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Sodium Channel Modulators

Voltage-gated sodium channels are pres­ent in most excitable cell membranes and play an important role in generating action potentials. A variety of toxins and chemi­cals are known to either block or modu­late sodium channels and have proven invaluable in investigating the physiological characteristics of these channels. Most notably, tetrodotoxin (TTX), isolated from puffer fish, is a potent and selec­tive blocker of sodium channels. Saxitoxin (STX), a toxin isolated from dinoflagellates, was also found to have the same block­ing action as TTX.

Activation and Inactivation of the Sodium Channel
Sodium Channel Structure
Sodium Channel Pore Region