Oxidative Stress Proteins and Reagents

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SML0374 U-104 ≥98% (HPLC) U-104 is an inhibitor of CA IX that binds only to CA IX under hypoxic conditions in vivo. The binding results in significant inhibition of tumor growth and metastasis formation in both spontaneous and experimental models of metastasis. U-104 reduces the medium acidity by inhibiting the catalytic activity of the CA IX. It binds specifically only to hypoxic cells expressing CA IX.
SML1343 3PO ≥98% (HPLC) 3PO is a potent and selective inhibitor of PFKFB3 (6-Phosphofructo-2-kinase/fructose-2,6-bisphosphatase) that reduces glycolytic flux and suppresses glucose uptake. 3PO is selectively cytostatic to transformed cells and suppresses the growth of established tumor in mice.
SML0312 Acivicin ≥98% (HPLC) Acivicin is an antibiotic that inhibits g-glutamyl transpeptidase and transmembrane glutathione transport. Acivicin is a potent antitumor agent that induces apoptosis in human lymphoblastoid cells.
A4108 Aminophenyl fluorescein solution 5 mM in DMF, suitable for fluorescence  
SML1723 2-Amino-9H-pyrido[2-3-b]indole ≥98% (HPLC) New AαC (2-Amino-9H-pyrido[2-3-b]indole) is a potential human carcinogen, which is generated by the combustion of tobacco, or by pyrolysis of protein. AαC potentially contributes to liver or digestive tract cancers. Inside body AαC is metabolized to intermediates (possibly short-lived nitrenium ion of AαC) that react with DNA.
SAB4200563 Monoclonal Anti-AOX1 antibody produced in mouse ~1.0 mg/mL, clone AO16, purified immunoglobulin  
SML1690 ASMI ≥98% (HPLC) ASMI is a cell-permeable, non-toxic, biocompatible, photostable, positively charged, mitochondria targeting styryl-methylpyridinium based compound that acts as a rapid, cysteine selective, sensitive, and ratiometric (F 518 /F 452  nm) fluorescent turn-on probe (0.5 - 40 μM of [Cys]). Under physiological conditions, cysteine thiol reacts with the ASMI acrylate moiety in a time-dependent manner, and induces a facile intramolecular cyclization to release fluorogenic oxystyryl methylpyridinium. ASMI displays high selectivity over other biothiols (Kobs  = 0.75, 0.038, 0.011 & 0.012 min -1  for Cys, Hcy, GSH & Na 2 S, respectively) and with no interference from other biologically relevant amino acids, essential metal ions, and anions, including Na2S. Shown to monitor mitochondrial Cys levels in HeLa cells and in deep tissues (150 μm of penetration depth) by two-photon excited fluorescence microscopy.
SML1760 BAM15 ≥98% (HPLC) New BAM15 is a cell penetrant and potent uncoupler of oxidative phosphorylation in mitochondria that that does not depolarizes the plasma membrane. BAM15 protects mice from acute renal ischemic-reperfusion injury.
B8810 BAY 41-2272 ≥97% (HPLC) BAY 41-2272 is an activator of soluble guanylate cyclase at a novel, NO-independent regulatory site. BAY 41-2272 is the first product that stimulates sGC through a non-NO mechanism. BAY 41-2272 inhibits platelet aggregation and induces vasorelaxation without nitrate tolerance.
SML1780 BAY-588 ≥98% (HPLC) BAY-588 is an inactive control probe for BAY-876 (catalog no. SML1774). BAY-876 is a potent, highly selective, cell-permeable inhibitor of glucose transporter GLUT1. For characterization details of BAY-876 and BAY-588, please visit the BAY-876 probe summary on the Structural Genomics Consortium (SGC) website.

To learn about other SGC chemical probes for protein targets, visit sigma.com/sgc
SML1774 BAY-876 ≥98% (HPLC) BAY-876 is a potent, highly selective, cell-permeable inhibitor of glucose transporter GLUT1. It had an IC50 value of 2 nM in vitro and inhibited glucose uptake by Hela-MaTu cells with an IC50 value of 3.2 nM. BAY-876 was at least 130-fold selective for GLUT1 relative to GLUT2, GLUT3, GLUT4 and a panel of 18 kinases and 68 proteins. For full characterization details, please visit the BAY-876 probe summary on the Structural Genomics Consortium (SGC) website.

To learn about other SGC chemical probes for protein targets, visit sigma.com/sgc
B3687 Biliverdin Reductase A human recombinant, expressed in E. coli, ≥90% (SDS-PAGE), buffered aqueous solution Biliverdin reductase catalyzes the transformation of the blue-green pigment biliverdin IX to the yellow-orange bile pigment bilirubin IX by converting a double-bond between the second and third pyrrole ring into a single-bond. This enzyme has two distinct cofactor-dependent pH optima. In the acidic range of pH 6.0-6.7, NADH is utilized, whereas in the alkaline range of pH 8.5-8.7, NADPH is utilized. Biliverdin reductase is considered a major physiologic cytoprotectant. Biliverdin reductase suppresses experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis in rats. Depletion of biliverdin reductase leads to accumulation of cellular oxidants and augmented cell death.
SML1430 Bis-Imidazole phenol IDH1 inhibitor ≥98% (HPLC), solubility: 30 mg/mL in DMSO, clear bis-Imidazole phenol is a potent and cell permeable inhibitor of isocitrate dehydrogenase 1 (IDH1) mutant R132H that inhibits D-2-hydroxyglutaric acid (2HG) production in cells. bis-Imidazole phenol binds to an IDH1 R132H allosteric site at the dimer interface containing residue involved in binding of the catalytically essential divalent cation.
SML0601 BPTES ≥95% (HPLC) BPTES is a selective inhibitor of Glutaminase GLS1 (KGA), which is found in the kidney and brain, and is positively regulated by myc and strongly expressed in many tumors and tumor cell lines. Glutaminase converts glutamine to glutamate, which is an important excitatory neurotransmitter in brain and can be further oxidized to α-ketoglutarate to feed the tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle and to glutathione, which is important for controlling the level of reactive oxygen species (ROS), particularly important for cancer cell growth. BPTES was found to slow growth of glioma cells. BPTES is a noncompetitive inhibitor with a Ki of 3 μM.
SML0813 BRD56491 ≥98% (HPLC) BRD56491 is a nontoxic enhancer of reactive oxygen species (ROS) that strongly elevates markers of oxidative stress without causing cell death. However, combining BRD56491 with nontoxic doses of the glutathione synthesis inhibitor L-buthionine sulfoximine did lead to cell death in a variety of cancer cell lines. BRD56491 can be used to create a more oxidizing cell state and aid in studies of cancer cell lines resilient to induced increases in ROS levels.
SML0121 BTZO-1 ≥98% (HPLC) BTZO-1 is a suppressor of cardiomyocyte apoptosis presumably by activation of antioxidant response element (ARE)-mediated gene expression. BTZO-1 binds to the macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF) that is required to activate the glutathione S-transferase Ya subunit (GST Ya) gene ARE.
SML0308 Carbazeran ≥96% (HPLC) Carbazeran is an Aldehyde oxidase (AO) substrate and a phosphodiesterase inhibitor that produces concentration-dependent positive inotropic responses. In humans, the compound is almost completely cleared via 4-hydroxylation to the phthalazinone metabolite by AO.
SML1656 CBR-5884 ≥98% (HPLC) CBR-5884 is a cell penetrant, potent and selective noncompetitive inhibitor of 3-phosphoglycerate dehydrogenase (PHGDH) that inhibits proliferation of melanoma and breast cancer lines. CBR-5884 inhibits de novo serine synthesis in in cancer cells.
SML1532 Cinaciguat hydrochloride ≥98% (HPLC) Cinaciguat activates sGC (soluble guanylate cyclase) independently of NO. Cinaciguat binds to sGC′s NO-sensory H-NOX domain when it is heme-depleted. Also, the compound Cinaciguat protects sGC from oxidation-induced ubiquitin-triggered degradation.
C5499 Cytochrome c Oxidase from bovine heart 5 mg protein/mL Cytochrome c oxidase is the principal terminal oxidase of high oxygen affinity in the aerobic metabolism of all animals, plants, yeasts and some bacteria. It is present in the mitochondria of the more highly developed cells and in the cytoplasmic membrane of bacteria. Cytochrome c oxidase catalyses the electron transfer from cytochrome c to O2. This electron-transfer process produces a proton gradient across the membrane, which in turn drives the production of ATP. This enzyme is unique in providing energy for the cell bycoupling the electron transport through the cytochrome chain with the process of oxidative phosphorylation.
SML1640 DC_AC50 ≥98% (HPLC) DC_AC50 is an inhibitor of copper trafficking proteins Atox1 and CCS, resulting in a disruption of cellular copper transport. Cancer cells rely more heavily on Atox1 and CCS than normal cells. DC_AC50 blockade of copper trafficking induces cellular oxidative stress, affecting cancer cells more strongly than normal cells, and leading to the inhibition of cancer cell proliferation.
D6883 2′,7′-Dichlorofluorescin diacetate ≥97%  
D5439 2,3-Dimethoxy-1,4-naphthoquinone ≥99%, solid  
SML0468 Dorzolamide ≥98% (HPLC) Dorzolamide is a potent carbonic anhydrase II inhibitor with an IC50 value of 0.16 nM on human erythrocyte carbonic anhydrase II in vitro. It has been found to lower increased intraocular pressure in open-angle glaucoma and ocular hypertension.
SML0467 ES936 ≥98% (HPLC) ES936 is a very potent and selective inhibitor of NAD(P)H:quinone oxidoreductase 1 (NQO1). ES936 inhibits superoxide scavenging by NQO1 in tumor and cardiovascular cells. NQO1 is highly expressed in pancreatic cancers, and ES936 inhibits proliferation of pancreatic tumor lines Mia PaCa and BxPC-3 with nanomolar IC50 values.
SML1743 ETaKG ≥95% (HPLC) ETaKG is a cell-permeable, aqueous stable, bioavailable, non-toxic α-ketoglutarate/2-oxoglutarate (α-KG/2-OG) diester derivative that readily undergoes hydrolysis by cytosolic esterases to α-KG. The monoester analog, TaKG is also membrane permeant. ETaKG elevates intracellular [α-KG] by ~15-fold in a prologned fashion, destabilizes HIF-1α/2α and reactivates prolyl hydroxylases (PHDs) in hypoxic HCT116, A431 and RPE cells at 2 mM. Further, shown to selectively trigger PHD-dependent cell death in hypoxic cells and decreases cellular [ATP] and glucose uptake. ETaKG has shown to reduce glucose metabolism, elevate [α-KG] levels and suppress A375 xenograft tumor growth (750 mg/kg of mice, p.o., q.d., 14 days). Also, induces mTORC1 lysosomal translocation and stimulates mTORC1 activity in the absence of glutaminolysis in U2OS cells.
SML1083 Ethacrynic acid ≥97% (HPLC) Ethacrynic acid is non sulfonamide loop diuretic that is used to treat high blood pressure and the swelling caused by diseases like congestive heart failure. Ethacrynic acid blocks sodium-potassium-chloride cotransport. Also, Ethacrynic acid potently inhibits glutathione S-transferase family members. Studies show that ethacrynic acid potently inhibits Tgase-2 (transglutaminase-2) dependent metastasis of cancer cells including lung and pancreatic cancers.
SML1734 FHZ ≥98% (HPLC) FHZ is a highly selective, cell-permeable, non-cytotoxic, non-fluorescent 6-triethylene glycol-substituted fluorescein hydrazide that is an efficient fluorescent turn-on probe for dual channel detection of (•OH) and HOCl in live cells and zebrafish embryos. FHZ selectively reacts with hydroxyl (•OH) and HOCl, respectively, to form highly fluorescent FOBA (Ex: 410 nm & Em.: 486 nm; Φ = 0.42; ε410 = 12000/M/cm) and F-TEG (Ex: 490 nm & Em.: 520 nm; Φ = 0.34; ε490 = 7000/M/cm), while exhibiting no reactivity toward H2O2 1O2, O2•–, NO, or ONOO–. Cyan and green fluorescence dual-channel detection with two exciting wavelengths (405 nm and 488 nm) and two collection windows (430–490 nm; 510–560 nm) allows time-dependent quantitative detection of cellular •OH and HOCl by FHZ in live cells (50-100 μM; HeLa and RAW 264.7 macrophages) cells and zebrafish embryos (50 μM).
SML1327 Glutaminase Inhibitor 968 ≥98% (HPLC) Glutaminase Inhibitor 968 is an allosteric inihibitor of the mitochondrial enzyme glutaminase C (GAC), which is overexpressed in a number of cancer cell lines. Glutaminase Inhibitor 968 shows 21% inhibition at 10 μM, 94% at 25 μM. Glutaminase Inhibitor 968 blocked human cancer cell proliferation in culture, and in inhibited tumor formation in mouse xenograft models.
G5298 Glutaredoxin-1 human recombinant, expressed in E. coli, ≥90% (SDS-PAGE) Glutaredoxins (GRXs) participate in thio-disulfide exchange reactions in the presence of GSH, NADPH, and glutathione reductase. Glutaredoxins and thioredoxins belong to related families of low molecular mass enzymes that catalyze thio-disulfide exchange reactions. These enzymes are involved in electron transport, formation of disulfide linkage, protein folding, and protein regulation by thiol redox control.
Two Glutaredoxins have been identified in mammals:
• GRX1: found in the cytosol, supplies ribonucleotide reductase with electrons and is involved in general disulfide-dithiol exchanges, dehydroascorbate reduction, cellular differentiation, regulation of transcription factors and apoptosis.
• GRX2: plays a role in the cellular response to apoptotic stimuli and oxidative stress at the mitochondrial checkpoint. GRX2 has two isoforms (GRX2a and GRX2b) derived from alternative first exons. GRX2a is targeted to mitochondria, whereas GRX2b is predicted to be localized in the nucleus. Unlike GRX1, GRX2 is not inhibited by oxidation of structural Cys residues. In addition, GRX2 can receive electrons not only from GSH, but also from thioredoxin reductase supporting both monothiol and dithiol reactions.

G6673 Glutaredoxin-2 human recombinant, expressed in E. coli, ≥90% (SDS-PAGE) Glutaredoxin-2 catalyzes the disulfide formation and glutathionylation of proteins, especially complex I. This protein catalyzes reversible protein glutathionylation/deglutathionylation under varying range of GSH/GSSG ratios. Thus, it maintains the equilibrium between mitochondrial glutathione pool and protein thiols, thereby, regulating mitochondrial response to redox signals and oxidative stress.
Glutaredoxins (GRXs) participate in thio-disulfide exchange reactions in the presence of GSH, NADPH, and glutathione reductase. Glutaredoxins and thioredoxins belong to related families of low molecular mass enzymes that catalyze thio-disulfide exchange reactions. These enzymes are involved in electron transport, formation of disulfide linkage, protein folding, and protein regulation by thiol redox control.
Two Glutaredoxins have been identified in mammals:
• GRX1 is found in the cytosol and supplies ribonucleotide reductase with electrons. GRX! is involved in general disulfide-dithiol exchanges, dehydroascorbate reduction, cellular differentiation, regulation of transcription factors, and apoptosis.
• GRX2 plays a role in the cellular response to apoptotic stimuli and oxidative stress at the mitochondrial checkpoint. GRX2 has two isoforms (GRX2a and GRX2b) derived from alternative first exons. GRX2a is targeted to mitochondria; whereas, GRX2b is predicted to be localized in the nucleus. Unlike GRX1, GRX2 is not inhibited by oxidation of structural Cys residues. In addition, GRX2 can receive electrons not only from GSH, but also from thioredoxin reductase supporting both monothiol and dithiol reactions.

G4251 L-Glutathione reduced ≥98.0% Endogenous antioxidant that plays a major role in reducing reactive oxygen species formed during cellular metabolism and the respiratory burst. Glutathione-S-transferase catalyzes the formation of glutathione thioethers with xenobiotics, leukotrienes, and other molecules that have an electrophilic center. Glutathione also forms disulfide bonds with cysteine residues in proteins. Via these mechanisms, it can have the paradoxical effect of reducing the efficacy of anti-cancer agents.
Reduced L-glutathione (GSH) is a thiol compound and is associated with catabolism and transportation. Plasma GSH levels are associated with Parkinson′s diseases, Alzheimer′s, diabetes, macular degeneration, and HIV (human immunodeficiency virus) disease.
G8761 (±)-Gossypol from cotton seeds ≥95% (HPLC) Gossypol is a male antifertility agent and PAF antagonist/inhibitor. Gossypol is a poisonous pigment found in cottonseed and its name is derived from the botanical name of the cotton plant, Gossypium.. Gossypium is extracted from selected hybrid species between two Gossypium species, Gossypium hirsutum and Gossypium barbadens. As a PAF antagonist/inhibitor, Gossypium markedly inhibited the contractile responses of guinea pig lung parenchyma strips stimulated with leukotriene B4, seukotriene D4, and PAF-acether.
SML1757 GSK864 ≥98% (HPLC) GSK864 is a cell penetrant, potent and selective allosteric inhibitor of isocitrate dehydrogenase 1 (IDH1) that potently inhibits intracellular 2-hydroxyglutarate (2-HG) production in HT-1080 cells. It appears that GSK864 binds to an allosteric binding site and locks WT and mutant IDH1s in a catalytically inactive conformation. GSK864 is a highly bioavailable analog of GSK321. For full characterization details, please visit the GSK864 probe summary on the Structural Genomics Consortium (SGC) website.

To learn about other SGC chemical probes for protein targets, visit sigma.com/sgc
SML1637 Hexaminolevulinate hydrochloride ≥98% (HPLC) Hexaminolevulinate (HAL) hydrochloride is a hexyl ester of 5-Aminolevulinic acid (ALA), a precursor to porphyrins including the photosensitizer protoporphyrin IX (PPIX). Hexaminolevulinate is more lipophilic than ALA, and is 50–100 times more efficient than ALA at inducing PpIX, which accumulates preferentially in neoplastic cells. Hexaminolevulinate administration followed by light activation has been used for fluorescence cystoscopy to enhance detection of bladder cancer, in particular carcinoma in situ (CIS). Hexaminolevulinate is also being studied for use in cancer photodynamic therapy. Hexaminolevulinate followed by irradiation produced DNA oxidative damage and apoptosis.
SML0582 Hispidulin ≥98% (HPLC) Hispidulin is a bioactive flavonoid with a variety of effects including antiproliferative, antifungal, anti-inflammatory, antioxidative and antiepileptic activity. Like EGCG, hispidulin appears to activate AMPK and inhibit the PI3K/Akt/mTOR pathway. The antiepileptic activity may be due to additional activity as a benzodiazepine (BZD) receptor ligand.
H9538 HNE-DMA hexane solution, ≥85% (GC) Stable form of HNE; toxic second messenger of free radicals.
H1009 Hydrogen peroxide solution 30 % (w/w) in H2O, contains stabilizer  
H5653 8-Hydroxy-2′-deoxyguanosine ≥98% (TLC) A marker compound typically indicative of DNA damage associated with mutagenesis and carcinogenesis
H4290 Hydroxyphenyl fluorescein solution 5 mM in DMF  
SML0472 4-IPP ≥97% (HPLC) 4-IPP is a cell permeable, potent macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF) antagonist that covalently modifies MIF N-terminal proline.
SML0590 Isorhapontigenin ≥98% (HPLC) Isorhapontigenin or 4-methoxyresveratrol is a stilbene derivative isolated from a number of plants including Chinese medical herbs Gnetum Cleistostachyum and Iris Domestica (Belamcanda chinensis, leopard lily), and wine grapes. Similarly to resveratrol, isorhapontigenin is a potent antioxidant that attenuates ROS generation. Also, Isorhapontigenin exhibits pro-apoptopic and anti-cancer activities through downregulation of XIAP (X-linked inhibitor of apoptosis protein).
SML0466 LCS-1 ≥98% (HPLC) LCS-1 is an inhibitor of superoxide dismutase (SOD1). LCS-1 inhibits the proliferation of lung adendocarcinoma cell lines.
SML1567 MCB-613 ≥98% (HPLC) MCB-613 is a pan-Steroid Receptor Coactivator (SRC) stimulator. There are three steroid receptor coactivators (SRC) that interact with transcription factors and whose overexpression is assciated with a number of cancers, particularly breast cancer. MCB-613 overstimulates SRC activity in cancer cells resulting in excessive generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS), leading to cell stress and death by a process called paraptosis. MCB-613 is a cytotoxic molecule which can kill various human cancer cell lines, like HepG2 (liver), PC-3 (prostate) and MCF-7 (breast) cells.
M5625 Menadione crystalline Menadione (Vitamin K3) is a synthetic analogue of of 1,4-naphthoquinone with a methyl group in the 2-position. Menadione is used as a phosphatase inhibitor and an inhibitor of mitochondrial DNA polymerase γ (pol γ). Menadione can be used as an oxidative injury (free radical generator) inducing agent.
M5750 Menadione sodium bisulfite ≥95% (TLC) Menadione sodium bisulfite is a water-soluble form of menadione, which belongs to the Vitamin K class of compounds. These are necessary for the biosynthesis of prothrombin and other blood clotting factors. Menadione is a prothrombogenic compound and is used as a model quinone in cell culture and in vivo investigations.

Menadione has been shown to affect gap-junctional intercellular communication by mediation of tyrosine phosphorylation. Menadione has demonstrated cytotoxic activity against a variety of cell lines and can induce apoptosis in cultured cells, such as osteoclasts and osteoblasts, via elevation of peroxide and superoxide radical levels.

An HPLC method for detection of menadione sodium bisulfite in multivitamin formulations has been published. A chemiluminescence assay for menadione sodium bisulfite in pharmaceutical preparations and biological fluids has been reported.
SML1793 MI-4F ≥98% (HPLC) MI-4F is mesoionic compound that exhibits potent anticancer activity against multiple cancer cell lines and in vivo. MI-4F induces apoptosis in HepG2 cells. MI-4F appears to inhibit calcium efflux through inhibition formation of mitochondrial permeability transition pore (MPTP). MI-4F inhibits superoxide dismutase. MI-4F is not susceptible to MDR transporters P-glycoprotein, ABCG2 and MRP1. MI-4F also inhibits ABCG2-mediated efflux of mitoxantrone.
SML1300 MitoB ≥98% (HPLC) MitoB is a mitochondria-targeted mass spectrometry probe used to measure hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) levels within mitochondria. MitoB reacts selelectively with H2O2 to form a new product, MitoP. The ratio of MitoP to MitoB can be used to determine mitochondrial H2O2 concentration.
SML0734 MitoPY1 ≥95% (HPLC), 1:1 iodide complex MiroPY1 is a cell-permeable fluorescent sensor that is highly selective for detecting the presence of H2O2 within the mitochondria of living cells.
SML1890 MK204 ≥98% (HPLC) New MK204 is a potent and selective inhibitor of aldo-keto reductase family member 1B10 (AKR1B10). AKR1B10 is induced in several cancer types, in particular, hepatocellular carcinoma, and may be involved with drug resistance. MK204 appears to target a distinct AKR1B10 inner specificity pocket not present in the closely related aldose reductase. MK204 had an IC50 value of 80 nM compared to an IC50 value of 21.7 μM for aldose reductase.
SML1298 ML309 hydrochloride ≥98% (HPLC) ML309 is a potent and selective inhibitor of mutant isocitrate dehydrogenase 1 (IDH1) (R132H and R132C) that binds reversibly the enzyme. ML309 inhibits production of neomorphic 2-hydroxyglutarate in glioblastoma cell line.
M9411 Myristicin from parsley leaf oil ≥85% (HPLC), oil Myristicin induces the expression of glutathione S-transferase and cytochrome P450 (Cyp1a-1) in liver cells. May enhance detoxification of carcinogenic substances.
SML0767 NCGC00188636 ≥98% (HPLC) NCGC00188636 (DBS) is a potent and specific inhibitor of pyruvate kinase (PYK) that binds to the enzyme active site lysine residue (Lys 335 Leishmania mexicana PYK, Lys410 HsRPYK).
SML0269 Nitisinone ≥95% (HPLC) Nitisinone is a competitive inhibitor that reversibly inhibits 4-Hydroxyphenylpyruvate oxidase (dioxygenase). Nitisinone is used in the treatment of hereditary tyrosinemia type 1, where it blocks the degradation of tyrosine into harmful substances.
N7389 3-Nitro-L-tyrosine crystalline Oxidant and cytotoxic agent.
SML1057 NPP ≥98% (HPLC) NPP is a ROS promoter selective for cancer tissue. NPP is a potent and preferential tumor cell death inducer that causes apoptosis in cancer cells by cytochrome P450 catalyzed ROS formation.
SML1388 N-Octanoyl dopamine ≥95% (HPLC) N-Octanoyl dopamine (NOD) protects cell cultures and tissues from cold storage inflicted damage. N-Octanoyl dopamine decreases lactate-dehydrogenase (LDH) release during cold storage of cardiomyocytes in vitro. NOD did not induce a significant elevation of intracellular cAMP and is devoid of dopaminergic and adrenergic action.
SML0402 PD 151746 ≥98% (HPLC) PD 151746 is a potent inhibitor of calpains 1 and 2.
PZ0277 PF-06281355 ≥98% (HPLC) PF-06281355 (PF-1355) is an orally available, selective and potent mechanism based inhibitor of the myeloperoxidase (MPO) that reduces plasma MPO activity, vascular edema, neutrophil recruitment, and elevated circulating cytokines. PF-06281355 suppresses albuminuria and chronic renal dysfunction in model of anti-Glomerular Basement Membrane (GBM) disease.
SML1009 PFK15 ≥98% (HPLC) PFK15 is potent and selective antagonist of PFKB3 (6-phosphofructo-2-kinase/fructose-2,6-bisphosphatase 3) that causes a rapid induction of apoptosis in cancer and transformed cells. PFK15 inhibits the growth of LLC xenografts.
P9625 Phenazine methosulfate ≥90% (UV)  
P6238 trans-5-Phenyl-4-pentenyl hydroperoxide ≥90%, Solution in ethanol Hydroperoxide compound used to assay peroxidase activity. Reduced to 5-phenyl-4E-pentenol (PPA) by plant and animal peroxidases in the presence of reducing substrates by a reaction that can be monitored spectrophotometrically.
SML1218 Pheophorbide-a ≥90% (HPLC) Pheophorbide-a is a photosensitizer for the photodynamic therapy. It is an ABCG2 transporter specific substrate. Overexpression of ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters in cancer cells is associated with the multidrug resistance phenotype.
N1165 Pimonidazole ≥98% (HPLC) Pimonidazole is an effective and nontoxic exogenous 2-nitroimidazole hypoxia marker. Pimonidazole forms adducts with thiol groups in proteins, peptides and amino acids.
SML0688 PO1 ≥98% (HPLC) PO-1 is a cell-permeable fluorescent sensor that is highly selective for detecting the presence of H2O2 in living cells.
M5324 PX 12 ≥98% (HPLC), powder PX-12 inhibits the thioredoxin redox system and HIF-1a activity. PX 12 inhibits hypoxia-induced HIF-1a transcriptional activity (IC50 11 nM) and proliferation of HT29 and MCF-7 tumor cells (IC50 1.9 and 0.9 uM, respectively).
SML0676 PY1 ≥98% (HPLC) PY1 is a cell-permeable fluorescent sensor that is highly selective for detecting the presence of H2O2 in living cells.
P0046 Pyocyanin from Pseudomonas aeruginosa, ≥98% (HPLC) Pyocyanin, a blue-green pigment belonging to phenazine pigments, is a redox-active phenazine. Pyocyanin is an electron receptor, which stimulates redox cycling in bacteria, liver cells, and human epithlial cell lines. Pyocyanin enhances the oxidative metabolism, which in turn increases the formation of intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) via reduction of NADPH. Pyocyanin also increases the release of IL-8 by airway epithelial cells both in vitro and in vivo. This involves signal transduction pathways that include oxidants, protein tyrosine kinases, and MAP kinases. IL-8 secretion by these cells is in synergy with inflammatory cytokines. Pyocyanin has been shown to accelerate neutrophil apoptosis in vitro, resulting in resolution of acute inflammation, which is beneficial for bacteria survival.
R9532 Pyocyanin, Ready Made Solution from Pseudomonas aeruginosa 5 mg/mL in DMSO, sterile; 0.2 μm filtered Pyocyanin, a redox-active phenazine, is an electron receptor, which stimulates redox cycling in bacteria, liver cells, and human epithlial cell lines. It enhances oxidative metabolism, which increases the formation of intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) via reduction of NADPH. Pyocyanin also increases the release of the neutrophil chemoattractant IL-8 by airway epithelial cells both in vitro and in vivo. This involves signal transduction pathways that include oxidants, protein tyrosin kinases and MAP-kinases. IL-8 secretion by these cells is in synergy with inflammatory cytokines. Pyocyanin accelerates neutrophil apoptosis in vitro. Mice infected with a pyocyanin-deficient strain of P. aeruginosa showed elevated levels of neutrophils and neutrophil chemokines and cytokines, as well as compromised bacterial clearance from the lungs compared with mice infected with a wild type strain. This suggests that pyocyanin production by P. aeruginosa suppresses the acute inflammatory response by pathogen-driven acceleration of neutrophil apoptosis and by reducing local inflammation, and that this is advantageous for bacterial survival.
P8124 Pyoverdines from Pseudomonas fluorescens, >90% (HPLC) Pyoverdines help in promoting plant growth by chelating iron and rendering it unavailable for plant pathogens. The ferri-pyoverdine complex acts as a signaling molecule inducing the production of secreted virulence factors in Pseudomonas aeruginosa.
Pyoverdines, also called pseuobactins and pyoverdins, are fluorescent siderophores that have high affinity for iron (1032 M-1), and are synthesized by fluorescent pseudomonads under iron-deficient growth conditions. Pyoverdines were shown to prevent iron toxicity produced by iron overload in hepatocyte cultures and effectively scavenges the hydroxyl and peroxyl radicals. Pyoverdines are effective in acquiring iron from transferrin and lactoferrin. Pyoverdines are also involved in the suppression of pythium-induced damping-off of tomato and promotion of growth in some higher plants.
P8374 Pyoverdines−Fe complex from Pseudomonas fluorescens, >90% (HPLC) Pyoverdines, also called pseuobactins and pyoverdins, are fluorescent siderophores that have high affinity for iron (1032 M-1), and are synthesized by fluorescent pseudomonads under iron-deficient growth conditions. Pyoverdines were shown to prevent iron toxicity produced by iron overload in hepatocyte cultures and effectively scavenges the hydroxyl and peroxyl radicals. Pyoverdines are effective in acquiring iron from transferrin and lactoferrin. Pyoverdines are also involved in the suppression of pythium-induced damping-off of tomato and promotion of growth in some higher plants.
The complex ferri-pyoverdine acts as a signaling molecule inducing the production of secreted virulence factors in Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Ferri-pyoverdines promote the growth of both P. fluorescens and P. aeruginosa in minimal medium.
P8249 Pyoverdines−Gallium (III) complex from Pseudomonas fluorescens, >90% (HPLC) Gallium-pyoverdines act as growth inhibitors of both P. fluorescens and P. aeruginosa possibly due to gallium interference with bacterial iron metabolism.
Pyoverdines, also called pseuobactins and pyoverdins, are fluorescent siderophores that have high affinity for iron (1032 M-1), and are synthesized by fluorescent pseudomonads under iron-deficient growth conditions. Pyoverdines were shown to prevent iron toxicity produced by iron overload in hepatocyte cultures and effectively scavenges the hydroxyl and peroxyl radicals. Pyoverdines are effective in acquiring iron from transferrin and lactoferrin. Pyoverdines are also involved in the suppression of pythium-induced damping-off of tomato and promotion of growth in some higher plants.
S3132 Seleno-L-methionine ≥98% (TLC), powder Seleno-L-methionine displays antioxidant activity and has been shown to increase the activity of glutathione peroxidase in endothelial cells. Glutathione peroxidase protects cells from oxidative damage, such as DNA strand breaks, mutations and interference with protein tyrosine-based signaling and other protein functions due to formation of 3-nitrotyrosine, caused by excessive peroxynitrite. Seleno-L-methionine administration to cancer cell lines (MCF-7/S breast carcinoma, DU-145 prostate cancer cells and UACC-375 melanoma) results in apoptotic cell death and aberrant mitosis. These human tumor cell lines exhibited dose-dependent growth inhibition by selenomethionine in the micromolar range (45 to 130μM), while growth inhibition of normal fibroblasts required 1mM selenomethionine.
SRP0411 Sestrin 1 human recombinant, expressed in baculovirus infected Sf9 cells, ≥44% (SDS-PAGE)  
SRP0412 Sestrin 2 human recombinant, expressed in baculovirus infected Sf9 cells, ≥35% (SDS-PAGE)  
SML1880 SPL-334 ≥98% (HPLC) New SPL-334 is an inhibitor of S-Nitrosoglutathione reductase (GSNOR), the enzyme responsible for regulating cellular concentrations of S-Nitrosoglutathione (GSNO), which plays a critical role in nitric oxide signaling in the respiratory tract. In a mouse model of allergic airway inflammation, SPL-334 reduced airway hyperreactivity, and in a bleomycin injury model of interstitial lung disease, SPL-334 reduced lung inflammation and fibrosis. Studies for treatment of asthma, idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF), and inflammation are ongoing.
S9697 Superoxide Dismutase bovine recombinant, expressed in E. coli, lyophilized powder, ≥2500 units/mg protein, ≥90% (SDS-PAGE) Superoxide dismutase (SOD) catalyzes the dismutation of superoxide radicals to hydrogen peroxide and molecular oxygen. SOD plays a critical role in the defense of cells against the toxic effects of oxygen radicals. SOD competes with nitric oxide (NO) for superoxide anion (which reacts with NO to form peroxynitrite), thereby SOD promotes the activity of NO. SOD has also been shown to suppress apoptosis in cultured rat ovarian follicles, neural cell lines, and transgenic mice by preventing the conversion of NO to peroxynitrate, an inducer of apoptosis.
SML1707 Temoporfin ≥90% (HPLC) New Temoporfin is a photosensitizer for the photodynamic therapy. Temoporfin has been used clinically to treat advanced head and neck squamous cell carcinoma, and is being investigated for use in several other cancers.
T0910 Thioredoxin from Escherichia coli recombinant, expressed in E. coli, essentially salt-free, lyophilized powder, ≥3 units/mg protein Mediates the reduction of disulfide bonds in proteins.
Thioredoxin from Escherichia coli catalyzes REDOX reactions and has a role in various biological processes. It modulates the structure and activity of many proteins. The enzyme thioredoxin reductase catalyzes the reduction of thioredoxin. Thioredoxin also has a role in oxidative stress response.
T8690 Thioredoxin human ≥90% (SDS-PAGE), recombinant, expressed in E. coli (N-terminal histidine tagged), essentially salt-free, lyophilized powder, ≥5 U/mg Human Thioredoxin is a recombinant, N-terminal histidine tagged protein. The product induces proliferation in lymphoid cells, fibroblasts as well as in numerous human solid tumor cell lines.The product also stimulates growth in normal as well as leukemic B cell, modifies the transcriptional activity of AP-1and inhibits the apoptosis signal-regulating kinase 1 (ASK1).
Mediates the reduction of disulfide bonds in proteins.
SML0534 Verteporfin ≥94% (HPLC) Verteporfin is a photosensitizer for photodynamic therapy to eliminate the abnormal blood vessels in the eye associated with conditions such as macular degeneration. Verteporfin accumulates in abnormal blood vessels and, when stimulated by nonthermal red light with a wavelength of 693 nm in the presence of oxygen, produces highly reactive short-lived singlet oxygen and other reactive oxygen radicals, resulting in local damage to the endothelium and blockage of the vessels. Verteporfin localizes predominantly in mitochondria.
SML0947 YN1 ≥98% (HPLC) YN1 is a potent inhibitor of PFKFB3 (6-Phosphfructo-2-kinase/fructose-2,6-bisphosphatase: IC50 = 670 nM). PFKFB3 is over expressed in many cancers, and catalyzes the production of fructose-2,6-bisphosphate, which can potentiate PFK1 activity, enhancing glycolysis in tumor cells. YN1 inhibits glycolysis and proliferation in HeLa cells.
SML1270 YZ9 ≥98% (HPLC) YZ9 is a potent inhibitor of PFKFB3 (6-phosphfructo-2-kinase/fructose-2,6-bisphosphatase) with an IC50 = 183 nM. PFKFB3 is over expressed in many cancers and catalyzes the production of fructose-2,6-bisphosphate, which can potentiate PFK1 activity, enhancing glycolysis in tumor cells. YZ9 dose dependently inhibits proliferation of HeLa cells.