CL-82198 is a selective inhibitor of MMP-13 that displays no activity at MMP-1, MMP-9 or TACE. It is also a selective S1′ pocket binder, binding within the entire S1′ pocket of MMP-13, docking with the morpholine ring adjacent to the catalytic zinc atom without zinc chelation.
CP-338818 blocks both Kv1.3 and Kv1.4. Kv1.3 is expressed in brain and in effector memory T (Tem) cells, and Kv1.4 is expressed in brain cells. Kv1.3 and Kv1.4 are members of the Shaker family of voltage-gated potassium channels. Both channels are involved in setting the membrane potential of neurons. In addition, Kv1.3 maintains the membrane potential for T memory cells and is up-regulated upon T cell activation, contributing to multiple immune processes and disorders. Blockers of Kv1.3 have long been sought for therapeutic benefit, and they are also valuable tools for studying the immune system. CP-339818 is valuable for immune system studies, where the absence of Kv1.4 makes it functionally selective for Kv1.3, and it has shown suppression of T cell activation. CP-339818 is also valuable for the study of Kv1.4 function.
Desvenlafaxine hydrochloride is a dual SERT/NET reuptake inhibitor. It is a major active metabolite of venlafaxine (#542); brain penetrant; Ki = 40 nM and 122 nM for hSERT and hNET, respectively (weak binding at the hDAT). Inhibition of [3H]5-HT or [3H]NE uptake for the hSERT or hNET produced IC50 values of 47 and 531 nM.
EAA-090 is a potent NMDA receptor antagonist with neuroprotective properties. In isoflurane-anesthetized dogs, EAA-090 reduces the minimum alveolar concentration (MAC) of isoflurane and increases systolic, mean, and diastolic arterial blood pressure.
Meptazinol entered the human pharmaceutical market as a racemic mixture in the 1980s for use as an analgesic. Its pharmacology is not completely understood; however, its analgesic properties are mostly due to its partial agonism at the mu1 opioid receptor. Due to its partial agonism, Meptazinol antagonizes morphine dependence in vivo. Its advantage over other opiates is its reduced capacity to cause addition and respiratory depression, also due to its intrinsic activity as a partial agonist. Meptazinol has been found to have additional activity as an acetylcholinesterase (AChE) inhibitor, particularly in its (-) enantiomeric form, which may partially explain its analgesic properties. AChE inhibitors are used to treat Alzheimer′s disease, providing additional interest in this compound.
Venlafaxine is an antidepressant. The mechanism of the antidepresant action of venlafaxine in humans is associated with its potentiation of neurotransmitter activity in the CNS. Venlafaxine is a potent inhibitor of neuronal serotonin and norepinephrine reuptake and weak inhibitor of dopamine reuptake. Venlafaxine has no significant activity for muscarinic, histaminergic, or α-1 adrenergic receptors in vitro. Venlafaxine does not possess MAO inhibitor activity.
Zacopride is a sub-nanomolar antagonist of the serotonin 5-HT3 receptor that also displays agonist-like activity against 5-HT4 receptors. It is a potent anxiolytic in animal models, and also has strong antiemetic effects, and also increases aldosterone levels via activation of 5-HT4 receptor in the adrenal glands.