRNA4(1137), CHRNA5(1138), CHRNA6(8973), CHRNA7(1139), CHRNA9(55584), CHRNB1(1140), CHRNB2(1141), CHRNB3(1142), CHRNB4(1143)
rat ... Chrna2(170945), Chrna3(25101), Chrna4(25590), Chrnb2(54239), Chrnb4(25103)
P2278 1,3-Dimethyl-8-phenylxanthine crystalline Selective A1 adenosine receptor antagonist.
human ... ADORA1(134), ADORA2B(136), ADORA3(140)
rat ... Adora1(29290), Adora2a(25369), Adora2b(29316)
D134 3,7-Dimethyl-1-propargylxanthine ≥98% (HPLC), powder Selective A2 adenosine receptor antagonist.
human ... ADORA2A(135), ADORA2B(136)
rat ... Adora1(29290), Adora2a(25369)
D5766 5,5-Dimethyl-1-pyrroline N-oxide ≥97%    
SML0311 N,N-Dimethylsphingosine ≥98% (HPLC) N,N-Dimethylsphingosine (DMS) is an endogenous metabolite of sphingosine produced in various tissues and tumor cell lines. N,N-Dimethylsphingosine is a potent inhbitor of sphingosine kinase. DMS levels are elevated in the spinal cord, and contributes to allodynia, in a transected-nerve model of neuropathic pain.
SML0791 N,N-Dimethyltryptamine ≥97% (HPLC) N,N-Dimethyltryptamine (DMT) is a hallucinogen now known to be an endogenous sigma-1 receptor agonist. In keeping with the known sigma-1 receptor modulation of voltage gated Na+ channels, DMT was found to reversibly inhibit Na currents by 62% in vitro. N,N-Dimethyltryptamine also induced hypermotility in WT mice (but not in sigma-1 KO mice), all evidence of its sigma-1 agonist activity.
D5385 1,7-Dimethylxanthine ~98%, solid Adenosine receptor ligand; major metabolite of caffeine
human ... ADORA1(134), ADORA2A(135), ADORA2B(136), ADORA3(140)
rat ... Adora1(29290), Adora2a(25369)
SML0823   DIMN ≥98% (HPLC) DIMN is an androgen receptor (AR) antagonist. DIMN is an anti-androgen that effectively suppresses growth of both androgen-dependent (LNCaP) and androgen-independent prostate cancer cell lines (C4-2 and CWR22rv) that express AR.
SML0079 DiMNF ≥98% (HPLC) DiMNF is a naphthoflavone derivative, selective aryl hydrocarbon receptor modulator (SAhRM). DiMNF is an AHR ligand that does not induce the expression of AHR dependent genes, such as CYP1A1, but inhibits the expression of cytokine-induced acute phase response proteins such as serum amyloid A and complement C3.
D7946 DIM-C-pPhOCH3 ≥98% (HPLC) DIM-C-pPhOCH3 is a Nerve Growth Factor-Induced Bα (NGFI-Bα, Nur77) agonist
SML0363 DIM-C-pPhtBu ≥96% (HPLC) DIM-C-pPhtBu, similar to other C-DIMs, exhibits a broad range of anticancer and antitumorigenic activities against multiple tumor types. DIM-C-pPhtBu causes apoptotic cell death of KB cells by activation of endoplasmic reticulum stress through induction of CHOP protein that is associated with the apoptosis in human oral cancer cells. Also it appears to induce an autophagic cell death in drug-resistant ER-negative breast tumors.
P2663 1,2-Dimyristoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine ≥99%    
D129 R-(+)-DIOA ≥98% (HPLC), solid Potent [K+,Cl-]-cotransport inhibitor that shows no side effects on the bumetanimide-sensitive [Na+,K+,Cl-]-cotransport system.
P3591 1,2-Dioctanoyl-sn-glycerol 3-phosphate sodium salt ≥99%    
D1634 Diosgenin ≥93% Diosgenin is a plant steroid which induces apoptosis in colon cancer cell lines and induces apoptosis, cell cycle arrest and COX activity in osteosarcoma cells.
human ... UGT1A4(54657)
P6990 1,2-Dipalmitoylphosphatidylinositol 3,4-diphosphate sodium salt ≥98%, solid Diphosphorylated phosphatidylinositol that may be hydrolyzed by PI-specific phospholipase C to generate IP3 and DAG.
P7115 1,2-Dipalmitoylphosphatidylinositol 4,5-diphosphate triammonium salt ≥98%, solid Diphosphorylated phosphatidylinositol that may be hydrolyzed by PI-specific phospholipase C to generate IP3 and DAG.
P4240 1,2-Dipalmitoylphosphatidylinositol 3,4,5-trisphosphate tetrasodium salt ≥98% Proposed as signal transduction modulator.
D3630 Diphenhydramine hydrochloride ≥98% (HPLC) H1 histamine receptor antagonist
human ... HRH1(3269)
D7774 Diphenhydramine hydrochloride analytical standard    
D6071 Diphenylacetohydroxamic acid ≥98% (HPLC) Diphenylacetohydroxamic acid is a class IIa selective histone deacetylase inhibitor.
D2926 Diphenyleneiodonium chloride ≥98% A potent and reversible inhibitor of nitric oxide synthetase from macrophages and endothelial cells. Also inhibits other flavoenzymes such as neutrophil NADPH oxidase.
human ... NOS1(4842), NOS2(4843), NOS2B(201288), NOS2C(645740), NOS3(4846)
mouse ... Pik3r1(18708)
D4007 5,5-Diphenylhydantoin ≥99% Reduces incidence of grand mal seizures; appears to stabilize excitable membranes perhaps through effects on Na+, K+, and Ca2+ channels.
human ... CNR1(1268), CNR2(1269), CYP2C9(1559)
rat ... Faah(29347), Scn1a(81574), Scnn1g(24768), Slc6a1(79212)
D4505 5,5-Diphenylhydantoin sodium salt ≥99% Reduces incidence of grand mal seizures; appears to stabilize excitable membranes perhaps through effects on Na+, K+, and Ca2+ channels.
human ... CNR1(1268), CNR2(1269), CYP2C9(1559)
rat ... Faah(29347), Scn1a(81574), Scnn1g(24768), Slc6a1(79212)
D8816 N-(3,3-Diphenylpropyl)glycinamide >98% (HPLC), solid NMDA glutamate receptor open channel blocker.
human ... GRIN1(2902), GRIN2A(2903), GRIN2B(2904), GRIN2C(2905), GRIN2D(2906), GRINA(2907)
D0564   Diphtheria Toxin from Corynebacterium diphtheriae lyophilized powder Inhibits protein synthesis by catalyzing ADP-ribosylation of eukaryotic aminoacyltransferase II.
D2189   [Glu52]-Diphtheria toxin from Corynebacterium diphtheriae lyophilized powder    
A022 1,3-Dipropyl-8-(p-sulfophenyl)xanthine powder Water soluble adenosine receptor antagonist with slight selectivity for A1 receptors.
human ... ADORA1(134), ADORA2B(136), ADORA3(140)
rat ... Adora1(29290), Adora2a(25369), Adora3(25370)
D9766 Dipyridamole ≥98% (TLC), powder Selective inhibitor of phosphodiesterase V (PDE 5); potent coronary vasodilator drug; adenosine transport inhibitor; inhibitor of platelet aggregation.
human ... CYP1A2(1544), PDE10A(10846), PDE5A(8654), SLC29A1(2030)
mouse ... Slc29a1(63959)
D7689   Diquine ≥98%, solid A nicotinic cholinoreceptor antagonist at the neuromuscular junction; curare-like ganglioblocker.
G0776   Disialoganglioside-GD2 from bovine brain ~95%, lyophilized powder, semisynthetic Cell surface component from disialoganglioside-GD1b.
G2392   Disialoganglioside GD1a from bovine brain ≥95% (TLC), lyophilized powder The major ganglioside in brain. Converted to GM1 by bacterial and mammalian sialidase. Differentiation marker for cell growth.
G8146   Disialoganglioside GD1b from bovine brain ~95%, lyophilized powder May act as a bacterial toxin receptor (tetanus, botulinus); high levels found in gliomas and astrocytomas.
D6035   Disopyramide phosphate salt Class IA antiarrhythmic; sodium channel blocker
SML1724 Displurigen ≥98% (HPLC) Displurigen is a cell-permeable, phenylthiochromen-4-one derived compound that disrupts the pluripotency of human embryonic stem cells by targeting HSPA8/HSC70 and affects its binding to Oct4. Inhibits ATPase activity of HSP70 (IC50 = 225 μM). Displurigen has shown to diminish the mRNA levels of Oct4 and Nanog within 24 hours of treatment and causes a complete annihilation of OCT4+  and NANOG+  bearing cells within 4 days of treatment (~ 10 μM). It does not induce apoptosis and has no significant effect on cell cycle progression.
P3531 1,2-Distearoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphoethanolamine ≥99%    
D3190 Dithiobiuret 97%, solid    
SML0986   Divin ≥98% (HPLC) Divin (DIVision Inhibitor) is an inhibitor of bacterial division with a novel mechanism of action. During bacterial division, more than a dozen different proteins assemble at the division site in a specific order to form a complex called the divisome, with the first protein, FtsZ , followed by ‘early’ or ‘late’ proteins based on their temporal localization. Divin blocks cell division by disrupting the spatial and temporal localization of the late division proteins, disrupting their assembly and preventing compartmentalization of the cytoplasm. Divin has been found to be a potent bacteriostatic agent against clinical pathogens with low toxicity against mammalian cells.
D6942 DK-AH 269 ≥98% (HPLC), solid DK-AH 269 (Cilobradine) is an HCN Channel blocker; an open channel blocker of neuronal Ih and related cardiac If channels.
D5689 DM 235 solid DM 235 (Sunifiram) is a potent nootropic agent.
SML1814 3,6-DMAD hydrochloride ≥98% (HPLC) New 3,6-DMAD is an acridine derivative that selectively suppresses ER stress- (300 nM Thapsigargin) induced HT1080 cellular XBP1 mRNA splicing (Eff. conc. 500 nM), but not eIF2a phosphorylation, by directly inhibiting IRE1? RNase (endoribonuclease) activity and disrupting IRE1α oligomerization. 3,6-DMAD is shown to exhibit anti-multiple myeloma efficacy in cultures in vitro (%survival/[3,6-DMAD]/cell line/24 h = 13%/4 M/RPMI 8226 and 8%/1 μM/MM1.R) and completely suppress the expansion of established RPMI 8226 tumor in mice in vivo when administered via intraperitoneal injection (10 mg/kg q.o.d.).
D6317 DMeOB ≥98% (HPLC), solid Negative allosteric modulator at the metabotropic glutamate receptor mGluR5.
D8946 DMH1 ≥98% (HPLC) DMH1 is a highly selective Bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) inhibitor. DMH1 is a dorsomorphin analogue that exclusively targets the BMP but not the VEGF pathway.
SML1535 DMH2 ≥98% (HPLC) DMH2 is a potent antagonist of the BMP receptor activin receptor-like kinase 3 (ALK3, BMPR-IA) that enhance liver regeneration. DMH2 potently inhibits BMP signaling and induced the greatest reduction of cell growth and expression of Id family members in H1299 non-small cell lung carcinoma cells.
D8696 DMH4 >99.0% (HPLC) DMH4 is a potent VEGF inhibitor and an angiogenesis inhbitor. It is a selective VEGF inhibitor with an IC50 of 161 nM for VEGFR inhibition compared to 8000 nM for AMPK. Unlike the structurally similar DMH1, which is a selective BMP inhibitor, DMH4 shows little affinitiy for BMP with an IC50 of 3500 nM for BMPR-I.
SML1874 DM-NOFD ≥98% (HPLC) New DM-NOFD is a cell penetrant, prodrug of NOFD a potent and selective inhibitor of an asparaginyl hydroxylase FIH (factor-inhibiting HIF). DM-NOFD efficiently reduces HIF1a CAD (C-terminal activating domain) hydroxylation in MCF-7 cells.
D3695 DMOG ≥98% (HPLC) DMOG is a cell permeable prolyl-4-hydroxylase inhibitor, which upregulates HIF (hypoxia-inducible factor). The protein level of HIF-1α subunit is post-transcriptionally regulated by prolyl and asparaginyl hydroxylase (PAH). Suppression of PAH activity increases endogenous HIF-1α levels. DMOG is a cell permeable, competitive inhibitor of prolyl hydroxylase domain-containing proteins (PHDs and HIF-PHs). It has been discovered that the DMOG posseses neuroprotective effect on NFG deprived cell cultures through preservation of glucose metabolism. DMOG also attenuates myocardial injury in a rabbit ischemia reperfusion model. DMOG is more potent than the older inhibitor 4-Phenyl-pyridine-2,5-dicarboxylic acid (R395889; Sigma-Aldrich rare chemicals library). The IC50 is 5.18 μM.
SML0334 DMPQ dihydrochloride ≥98% (HPLC) DMPQ is a potent selective inhibitor of human vascular beta-type platelet derived growth factor receptor tyrosine kinase (PDGFR?) with IC50 = 80 nM. It is > 100-fold selective over EGFR, erbB2, p56, protein kinase A and protein kinase C.
D5817 DMXAA ≥98% (HPLC), solid DMXAA is an apoptosis inducer; anti-vascular.
D0540 DNQX ≥98% (TLC) A competitive kainate, quisqualate (non-NMDA) glutamate receptor antagonist.
human ... GRIA1(2890), GRIA2(2891), GRIK1(2897), GRIK2(2898), GRIK3(2899), GRIK4(2900), GRIK5(2901)
mouse ... Gria1(14799)
rat ... Gria1(50592), Grik1(29559), Grik4(24406), Grin2a(24409)
SML0488 Dobesilate Calcium ≥98% (HPLC) Dobesilate Calcium is a vasoprotectant used as a treatment for chronic venous disease, diabetic retinopathy and other microvascular disorders. Its mechanism of action is not fully understood. It appears that dobesilate calcium increases endothelial nitric oxide levels by enhancing the activity of nitric oxide synthase and decreasing capillary hyperpermeability. Also in diabetic retinopathy dobesilate calcium prevents the blood-retinal barrier breakdown induced by diabetes by restoration of the tight junction protein, and decreasing the leukocyte adhesion to retinal vessels.
D0676 Dobutamine hydrochloride ≥98% β1-Adrenoceptor receptor agonist.
human ... ADRB1(153)
SML0563   Docosahexaenoyl ethanolamide ≥98% (HPLC), ethanol solution (5 mg/ml) Docosahexaenoyl ethanolamide (DHEA) is a lipid signaling molecule present in brain and retina at concentrations, similar to those for arachidonoyl ethanolamide. DHEA binds to the rat brain CB1 receptor with a Ki of 324 nM. It exhibits anti-inflammatory and organ protective activity. Studies show that docosahexaenoyl ethanolamide is the mediator of neurite growth and synaptogenesis in hippocampal neurons, resulting in enhanced synaptic activity.
L4250 Dodecanoic acid ≥99% (GC/titration) Substrate for CYP 4A11
SML0938   Dofequidar fumarate ≥98% (HPLC) Dofequidar fumarate is a potent inhibitor of MDR-1. The compound Dofequidar fumarate sensitizes tumor cells to cytotoxic drugs.
PZ0016 Dofetilide ≥98% (HPLC) Dofetilide is a Class III antiarrhythmic and hERG channel blocker. Dofetilide selectively blocks the rapid component of the delayed rectifier outward potassium current (IKr).
D153 (R)(−)-DOI hydrochloride ≥98% (HPLC), solid Potent and selective 5-HT2 serotonin receptor agonist that crosses the blood-brain barrier; more potent enantiomer of ±-DOI hydrochloride.
human ... HTR2A(3356), HTR2B(3357), HTR2C(3358)
D9571 Dolasetron mesylate hydrate ≥98% (HPLC), powder Dolasetron mesylate hydrate is a highly specific and selective serotonin 5-HT3 receptor antagonist, not shown to have activity at other known serotonin receptors and with low affinity for dopamine receptors.
D6152 Domoic acid ≥90% (HPLC) Potent agonist at receptors for excitatory amino acids glutamate and kainate; has highest affinity for AMPA/kainate receptor of any kainate agonist; causes excessive excitation of neurons leading to depletion of energy stores.
human ... GRIK1(2897)
D122 Domperidone powder, ≥98% (HPLC) Peripheral dopamine receptor antagonist that does not cross the blood-brain barrier; anti-emetic.
human ... DRD1(1812), DRD2(1813), DRD3(1814), DRD4(1815), DRD5(1816), KCNH2(3757)
rat ... Drd1a(24316), Drd2(24318), Drd3(29238), Htr3a(79246)
D6821 Donepezil hydrochloride monohydrate ≥98% (HPLC) Donepezil monohydrochloride monohydrate is a centrally acting reversible acetylcholinesterase inhibitor.
D9071 Donitriptan monohydrochloride ≥98% (HPLC) Donitriptan is a potent, selective 5-HT1B/1D agonist.
SML0091 L-Dopa ethyl ester ≥98% (HPLC) L-Dopa ethyl ester is a prodrug of levodopa that has greater gastric solubility. The drug is rapidly hydrolyzed to levodopa by nonspecific esterases in the gastrointestinal tract. L-Dopa ethyl ester (etilevodopa)-carbidopa treatment was well tolerated but did not demonstrate better efficacy compared with standard levodopa-carbidopa treatment. L-Dopa ethyl ester should have a significant brain penetration following an administration by injection.
H8502 Dopamine hydrochloride    
D9446 L-DOPS ≥98% (HPLC) L-DOPS is a norepinephrine precursor in vivo.
P5499 Dorsomorphin ≥98% (HPLC) Dorsomorphin is a selective inhibitor of Bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) signaling. It has been found to inhibit BMP signals required for embryogenesis and promoted significant neural differentiation from human pluripotent stem cell (hPSC) lines. Dorsomorphin also acts as a potent, selective, reversible, and ATP-competitive inhibitor of AMPK (AMP-activated protein kinase); Ki = 109 nM in the presence of 5 μM ATP and the absence of AMP).
SML0468 Dorzolamide ≥98% (HPLC) Dorzolamide is a potent carbonic anhydrase II inhibitor with an IC50 value of 0.16 nM on human erythrocyte carbonic anhydrase II in vitro. It has been found to lower increased intraocular pressure in open-angle glaucoma and ocular hypertension.
D6446 DOV 216,303 ≥98% (HPLC) Triple reuptake inhibitor (TRI); serotonin-norepinephrine-dopamine reuptake inhibitor (SNDRI); IC50 values of ~20, 14, and 78 nM, respectively.
D9815 Doxazosin mesylate ≥97% (HPLC), powder α1-adrenoceptor antagonist; relaxes smooth muscles of the prostate
human ... ADRA1A(148), ADRA1B(147), ADRA1D(146)
rat ... Adra1a(29412), Adra1b(24173), Adra1d(29413)
D4526 Doxepin hydrochloride ~85% E-isomer basis, ≥98% (GC), 15% Z-isomer basis, powder Tricyclic antidepressant that is a more potent inhibitor of norepinephrine uptake than of serotonin uptake; antagonist at H1 histamine, muscarinic cholinergic, and α-adrenoreceptors.
human ... ADRA1A(148), ADRA1B(147), ADRA1D(146), CHRM1(1128), CHRM2(1129), CHRM3(1131), CHRM4(1132), CHRM5(1133), HRH1(3269), HTR1A(3350), HTR1B(3351), HTR1D(3352), HTR1E(3354), HTR1F(3355), HTR2A(3356), HTR2B(3357), HTR2C(3358), HTR3A(3359), HTR3B(9177), HTR3C(170572), HTR3D(200909), HTR3E(285242), HTR4(3360), HTR5A(3361), HTR5B(645694), HTR6(3362), HTR7(3363)
D0196 Doxercalciferol ≥98% (HPLC), solubility: >10 mg/mL in DMSO Doxercalciferol is a Vitamin D2 analogue, a Vitamin D Receptor Activator (VDRA). Doxercalciferol acts as a pro-hormone, needing 25-hydroxylation in the liver for bioactivation into 1α, 25-hydroxyvitamin D2. Pivotal studies in adults on dialysis have demonstrated control of secondary hyperparathyroidism that is superior to placebo therapy, without undue suppression of 1st IMA-PTH < 300 pg/mL, or occurrences of hypercalcemia. Doxercalciferol has been shown to be effective in controlling secondary hyperparathyroidism of adult patients with CKD stages 3-4.
Doxercalciferol is a vitamin D2 analog that acts as a pro-hormone, activated in the liver to 1α,25-dihydroxyvitamin D2. Despite its relatively low affinity for the vitamin D receptor (VDR) (before activation), it is effective at suppressing expression of the parathyroid hormone (PTH) gene, and appears to act through the VDR.
SML1522 Doxofylline ≥98% (HPLC) Doxofylline (also known as doxophylline) has antitussive and bronchodilator effects. Doxofylline is used clinically in the treatment of asthma. Doxofylline has similar efficacy to theophylline, but unlike theophylline or other xanthines has little affinity for adenosine receptors and does not produce stimulant effects and has significantly fewer side effects.
D3775 Doxylamine succinate salt H1 histamine receptor antagonist; hypnotic.
Doxylamine suppresses histamine at the H1 receptor. It is associated with the short term management of insomnia and temporary relief of common cold symptoms. On the other hand, doxylamine intoxication is linked with rhabdomyolysis and secondary acute renal failure.
Studies in mice show that doxylamine induces liver microsomal cytochrome P450 and other enzymes involved in thyroxine (T4) metabolism. In combination with pyridoxine hydrochloride, this drug is used to treat morning sickness.
human ... HRH1(3269)
SML0186 Dp44mT ≥98% (HPLC) Dp44mT is an iron chelator that works as a selective anticancer agent. As other iron chelators it can serve as a therapeutic adjunct to doxorubicin treatment. Additionally Dm44mT possess DNA-damaging activity. It appears that that activity is mediated by top2a inhibition.
SML1765 DPBQ ≥98% (HPLC) DPBQ is a potent apoptosis inducer that is specific for high-ploidy cells. It appears that DPBQ induces expression and phosphorylation of p53 and this effect is specific to tetraploid cells.
SML0483 DpC ≥98% (HPLC) DpC is an iron-chelating agent. In four separate human pancreatic tumor cell lines, DpC significantly increased the expression and phosphorylation of the growth and metastasis suppressor, N-myc down-stream regulated gene 1 (NDRG1) and the cdk inhibitpr p21CIP1/WAF. DpC completely blocked PANC-1 tumor growth in mouse xenografts.
DpC is an iron-chelating agent.
SML0202 DPH ≥98% (HPLC) DPH binds and alters the conformation of the myristoyl binding site of c-Abl tyrosine kinase. It exhibits potent enzymatic and cellular activity that stimulates the activation of c-Abl.
DPH is a potent cell permeable c-Abl activator. DPH binds to the myristoyl binding site and leads to activation of c-Abl kinase activity. The compound stimulates the phosphorylation of c-Abl and its downstream substrate Crk.
D7443 DPO-1 needles, >97% (NMR) DPO-1 is an inhibitor of human Kv1.5 potassium channel; representative blocker of a novel pharmacophore. The Kv1.5 potassium channel, which underlies the ultrarapid delayed rectifier current, IKur, is reported to be enriched in human atrium versus ventricle, and has been proposed as a target for novel atrial antiarrhythmic therapy. The administration of the IKur blocker (2-isopropyl-5-methyl-cyclohexyl) diphenylphosphine oxide (DPO-1) increases myocardial refractoriness in both atrium and ventricle of rat, but produces an atrial-selective increase in refractoriness in primates; appears to be 15-fold more selective for Kv1.5 vs Kv3.1 channels expressed in Xenopus oocytes. IC50 = 0.16-0.76 μM at 0.1 Hz pulsing frequency; Kd = 0.6 μM.
D4071 5, 15-DPP 5, 15-DPP is a selective STAT3 inhibitor and a selective STAT3-SH2 antagonist
D7821 dPPA ≥98% (HPLC) Selective activator of PKC beta
dPPA is a phorbol ester that selectively activates the beta isotype of PKC. It is approximately 100-fold more potent for PKC-beta than the alpha, gamma or delta isotypes. PKC family members each have specific functions, but PKC-beta and delta appear to share similar expression profiles, and both are involved in regulating apoptosis and B cell activation, thus dPPA is a useful tool in determining PKCbeta specific signaling events.
D2571 DPPE hydrochloride ≥98% (HPLC) DPPE is a potent, selective ligand of the microsomal anti-estrogen binding site. DPPE is a tamoxifen derivataive that binds with high affinity to the anti-estrogen binding site, but unlike tamoxifen, does not bind to the estrogen receptor. DPPE sensitizes MDR tumor cells to chemotherapy and also inhibits histamine binding at the intracellular histamine site.
D5314   DPQ ≥98% (HPLC), solid DPQ is a very potent poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) inhibitor.
SML0397 DR2313 ≥98% (HPLC) DR2313 is a PARP-1; PARP-2 inhibitor (Ki = 0.23 mM). DR2313 has neuroprotective effects in both in vivo and in vitro ischemic models, and reduces cortical infarct volume in focal ischemia in rats.
D6946 (R)-DRF053 hydrochloride hydrate ≥98% (HPLC) DRF053 is a more potent version of roscovitine. It is 2 fold more potent against CDK5 (80 nM) and over 150 times more potent against CDK1 (14 nM).
D9696 Dronedarone hydrochloride ≥98% (HPLC) Dronedarone is a Class III antiarrhythmic and a multi-channel blocker for atrial fibrillation. It blocks potassium, sodium, and calcium channels and also exhibits antiadrenergic properties.
D1414 Droperidol D1, D2 dopamine receptor antagonist; butyrophenone antipsychotic and anti-emetic.
human ... DRD1(1812), DRD2(1813), KCNH1(3756), KCNH2(3757)
SML0147 Drospirenone ≥98% (HPLC) Drospirenone is a fourth-generation progestin that has antimineralocorticoid, and antiandrogenic activity in addition to potent progestogenic activity. In two recent studies drospirenone appeared to double the risk of venous thromboembolism compared to levonorgestrel, although other studies found little added risk.
D6321 Droxinostat ≥98% (HPLC) Droxinostat is a selective inhibitor of HDAC3, HDAC6, and HDAC8.
D0446 DS1 ≥98% (HPLC) δ-GABAA receptors are emerging as an important pharmacological target. DS1 potently (low nM) enhances GABA-evoked currents mediated by α4β3δ receptors. It had little effect on GABA responses mediated by α4β3γ2 receptors. At similar concentrations DS1 directly activates this receptor and is the most potent known agonist of α4β3δ receptors. This compound has an opportunity to be become an agonist golden stardard for δ-GABAA receptors.
DS1 potently (low nM) enhances GABA-evoked currents mediated by GABAA α4β3δ receptor subtype. At similar concentrations, it acts as a direct agonist at this receptor and is the most potent agonist known. It has little effect on GABA responses mediated by α4β3γ2 receptors.
D5821 DS2 ≥98% (HPLC) DS2 is a selective positive allosteric modulator of δ-GABAA receptors.
SML1516 DS-437 ≥98% (HPLC) DS-437 is an analog of S-adenosyl methionine (SAM ), which inhibits protein arginine methyltransferases PRMT5 and PRMT7 (IC50 5.9 and 6 μM) with little interaction against a panel of 30 other human methyltransferases.
SML1835 DSHN ≥98% (HPLC) New DSHN is a potent and selective activator of SHP (small heterodimer partner, NR0B2) that transcriptionally activates SHP mRNA and stabilized the SHP protein by preventing its ubiquitination and degradation. DSHN potently inhibits HCC cell migration and invasivnes by suppression of CCL2 expression.
D0444   DT-2 trifluoroacetate salt ≥95% (HPLC), film Cell permeable cGMP protein kinase (PKG) inhibitor
SML0474 (S)-Duloxetine hydrochloride ≥98% (HPLC) Duloxetine hydrochloride is a dual serotonin/norepinephrine reuptake inhibitor (SNRI), widely used clinically as an antidepressant and anxiolytic.
SML1221 Dutasteride ≥98% (HPLC) Dutasteride is a potent dual inhibitor of 5α-reductase isoenzymes types 1 and 2 (IC50 = 6 nM 5-AR1; 7 nM 5-AR2). Dutasteride blocks testosterone conversion to dihydrotesterone, and is used clinically for treating benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH).
D3946 DY 131 ≥98% (HPLC) DY 131 is an estrogen related receptor ERRβ and ERRy agonist with minimal activity at ERRα, ERα and ERβ
D7693 Dynasore hydrate Dynasore is a cell-permeable, reversible noncompetitive dynamin 1 and dynamin 2 GTPase activity inhibitor.