CBiPES is a positive allosteric modulator of the mGlu2 receptor. CBiPES attenuates stress-induced hyperthermia and blocks the hyperlocomotor effects of PCP in murine models. In rat brain, CBiPES attenuates ketamine-induced increase in extracellular histamine concentration. This compound is a sulfonamide, different chemical class from other mGlu2R agonists in the Sigma catalog.
DAPT is a γ-secretase inhibitor and indirectly an inhibitor of Notch, a γ-secretase substrate. As an inhibitor of γ-secretase, DAPT may be useful in the study of β-amyloid (Aβ) formation. As an inhibitor of Notch, DAPT may advance studies of autoimmune and lymphoproliferative diseases, such as ALPS and lupus erythematosus (SLE). Other γ-secretase substrates include LDL receptor-related protein, E-cadherin and ErbB-4.
LY2033298 is a robust allosteric potentiator that is highly selective for the human M4 muscarinic acetylcholine receptor subtype. LY2033298 potentiates ACh-M4 binding, with no effect at M1/3/5 receptors. LY2033298 can also bind to the M ACh receptor, and mediate either positive or negative allosteric effects depending on the ligand used to probe receptor activity.1
Regioisomer 1-5 of LY2183240 is a potent inhibitor of anandamide uptake (IC50= 15 nM). The compound inhibits FAAH (IC50=2.1 nM) and some other brain serine proteases. After systemic administration to rodents, LY2182340 elevates brain anandamide levels and shows efficacy in a rodent model of persistent pain (ED50=1.37 mg/kg). Regioisomer 2-5 of LY2183240 is less active. The compound is more potent than N-(4-Hydroxyphenyl)-arachidonylamide (AM-404), which inhibits anandamide transport at IC50=1mM.
Cholecystokinin is expressed in the gastrointestinal tract and the central nervous system. Cholecystokinin receptor type 2 (CCK2) is a GPCR that is highly expressed in brain and spinal cord. CCK2 is implicated in many brain processes, including mood, anxiety, and pain, through its modulation of GABA neurotransmission.
LY225910 is a potent, selective CCK2 antagonist. LY225910 blocks agonism of CCK2 by CCK-8S, the peptide agonist. LY225910 has been measured in multiple systems, including GABA efflux from cortical cultures, depolarization of spinal cord neurons (via potassium conductance), modulation of excitatory postsynaptic potentials (EPSPs) in nucleus accumbens slices, and enhancement of morphine analgesia.
LY255283 is a competitive leukotriene B4 receptor antagonist, with an IC50 of about 100 nM. It is somewhat selective for the BLT2 receptor, since IC50 values at the BLT1 receptor are >10 μM. LY255283 reduces airway obstruction in animal models of asthma.1
LY255582 is a centrally active opioid receptor antagonist (defined as an inverse agonist in 2011 JPET paper) that inhibited weight gain in obese Zucker rats over 30 days. It is more that 5-fold selective for mu opioid receptor compared to kappa opioid receptors and 13-fold selective over delta opioid receptors.
LY320135 is a potent CB1 receptor antagonist/inverse agonist (Ki = 141 nM) with greater than 70-fold selectivity over CB2 receptors (Ki > 10 μM). Structurally dissimilar from SR 141716A and AM 251. Shows weak binding to both 5-HT2 (Ki = 6.4 μM) and muscarinic receptors (Ki = 2.1 μM)
LY-354740 is a highly selective and potent agonist of group II mGlu (metabotropic glutamate) receptors. It displays antianxiety and antiaddictive activity in vivo. It?s orally and systemically active. It is anxiolytic and inhibits symptoms of morphine withdrawal in morphine-dependent mice.1
LY-487379 is a positive allosteric modulator of the metabotropic glutamate receptor mGluR2. EC50 = 1.7 μM. LY-487379 shows no intrinsic agonist or antagonist activity at hmGluR2 and has no activity at human mGluR3. LY-487379 markedly potentiates glutamate-stimulated [35S]GTPγS binding in a concentration-dependent manner at hmGluR2, shifting the glutamate dose-response curve leftward by 3-fold and increasing the maximum levels of [35S]GTPγS stimulation. LY-487379 has anxiolytic effects in fear-potentiated startle. This activity profile is useful in all symptom domains of schizophrenia.1
Menadione sodium bisulfite is a water-soluble form of menadione, which belongs to the Vitamin K class of compounds. These are necessary for the biosynthesis of prothrombin and other blood clotting factors. Menadione is a prothrombogenic compound and is used as a model quinone in cell culture and in vivo investigations.
Menadione has been shown to affect gap-junctional intercellular communication by mediation of tyrosine phosphorylation. Menadione has demonstrated cytotoxic activity against a variety of cell lines and can induce apoptosis in cultured cells, such as osteoclasts and osteoblasts, via elevation of peroxide and superoxide radical levels.
An HPLC method for detection of menadione sodium bisulfite in multivitamin formulations has been published. A chemiluminescence assay for menadione sodium bisulfite in pharmaceutical preparations and biological fluids has been reported.
Raloxifene is a selective estrogen receptor modulator (SERM); acts as an anti-estrogen in both breast and uterine tissue while being estrogenic in bone. May have efficacy against estrogen-sensitive cancers.
Plant alkaloid that inhibits microtubule assembly by binding tubulin and inducing self-association in spiral aggregates in a reaction that appears to be regulated by the C-terminus of β-tubulin and is enhanced by GDP and GTP. Depolymerizes microtubules. Arrests the cell cycle in G2/M-phase by blocking mitotic spindle formation. Triggers Raf-1 activation, phosphorylation of bcl-2-family proteins, induction of p53 expression, and apoptosis in several tumor cell lines. Substrate of Pgp and CYP3A4.