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TCA Cycle

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Biochem/physiol Actions

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I1252 DL-Isocitric acid trisodium salt hydrate ≥93%  
M1000 L-(−)-Malic acid ≥95% (titration)  
A2056 Acetyl coenzyme A sodium salt ≥93% (HPLC), powder Acetyl-CoA is an essential cofactor and carrier of acyl groups in enzymatic acetyl transfer reactions. It is formed either by the oxidative decarboxylation of pyruvate in mitochondria, by the oxidation of long-chain fatty acids, or by the oxidative degradation of certain amino acids. Acetyl-CoA is the starting compound for the citric acid cycle (Kreb′s cycle). It is also a key precursor in lipid biosynthesis, and the source of all fatty acid carbons. Acetyl-CoA positively regulates the activity pyruvate carboxylase. It is a precursor of the neurotransmitter acetylcholine. Histone acetylases (HAT) use Acetyl-CoA as the donor for the acetyl group use in the post-translational acetylation reactions of histone and non-histone proteins.
A2754 Adenosine 5′-diphosphate sodium salt bacterial, ≥95% (HPLC)  
A2383 Adenosine 5′-triphosphate disodium salt hydrate Grade I, ≥99%, from microbial P2 purinergic agonist; increases activity of Ca2+-activated K+ channels; substrate for ATP-dependent enzyme systems
C7129 Citric acid monohydrate reagent grade, ≥98% (GC/titration)  
C3144 Coenzyme A sodium salt hydrate cofactor for acyl transfer Coenzyme A (CoA, CoASH, HSCoA) is a coenzyme that facilitates enzymatic acyl-group transfer reactions and supports the synthesis and oxidation of fatty acids. CoA is involved in the mechanisms of a wide variety of enzymes. In the presence of CoASH, organic carboxylic acids form acyl-CoA thioesters, which facilitates enzyme recognition. The acyl-CoA formed from xenobiotic carboxylic acids can add to the compound′s toxicity, which can lead to cellular metabolic dysfunction. It is involved in the oxidation of pyruvate in the Kreb′s cycle.
F8509 Fumaric acid BioReagent, suitable for cell culture  
G7127 Guanosine 5′-diphosphate sodium salt Type I, ≥96% (HPLC) Guanosine 5′-diphosphate (GDP) is the diphosphate nucleoside of the purine guanine. GDP and GTP are involved in and may be used to study cell signaling via G-coupled protein receptors (GCPR) and guanine nucleotide exchange factors (GEF) and a variety of GTPases.
O4126 Oxaloacetic acid ≥97% (HPLC) Oxaloacetic acid is an intermediate in the TCA Cycle.
P2256 Sodium pyruvate ReagentPlus®, ≥99%  
S2378 Sodium succinate dibasic hexahydrate ReagentPlus®, ≥99%  
N8129 β-Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide, reduced disodium salt hydrate ≥97% (HPLC) NADH is a coenzyme that functions as a regenerating electron donor in catabolic processes including glycolysis, β-oxidation and the citric acid cycle (Krebs cycle, TCA cycle). It participates in cell signaling events as well, for example as a substrate for the poly (ADP-ribose) polymerases (PARPs) during the DNA damage response. The NAD+/NADH dependent sirtuins play key roles in stress responses during events involving energy metabolism, with implications in cancer biology, diabetes and neurodegenerative disease.
As a reagent, NADH can be used in enzyme cycling assays to amplify detection of activity of biologically relevant enzymes or metabolites present in low concentrations.