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Drug Metabolism

Xenobiotics are molecules that are not produced in vivo, but rather, are introduced into the body from the environment and subsequently metabolized by the body. Routes of introduction to the body include inhalation (e.g. aromatic hydrocarbons in cigarette smoke), intravenous (e.g. various anesthetics), transdermal and, for most pharmaceutical agents, ingestion. The metabolism of xenobiotics in our environment is an important field of investigation. However, to minimize risk and optimize therapeutic benefits, it is critical that the metabolism of candidate pharmaceutical agents be elucidated, including identification and properties of key metabolites.

GST Alpha Assay Kit

Glutathione S-Transferase (GST) has multiple isoforms. This assay is specific for Glutathione S-Transferase Alpha (GSTA) and is not known to cross react with the mu, pi, or theta variants. GSTA is a common biomarker for hepatocellular damage. It also conjugates GSH to 4-hydroxynonenal, a product of lipid peroxidation2 and is an important player in cellular antioxidant defense mechanisms.

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GS77 GST Z1-1, Recombinant Human

GST Alpha, Recombinant

This human alpha class glutathione S-transferase is the major GST isozyme found in human liver where it represents about 2% of the total cytoplasmic protein. It is also abundant in kidney and several other tissues.

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GS58 GST A5-5, Recombinant Human
GS60 GST A1-1, Recombinant Human
GS61 GST A2-2, Recombinant Human
GS63 GST A3-3, Recombinant Human
GS64 GST A4-4, Recombinant Human
GS85 GST A1-1, Recombinant Bovine

GST Kappa, Recombinant

The kappa class of Glutathione S-Transferases is localized to the peroxisome and catalyzes the conjugation of glutathione to a wide range of hydrophobic substrates facilitating the removal of these compounds from cells.

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GS71 GST K1-1, Recombinant Human

GST Mu, Recombinant

The mu classes of Glutathione S-Transferases are particularly effective in detoxifying styrene and pyrene derivatives found in cigarette smoke.

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GS59 GST M5-5, Recombinant Human
GS65 GST M1-1, Recombinant Human
GS66 GST M2-2, Recombinant Human
GS73 GST M3-3, Recombinant Human
GS74 GST M4-4, Recombinant Human

GST Omega, Recombinant

The omega class of Glutathione S-Transferases is involved in the metabolism of xenobiotics and carcinogens. The enzyme acts as a homodimer in the cytoplasm with four transcript variants encoding different isoforms.

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GS75 GST O1-1, Recombinant Human
GS76 GST O2-2, Recombinant Human

GST Pi Assay Kit

The human cytosolic Glutathione S-Transferases (GSTs) are expressed as 18 distinct gene products yet they share a common structural morphology. This immunoassay is specific for GST Pi (GSTP) and exhibits less than 1% cross reactivity towards the other 17 human cytosolic GST enzymes. GSTP is considered to be a urinary biomarker for renal cell damage and is localized to the distal convoluted tubules, thin Loop of Henle, and the collecting ducts of the kidney.

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GS46 Human GST Pi Assay Kit

GST Pi, Recombinant

Expression of this human pi class glutathione S-transferase is easily detected in placenta, lung and kidney, and at certain developmental stages in other tissues. This form is also found in high levels in several human tumors. This recombinant enzyme is produced in an E. coli expression system and, following purification, retains high catalytic activity.

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GS70 GST P1-1, Recombinant Human

GST SIgma, Recombinant

Glutathione S-transferase sigma 1, also known as hematopoietic prostaglandin D synthase (HPGDS) is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the HPGDS gene. The enzyme catalyzes the conversion of PGH2 to PGD2 and plays a role in the production of prostanoids in the immune system and mast cells. The presence of this enzyme can be used to identify the differentiation stage of human megakaryocytes.

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GS05 GST S1-1, Recombinant Human

GST Theta, Recombinant

Distinct from the members of the GST alpha, mu and pi classes, the theta structure employs a different key residue at the active site.

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GS38 GST T1-1, Recombinant Rat
GS39 GST T2-2, Recombinant Rat
GS52 GST T2-2, Recombinant Human
GS90 GST T1-1, Recombinant Human

GST Zeta, Recombinant

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GS77 GST Z1-1, Recombinant Human