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Tumor Necrosis Factor-α (TNF-α)

What is TNF (tumor necrosis factor)?

Tumor necrosis factor (TNF or TNF-α) is a major pro-inflammatory cytokine involved in early inflammatory events. It trigger a series of various inflammatory molecules, including other cytokines, chemotactic cytokines, and chemokines, such as IL-8 (interleukin-8), CCL3 (chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 3), CCL4, CCL2, prostaglandins, matrix metallopeptidases (MMPs), reactive oxygen species (ROS), and reactive nitrogen intermediates (RNI). The TNF gene is localized in the highly polymorphic region of human chromosome 6p21.

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T7539 Tumor Necrosis Factor-α from mouse TNF-α, recombinant, expressed in E. coli, powder, suitable for cell culture Tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), also known as cachectin, is expressed as a 26 kDa membrane bound protein and is then cleaved by TNF-α converting enzyme (TACE) to release the soluble 17 kDa monomer, which forms homotrimers in circulation. TNF-α plays roles in antitumor activity, immune modulation, inflammation, anorexia, cachexia, septic shock, viral replication and hematopoiesis. TNF-α is expressed by a great variety of cells, with numerous inductive and suppressive agents. Primarily, TNF-α is produced by macrophages in response to immunological challenges such as bacteria (lipopolysaccharides), viruses, parasites, mitogens and other cytokines. TNF-α is cytotoxic for many transformed cells (its namesake activity) but in normal diploid cells, it can stimulate proliferation (fibroblasts), differentiation (myeloid cells) or activation (neutrophils). TNF-α also shows antiviral effects against both DNA and RNA viruses and it induces production of several other cytokines. Although TNF-α is used in clinical trials as an antitumor agent, Sigma′s cytokine, growth factor and hormone products are for research only. TNF-α and the related molecule TNF-β (LT-α) share close structural homology with 28% amino acid sequence identity and both activate the same TNF receptors, TNFR1 and TNFR2. Mouse and human TNF-α share 79% amino acid sequence identity. Unlike human TNF-α, the mouse form is glycosylated.
T5944 Tumor Necrosis Factor-α from rat TNF-α, recombinant, expressed in E. coli, powder, suitable for cell culture Tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), also known as cachectin, plays roles in antitumor activity, immune modulation, inflammation, anorexia, cachexia, septic shock, viral replication, and hematopoiesis. TNF-α is expressed by a variety of cells, with numerous inductive and suppressive agents. It is primarily produced by macrophages in response to immunological challenges such as bacteria (lipopolysaccharides), viruses, parasites, mitogens, and other cytokines. TNF-α is cytotoxic for many transformed cells (its namesake activity) but in normal diploid cells, it can stimulate proliferation (fibroblasts), differentiation (myeloid cells) or activation (neutrophils). TNF-α also shows antiviral effects against both DNA and RNA viruses and it induces production of several other cytokines. TNF-α and the related molecule TNF-β (LT-α) share close structural homology with 28% amino acid sequence identity and both activate the same TNF receptors, TNFR1 and TNFR2.
T0157 Tumor Necrosis Factor-α human TNF-α, recombinant, expressed in yeast, buffered aqueous solution, suitable for cell culture Tumore necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), also known as cachectin, is expressed as a 26 kDa membrane bound protein and is then cleaved by TNF-α converting enzyme (TACE) to release the soluble 17 kDa monomer, which forms homotrimers in circulation. TNF-α plays roles in antitumor activity, immune modulation, inflammation, anorexia, cachexia, septic shock, viral replication and hematopoiesis. TNF-α is expressed by a great variety of cells, with numerous inductive and suppressive agents. Primarily, TNF-α is produced by macrophages in response to immunological challenges such as bacteria (lipopolysaccharides), viruses, parasites, mitogens and other cytokines. TNF-α is cytotoxic for many transformed cells (its namesake activity) but in normal diploid cells, it can stimulate proliferation (fibroblasts), differentiation (myeloid cells) or activation (neutrophils). TNF-α also shows antiviral effects against both DNA and RNA viruses and it induces production of several other cytokines. Although TNF-α is used in clinical trials as an antitumor agent, Sigma′s cytokine, growth factor and hormone products are for research only. TNF-α and the related molecule TNF-β (LT-α) share close structural homology with 28% amino acid sequence identity and both activate the same TNF receptors, TNFR1 and TNFR2. Mouse and human TNF-α share 79% amino acid sequence identity. Unlike human TNF-α, the mouse form is N-glycosylated.
T6674 Tumor Necrosis Factor-α human TNF-α, recombinant, expressed in E. coli, powder, suitable for cell culture Tumore necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), also known as cachectin, is expressed as a 26 kDa membrane bound protein and is then cleaved by TNF-α converting enzyme (TACE) to release the soluble 17 kDa monomer, which forms homotrimers in circulation. TNF-α plays roles in antitumor activity, immune modulation, inflammation, anorexia, cachexia, septic shock, viral replication and hematopoiesis. TNF-α is expressed by a great variety of cells, with numerous inductive and suppressive agents. Primarily, TNF-α is produced by macrophages in response to immunological challenges such as bacteria (lipopolysaccharides), viruses, parasites, mitogens and other cytokines. TNF-α is cytotoxic for many transformed cells (its namesake activity) but in normal diploid cells, it can stimulate proliferation (fibroblasts), differentiation (myeloid cells) or activation (neutrophils). TNF-α also shows antiviral effects against both DNA and RNA viruses and it induces production of several other cytokines. Although TNF-α is used in clinical trials as an antitumor agent, Sigma′s cytokine, growth factor and hormone products are for research only. TNF-α and the related molecule TNF-β (LT-α) share close structural homology with 28% amino acid sequence identity and both activate the same TNF receptors, TNFR1 and TNFR2. Mouse and human TNF-α share 79% amino acid sequence identity. Unlike human TNF-α, the mouse form is N-glycosylated.
T0813 Anti-Tumor Necrosis Factor-α antibody produced in goat affinity isolated antibody, lyophilized powder  
T1816 Anti-Tumor Necrosis Factor-α antibody produced in goat affinity isolated antibody, lyophilized powder  
T0938 Anti-Tumor Necrosis Factor-α antibody produced in goat affinity isolated antibody, lyophilized powder  
T8300 Anti-Tumor Necrosis Factor-α antibody produced in rabbit IgG fraction of antiserum, buffered aqueous solution  
T6817 Monoclonal Anti-Tumor Necrosis Factor-α antibody produced in mouse clone 28401, purified immunoglobulin, lyophilized powder  
F6651 Monoclonal Anti-Tumor Necrosis Factor-α–Fluorescein antibody produced in mouse clone 6402.31, purified immunoglobulin, buffered aqueous solution