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Glycerolipid Metabolism

Glycerol esterified with one, two, or three fatty acids make up monoacyl-, diacyl- and triacylglycerols, with a chiral center at carbon-2 of the glycerol moiety. Fats and oils from plants and animals are triacylglycerols, while diacylglycerols are intermediates and cellular messengers, and monoacylglycerols, formed by hydrolysis, are surfactants and intermediates. Because triacylglycerols are insoluble in water, combination or emulsification with other lipids, cellular compounds, or proteins is required before transport and metabolism can occur. Complete or partial lipase-catalyzed hydrolysis yields monoacylglycerols, glycerol, and fatty acids that can be transported and utilized for energy production or biosynthetic pathways of metabolism.

Biosynthesis of triacylglycerols is achieved in a three-step sequence from 2-monoacylglycerols and fatty acids. First, the fatty acid is activated by acyl-CoA synthetase catalyzed conversion to the corresponding fatty acyl thioester with coenzyme A. The fatty acyl-CoA is then coupled with a 2-monoacylglycerol by the catalytic action of a monoacylglycerol transferase to yield a diacylglycerol. The final triacylglycerol is obtained by coupling of fatty acyl-CoA with diacylglycerol through the action of diacylglycerol transferase.

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P2767 1,2-Di(cis-9-octadecenoyl)-sn-glycerol 3-phosphate sodium salt ≥99% (GC), ≥97% (TLC)  
P3716 1,2-Didecanoyl-sn-glycerol 3-phosphate sodium salt ≥99% (TLC)  
D8769 1,2-Dimyristoyl-rac-glycerol ~99%  
P3650 1,2-Dimyristoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphate monosodium salt ≥99%  
P3591 1,2-Dioctanoyl-sn-glycerol 3-phosphate sodium salt ≥99%  
P4013 1,2-Dipalmitoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphate sodium salt ≥99%  
D9135 1,2-Dipalmitoyl-sn-glycerol ≥99%  
12279 1,2-Propanediol analytical standard  
D107204 1,3-Dihydroxyacetone dimer 97%  
D9144 1,3-Dimyristin ~99%  
81780 1,3-Propanediol puriss., ≥99.0% (GC)  
13368 1-Deoxy-D-xylulose-5-phosphate sodium salt ≥99.0% (TLC) Metabolite of the non-mevalonate pathway, generally found in prokaryotes, as precursor to isoprenoids as well as non-isoprenoids like vitamins. As this pathway is not present in humans, it is of interest for the development of bacterium-specific drugs in the search for treatments of infectious diseases.
M1765 1-Lauroyl-rac-glycerol ≥99% Monolaurin (1-Lauroyl-rac-glycerol) is used as an antimicrobial agent in various formulas and microemulsions and as a methane mitigation agent in ruminants.
M7640 1-Linoleoyl-rac-glycerol ≥97%, liquid Monolinolein (1-Linoleoyl-rac-glycerol) is used in the development of pH-responsive lyotropic liquid crystals for controlled drug delivery.
M7890 1-Monopalmitoleoyl-rac-glycerol ≥99% Monopalmitolein is used in comparative studies of the antimicrobial activity of monoglycerides such as monocaprin, and monlaurin.
M7765 1-Oleoyl-rac-glycerol ≥99% Monoolein (1-Oleoyl-rac-glycerol) is used in the development of monoolein-based nanoparticulate liquid dispersions as possible vehicles for drug delivery.
96566 1-Propanol analytical standard  
M2015 1-Stearoyl-rac-glycerol ≥99%  
76184 3-Palmitoyl-sn-glycerol ≥99.0% (TLC)  
P9511 3-sn-Phosphatidic acid sodium salt from egg yolk lecithin ≥98%  
P8877 D-(−)-3-Phosphoglyceric acid disodium salt ≥93%, powder 3-Phosphoglyceric acid is an intermediate in glycolysis. It also a precursor in the formation of serine.
49800 D-(+)-Glyceraldehyde ≥98.0% (HPLC), viscous  
367494 D-Glyceric acid calcium salt dihydrate 99%  
M1640 DL-α-Palmitin ≥99% α-Monopalmitin is a glycerol esterified fatty acid, monoacylglycerol, found in lipid structures such as ceramides. 1-Palmitoylglycerol may be used as a substrate for the identification and differentiation of enzymes that hydrolyze or transfer monoacylglycerols such as neuropathy target esterase(s) and monoacylglycerol acyltransferase(s) (MAG).
A6625 Acetylcholine chloride ≥99% (TLC) Acetylcholine chloride, injected at 20 mg/kg body weight, reduces mortality and plasma proinflammatory cytokines in mice with experimentally-induced sepsis . The cholinergicanti-infl ammatory mechanism is probably mediated by interaction of acetylcholine with α7n cholinoreceptor on monocytes, macrophages, and neutrophils, which decreases the levels of proinflammatory cytokines such as TNF-α, IL-1β, and IL-6.
C7017 Choline chloride ≥99% Choline is an essential nutrient, commonly grouped with the B complex vitamins, that plays key roles in many biological processes.
The enzymatic activities of butyrylcholinesterase (BChE) and paraoxonase 1 (PON1), two serum enzymes synthesized by the liver and related with inflammation, were decreased in a sepsis animal model injected with LPS. Choline chloride administered intravenously at 20 mg/kg body weight prevents the LPS-mediated decreases in the activities of these two enzymes .
26978 Choline chloride BioUltra, ≥99.0% (AT) Choline is an essential nutrient, commonly grouped with the B complex vitamins, that plays key roles in many biological processes.
The enzymatic activities of butyrylcholinesterase (BChE) and paraoxonase 1 (PON1), two serum enzymes synthesized by the liver and related with inflammation, were decreased in a sepsis animal model injected with LPS. Choline chloride administered intravenously at 20 mg/kg body weight prevents the LPS-mediated decreases in the activities of these two enzymes .
D7137 Dihydroxyacetone phosphate dilithium salt ≥93% (enzymatic) Dihydroxyacetone phosphate (DHAP) is a metabolic intermediate involved in many pathways, including glycolysis, gluconeogenesis, glycerol metabolism, phosphatidic acid synthesis, fat metabolism, and the Calvin cycle.
51269 Dihydroxyacetone phosphate hemimagnesium salt hydrate ≥95% (TLC) Dihydroxyacetone phosphate (DHAP) is a metabolic intermediate involved in many pathways, including glycolysis, gluconeogenesis, glycerol metabolism, phosphatidic acid synthesis, fat metabolism, and the Calvin cycle.
49767 Glycerol BioUltra, for molecular biology, anhydrous, ≥99.5% (GC) Glycerol has been used as
• a supplement during cell culture of Mycobacterium tuberculosis and Mycobacterium avium.
• a fuel during designing enzymatic biofuel cell.
• a liquid composite matrix with 4-HCCA and 3-amino­quinoline for analysis of neutral and acidic glycans.
• a matrix for fast atom bombardment MS.
• may be employed as liquid matrix for the quantification studies by MALDI (Matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry) analysis.

Glycerol is hygroscopic in nature and is soluble in water owing to its three hydrophilic alcoholic hydroxyl groups. It can form both inter- and intramolecular hydrogen bonds, making it a very flexible molecule. The physiologic effect of glycerine is due to cell-mediated immunity, increased IgG production and increased histamine release.
D1639 Glyceryl 1,3-dipalmitate ≥99%  
D8269 Glyceryl 1,3-distearate ≥99% (TLC)  
T5376 Glyceryl triacetate ≥99%  
T8626 Glyceryl tributyrate ≥99%  
T7517 Glyceryl tridecanoate ≥99% (GC)  
T4891 Glyceryl tridodecanoate ≥99%  
T7379 Glyceryl trielaidate ≥99%  
T2151 Glyceryl triheptadecanoate ≥99%  
T9517 Glyceryl trilinoleate ≥98% (TLC), liquid  
T6513 Glyceryl trilinolenate ≥97% (TLC), liquid  
T5141 Glyceryl trimyristate ≥99%  
T4632 Glyceryl trinonadecanoate ≥99%  
T9126 Glyceryl trioctanoate ≥99%  
92860 Glyceryl trioleate ≥97.0% (TLC)  
T7140 Glyceryl trioleate ≥99%  
T5888 Glyceryl tripalmitate ≥99%  
T5909 Glyceryl tripalmitelaidate ≥99%  
T2630 Glyceryl tripalmitoleate ≥98%, liquid  
T5016 Glyceryl tristearate ≥99%  
T1412 Glyceryl tritricosanoate ≥99%  
T3882 Glyceryl tritridecanoate ≥99%  
T5534 Glyceryl triundecanoate ≥98%  
L3265   Lipoteichoic acid from Bacillus subtilis Lipoteichoic acid (LTA) is a complex component of cell walls of Gram-positive bacteria that are involved in a wide range of cell processes such as the stimulation of immune responses and cell signaling pathways. LTA differs between species of gram-positive bacteria. Lipoteichoic acid from Bacillus subtilis may be used to compare its structure, immunogenicity and functions versus other bacterial LTAs.
Lipoteichoic acid (LTA) is a teichoic acid attached to a lipid abundant on Gram-positive bacteria cell wall. LTA is a pathogen-associated molecular-patterns (PAMP) recognized by Toll-like receptor 2 (TLR2), This recognition leads to the activation of NF-kB.
L4015   Lipoteichoic acid from Enterococcus hirae Lipoteichoic acid (LTA) is a complex component of cell walls of Gram-positive bacteria that are involved in a wide range of cell processes such as the stimulation of immune responses and cell signaling pathways. LTA differs between species of gram-positive bacteria. Lipoteichoic acid from Streptococcus faecalis may be used to compare its structure, immunogenicity and functions versus other bacterial LTAs.
L2515   Lipoteichoic acid from Staphylococcus aureus bacterial cell wall polymer Lipoteichoic acid (LTA) is a complex component of cell walls of Gram-positive bacteria that are involved in a wide range of cell processes such as the stimulation of immune responses and cell signaling pathways. LTA differs between species of gram-positive bacteria. Lipoteichoic acid from Streptococcus aureus may be used to compare its structure, immunogenicity and functions versus other bacterial LTAs.
Lipoteichoic acid (LTA) is a teichoic acid attached to a lipid abundant on Gram-positive bacteria cell wall. LTA is a pathogen-associated molecular-patterns (PAMP) recognized by Toll-like receptor 2 (TLR2), This recognition leads to the activation of NF-kB.
L3140   Lipoteichoic acid from Streptococcus pyogenes  
P0503 O-Phosphorylethanolamine  
L7260 Oleoyl-L-α-lysophosphatidic acid sodium salt ≥98%, solid Endogenous agonist for LPA1 and LPA2 receptors. LPA does not induce angiogenesis, but has effects on endothelial cell physiology that are similar to those of sphingosine 1-phosphate. Induces cell migration of cancer and non-cancer cells.
P0378 Phosphocholine chloride calcium salt tetrahydrate Sigma Grade  
538124 Propionaldehyde reagent grade, 97%  
T4257 Tripentadecanoin ≥99%  
T5784 Tripetroselaidin ≥99%  
M1890 rac-Glycerol 1-myristate ≥99% rac-Glycerol 1-myristate, a 1-monoglyceride of myristic acid, has antibacterial activity against several Gram-positive bacterial strains.
G7886 sn-Glycerol 3-phosphate bis(cyclohexylammonium) salt ≥93% Glycerol 3-phosphate (G3P) is an important intermediate of carbohydrate and lipid metabolic pathways. It is produced from glycerol by glycerol kinase or from dihydroxyacetone phosphate by glycerol 3-phosphate dehydrogenase. G3P may enter the G3P shuttle to generate NAD+, or may be converted to glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate and enter glycolysis or the lipid biosynthesis pathway.