Adrenocorticotropic Hormones (ACTH)

The polypeptide hormone, adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH), causes the adrenal cortex to produce and release glucocorticoids as one branch in the ‘fight or flight’ reaction. Sensing a dangerous or stressful situation causes the hypothalamus to secrete corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH ) directly into the vasculature leading to the anterior pituitary. In response to CRH the anterior pituitary releases ACTH into circulation. Binding of ACTH to its G-protein receptor initiates a signaling cascade leading to glucocorticoid release. These corticosteroids increase blood sugar and brain metabolism, as well as slowing other systems not essential for emergencies.

Sigma offers highly pure human, porcine, and rat ACTH. Also available are cleavage peptides with various functions. Complete ACTH has 39 amino acid residues. Fragment 1-24 is conserved across species and is 75% as potent as ACTH. Fragment 7-38 inhibits ACTH-induced adenylate cyclase activity. Fragment 1-10 has no ACTH activity, but does affect blood pressure, while fragment 4-10 has neurological effects. ACTH can also be cleaved into α-melanocyte stimulating hormone and fragment 18-39 (CLIP) whose function is uncertain.

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A6303 Adrenocorticotropic Hormone from porcine pituitary powder, 80-95 IU/mg (USP Corticotropin Ascorbic Acid Assay) Stimulates synthesis and secretion of glucocorticoids by adrenal cortex.
A0673 Adrenocorticotropic Hormone Fragment 18-39 human ≥97% (HPLC) Facilitatory effect exerted on paradoxical sleep in the rat: stimulates insulin release.
A1709 Adrenocorticotropic Hormone Fragment 1-10 human, rat ≥97% (HPLC) Facilitates avoidance acquisition. Lacks adrenocorticotropic activity.
A2407 Adrenocorticotropic Hormone Fragment 1-17 human, rat ≥97% (HPLC) ACTH fragment with moderate adrenocorticotropic and melanocyte-stimulating activities.
A0298 Adrenocorticotropic Hormone Fragment 1-24 human, rat ≥97% (HPLC) Activates G proteins.
A0401 Adrenocorticotropic Hormone Fragment 4-10 human, rat ≥97% (HPLC) Adrenocorticotropic Hormone Fragment 4-10 (ACTH (4-10)) attenuates ischemia/reperfusion-induced cardiac injury via reduction in infarct size, caspase 3 activity, and apoptosis, and an increase in HO-1 expression. ACTH 4-10 is a melanocortin 4 receptor (MCR-4) agonist. ACTH 4-10 facilitates active and passive avoidance acquisition, improves short term memory consolidation, and promotes memory retrieval. ACTH 4-10 and semax are analogues.
Adrenocorticotropic Hormone Fragment 4-10 [ACTH(4-10)], a melanocortin fragment, is used together with its analogue semax to study the processes of nociception/pain sensation and brain development. ACTH(4-10) is also used as a possible anorexic factor. It facilitates active and passive avoidance acquisition, improves short term memory consolidation, and promotes memory retrieval.
A1527 Adrenocorticotropic Hormone Fragment 7-38 human ≥97% (HPLC)  
A0423 Adrenocorticotropic Hormone human ≥97% (HPLC) Stimulates synthesis and secretion of glucocorticoids by adrenal cortex.
A7075 Adrenocorticotropic Hormone rat ≥95% (HPLC) Stimulates synthesis and secretion of glucocorticoids by adrenal cortex.