A broad range of biological and biomedical investigations depend on the ability to distinguish DNA synthesizing cells. Until recently, these studies were often limited by the traditional measurement techniques that are based on the determination of incorporated radioactive DNA precursors such as tritiated thymidine. BromodeoxyUridine (5-Bromo-2-DeoxyUridine, BrdU) is a pyrimidine analogue of thymidine, selectively incorporated into cell DNA at the S phase of the cell cycle. The use of BrdU as a thymidine analogue has made the identification of DNA synthesis in suspensions of cells, cell smears and tissue sections possible. The application of monoclonal antibodies which react specifically with BrdU for detection of DNA replication in lymphoid cells and other normal or pathological preparations, following in vivo or in vitro BrdU labeling, is extensively documented in the biomedical literature. Monoclonal antibodies against BrdU have also proven valuable for studies on cell cycle kinetics, repair synthesis of DNA, demonstration of sister chromatid exchange and assessment of cell proliferation in the presence of growth factors or cytotoxic drugs.