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Immunomodulators and Antibiotics

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116860 Adenosine Deaminase Inhibitor, DCF - CAS 53910-25-1 - Calbiochem The Adenosine Deaminase Inhibitor, DCF, also referenced under CAS 53910-25-1, controls the biological activity of Adenosine Deaminase.  
182800 Ascomycin, Streptomyces hygroscopicus - CAS 11011-38-4 - Calbiochem An ethyl analog of FK506 with similar immunosuppressant properties.  
203890-M CRAC Channel Inhibitor, BTP2 - CAS 223499-30-7 - Calbiochem CRAC Channel Inhibitor, BTP2, CAS 223499-30-7, is a cell-permeable, potent blocker of Stim1 and Orai1-coupled Ca2+ release-activated Ca2+ channel-mediated SOCE in RBL-2H3 cells (IC50 = 590 nM)., The CRAC Channel Inhibitor, BTP2, also referenced under CAS 223499-30-7, controls the biological activity of CRAC Channel. This small molecule/inhibitor is primarily used for Inflammation/Immunology applications.  
239836 Cyclophilin A Inhibitor - CAS 1186372-20-2 - Calbiochem The Cyclophilin A Inhibitor, also referenced under CAS 1186372-20-2, controls the biological activity of Cyclophilin A. This small molecule/inhibitor is primarily used for Inflammation/Immunology applications.  
342500 FK-506, Streptomyces sp. - CAS 104987-11-3 - Calbiochem Immunosuppressant that blocks T cell proliferation in vitro by inhibiting the generation of several lymphokines, especially IL-2.  
401020 Imiquimod - CAS 99011-02-6 - Calbiochem An imidazoquinoline compound that acts as a potent immunomodulator and displays anti-angiogenic, anti-viral and anti-inflammatory properties.  
401250-M Ilimaquinone - CAS 71678-03-0 - Calbiochem A cell-permeable marine sponge metabolite with anti-microbial, anti-HIV, anti-inflammatory, and anti-mitotic properties.  
420120 Juglone - CAS 481-39-0 - Calbiochem A highly selective cell-permeable, irreversible inhibitor of PPlases (peptidyl-prolyl cis/trans isomerases of the parvulin family).  
475913 Mycophenolic Acid - CAS 24280-93-1 - Calbiochem An immunosuppressive agent that inhibits de novo purine nucleotide synthesis via inhibition of inosine monophosphate dehydrogenase and prevents the formation of XMP and GMP.  
476300 Myriocin, Mycelia sterilia - CAS 35891-70-4 - Calbiochem A potent immunosuppressant.  
567737 S1P4 Receptor Antagonist, CYM50358 - Calbiochem The S1P4 Receptor Antagonist, CYM50358 controls the biological activity of S1P4 Receptor. This small molecule/inhibitor is primarily used for Biochemicals applications.  
645900 Triptolide, Tripterygium wilfordii - CAS 38748-32-2 - Calbiochem A novel diterpene triepoxide isolated from the Chinese herb Tripterygium wilfordii that acts as a potent immunosuppressant and anti-inflammatory agent.  
SML0471 A22 hydrochloride ≥95% (HPLC) A22 is an inhibitor of MreB, an actin-like bacterial protein, and has been shown to act as an antiobiotic adjuvant. A22 inhibition of MreB disrupts the bacterial actin cytoskeleton, which can cause an increase in cell permeability and altered transport. A22 has been shown to have synergistic effects with several antibiotics including novobiocin and rifampin in gram negative bacteria.
A3609 AC-55541 ≥98% (HPLC), powder  
A9486 AG-09/1 ≥98% (HPLC) AG-09/1 is a selective formyl peptide receptor 1 (FPR1) agonist; it activates chemotaxis in human neutrophils. Formyl peptide recetors (FPRs) are GPCRs mainly expressed in phagocytic leukocytes but with lower expression in many other cell types. Formyl peptides, act as Alarmins and are released from bacteria and damaged mitochondria, serving as chemoattractants for phagocyte recruitment to sites of inflammation, resulting in immune response. Because the endogenous ligands for FPRs are peptides and arachadonic acid metabolites, there are few small molecule tools for these receptors. A recent HTS of commercially available libraries yielded several FPR-1 selective agonists, of which AG-091 was the most potent. AG-091 induced intracellular calcium flux in FPR-1- but not FPR-2-expressing cells. It also caused chemotaxis and intracellular calcium flux in human leukocytes. AG-091 is a valuable tool for studying FPR1 function in immune and other disease states.
SRP0185 ALAS2 Active human recombinant, expressed in E. coli, ≥90% (SDS-PAGE)  
A3227 Ala-Tyr-Pro-Gly-Lys-Phe-NH2 trifluoroacetate salt ≥98% (HPLC), solid AYPGK is a ligand for the PAR4 receptor; binding results in activation of PAR4. AYPGK stimulates platelet aggregation in vitro (EC50 =15 μM) via PAR4. In human platelets treated with the PAR4 agonist, AYPGKF stimulates the production of thromboxane, a potent agent for platelet-aggregation. Additionally, AYPGKF mediates the thrombin-induced release of endostatin from rat platelets.
SML0517 Amlexanox ≥98% (HPLC) Amlexanox is an anti-allergy and anti-asthma drug that blocks histamine and leukotriene release from leukocytes and mast cells. Amlexanox has also been shown to inhibit cahaperone activity of Hsp90, and S100A13, which is involved in transport of proteins devoid of signal peptide sequences.
SML0283 Amorolfine hydrochloride ≥98% (HPLC) Amorolfine is a broad-based antifungal agent with fungicidal effects against most fungi, dermatophytes and yeasts. Amorolfine blocks ergosterol biosynthesis by interfering with delta 14 reduction and the delta 7-8 isomerisation.
A9361 Artemether ≥98% (HPLC) Artemether is a methyl ether derivative of artemisinin. It is used against multi-drug resistant strains of the malaria parasite, Plasmodium falciparum, and shows potential in treatment of schistosomiasis.
A3835 Ascomycin from Streptomyces hygroscopicus var. ascomyceticus Green Alternative Strong immunosuppressant; inhibits allogenic T-lymphocyte proliferation. It binds with high affinity to FKBP and inhibits calcineurin phosphatase in the nM range.
A7986 Atovaquone ≥98% (HPLC) Atovaquone is an anti-protozoal mitochondrial electron transport inhibitor; Antimalarial; Antipneumocystic, and has also been used to treat toxoplasmosis. It is an analog of protozoan mitochondrial protein ubiquinone, and acts by inhibiting the cytochrome bc(1) complex via interactions with the Rieske iron-sulfur protein and cytochrome b in the ubiquinol oxidation pocket.
A6733 Auranofin ≥98% (HPLC) Auranofin inhibits various leukocyte activation pathways at multiple sites. Auranofin inhibits the release of inflammatory mediators from human macrophages, basophils, and pulmonary mast cells. The compound also inhibits 5-lipoxygenase in human neutrophils. Auranofin is a disease-modifying antirheumatic drug (DMARD). The compound is a potent inhibitor of selenoenzyme thioredoxin reductase (TrxR), which is involved in defense against oxidative stress. Auranofin is an efficient inducer of mitochondrial membrane permeability transition pore in the presence of calcium ions related to its inhibition of mitochondrial thioredoxin reductase. Auranofin inhibits IKB kinase (IKK) by modifying Cys-179 of the IKKβ subunit 5.
PZ0123 Avridine ≥97% (HPLC) Avridine is a potent synthetic adjuvant that can induce arthritis in most rat strains; immunomodulator and interferon-inducing.
PZ0007 Azithromycin dihydrate ≥98% (HPLC) Azithromycin dihydrate is a macrolide antibiotic, azalide subclass. It binds to the 50S subunit of the 70S bacterial ribosomes and inhibits RNA-dependent protein synthesis in bacterial cells. Azithromycin also has anti-immunomodulatory/anti-inflammatory properties, which make it useful in treating cystic fibrosis.
SML0102 Bac2A trifluoroacetate salt ≥98% (HPLC) Bac2A is an antimicrobial and immunomodulatory peptide. Bac2A is a linear variant of bactenecin. Recent studies show that Bac2A is very effective against fungal pathogens, Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. vasinfectum and Fusarium graminearum. In these studies, Bac2A antifungal activity was not due to membrane destabilization but rather to interaction with intracellular targets.
SML1661 Bafilomycin A1 Ready Made Solution 0.16 mM in DMSO, from Streptomyces griseus Bafilomycin A1 is a macrolide antibiotic. Bafilomycin A1 acts as a potent and selective inhibitor of vacuolar-type H+-ATPase.
SRP4524 BD-3 human recombinant, expressed in E. coli, ≥98% (SDS-PAGE) β-defensin-3 (BD-3) associates with bacterial products which reduce the effect of inflammatory cytokine responses. The protein has been shown to stimulate the production of interferon-α and activate monocytes through toll-like receptors 1 and 2. It antagonizes the activation of C-X-C motif chemokine receptor 4 (CXCR4).
SML0637 BD750 ≥98% (HPLC) BD750 is a benzothiazole derivative that inhibits proliferation of T-cells by a mechanism that involves inhibition of STAT5 phosphorylation and expression of cyclin D3 and CDK6. In the presence of BD750, human and mouse T cells stimulated with anti-CD3/CD28, alloantigen, PMA or ConA undergo G0/G1 cell cycle arrest, but express CD25 and CD69 and secrete IL-2 and IL-4. BD750 inhibits delayed-type hypersensitivity in mice.
B0385 Beclomethasone ≥99% An anti-inflammatory glucocorticoid.
SML1365 4-(Benzothiazol-2-yl)pentenoic acid 13 ≥98% (HPLC) 4-(Benzothiazol-2-yl)pentenoic acid 13 is a cell permeable and potent inhibitor of the Mycobacterium tuberculosis aminotransferase BioA.
SML1608 Besifloxacin hydrochloride ≥98% (HPLC) Besifloxacin is a broad spectrum fourth-generation fluoroquinolone antibiotic. Besifloxacin is effective against gram positive and negative, aerobic and anerobic bacteria. Fluoroquinolones stabilize DNA strand breaks created by DNA gyrase and topoisomerase IV by binding to the enzyme-DNA complex generating persistent, covalent enzyme–DNA adducts, inhibiting DNA synthesis. Besifloxacin inhibits both DNA gyrase and topoisomerase IV at nearly equal concentrations. It is used clinically primarily in the treatment of bacterial conjunctivitis.
SRP3013 Beta D-4 human recombinant, expressed in E. coli, ≥98% (SDS-PAGE), ≥98% (HPLC), cell culture tested Defensins (alpha and beta) are cationic peptides with a broad spectrum of antimicrobial activity that comprise an important arm of the innate immune system. Recombinant human BD-4 is a 6.0 kDa protein containing 50 amino acid residues.
SRP3011 Beta D-1 (36 aa) human recombinant, expressed in E. coli, ≥98% (SDS-PAGE), ≥98% (HPLC), cell culture tested Defensins (alpha and beta) are cationic peptides with a broad spectrum of antimicrobial activity that comprise an important arm of the innate immune system. Recombinant human BD-1 is a 3.9 kDa protein containing 36 amino acid residues.
SRP3012 Beta D-1 (47 aa) human recombinant, expressed in E. coli, ≥98% (SDS-PAGE), ≥98% (HPLC), cell culture tested Defensins (alpha and beta) are cationic peptides with a broad spectrum of antimicrobial activity that comprise an important arm of the innate immune system. Recombinant human BD-1 is a 5.0 kDa protein containing 47 amino acid residues.
SML0306 Biapenem ≥98% (HPLC) Biapenem is a broad spectrum, carbapenem-based antibiotic with activity against both Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacterial strains.
B3563 Bifonazole ≥98% (HPLC) Bifonazole is an imidazole-based anti-fungal agent with broad spectrum activity against many fungi, molds, yeast and some Gram-positive bacteria. Bifonazole inhibits ergosterol biosynthetic protein 28 and Cytochrome P450 2B4.
SML0724 Bikaverin from Fusarium subglutinans, ≥98% (HPLC) Bikaverin is a red pigment with a polyketide tetracyclic benzoxanthone structure. Bikaverin has an antibiotic activity against some protozoa and fungi and also inhibits Succinate- and NAD-linked respiration in rat mitochondria at 20 mg/mL. At higher concentrations (50 mg/mL) it acts as an oxidative phosphorylation uncoupling agent of tumor cells and isolated rat liver mitochondria. Bikaverin demonstrates antitumor activity on Erlich ascites carcinoma (EAC), leukemia and sarcoma cells.
SML0819 Bisdionin C ≥98% (HPLC) Bisdionin C is a cell-permeable, competitive acidic mammalian chitinase (AMCase) and chitotriosidase (CHIT1) inhibitor. Bisdionin C also potently inhibits bacterial AfChiB1 chitinase.
SML1440 Bithionol ≥98% (HPLC) Bithionol was originally used as an anthelmintic. Bithionol has more recently been investigated for potential use as an anti-ovarian cancer drug and as a possible treatment for Alzheimer′s disease. Bithionol inhibited Aβ42 seeding capacity and fibril growth, stabilized diffuse amyloid plaques, reduced the levels of Aβ42 oligomers and ameliorated synapse loss, neuronal damage and astrogliosis in a transgenic mouse model of Alzheimer′s disease. Bithionol appears to act through several mechanisms of action including uncoupling of oxidative phosphorylation, ROS generation, NF-κB inhibition, autotaxin inhibition, and as an activator of Slack sodium-activated potassium (KNa) channels.
PZ0022 BLI-489 hydrate ≥98% (HPLC) BLI-489 is a penem β-lactamase inhibitor, which has shown activity against class A, C, and D β-lactamases. BLI-489 is being tested in combination therapy for drug-resistant bacteria.
B3061 Borrelidin from Streptomyces parvulus, ≥98% (HPLC) Borrelidin is a potent angiogenesis inhibitor that induces apoptosis in capillary tube-forming cells. Also displays antimalarial activity against drug-resistant Plasmodia. Antimicrobial and selective threonyl t-RNA synthetase inhibitor.
SML0113 Brequinar sodium salt hydrate ≥97% (HPLC) Brequinar exhibits anti-neoplastic activity against refractory solid tumors in human and mouse models. Continuous treatment is required for depletion of pyrimidine pools in the cancer cells and tumor inhibition.
Brequinar inhibits dihydroorotate dehydrogenase (DHODH), the fourth enzyme in the de novo pyrimidine biosynthesis pathway, preventing the synthesis of DNA and RNA. Brequinar has recently been found to have antiviral activity against a broad spectrum of viruses including flaviviruses (dengue virus, West Nile virus, yellow fever virus, and Powassan virus) and also a plus-strand RNA alphavirus (Western equine encephalitis virus) and a negative-strand RNA rhabdovirus (vesicular stomatitis virus).
SML0218 Bropirimine ≥98% (HPLC) Bropirimine is an immunostimulating agent. The compound induces production of α and β interferons and enhances NK cell function. Bropirimine has antiproliferative effects in cancer cell lines and tumor growth in in vivo models.
B7777 Budesonide ≥99% Budesonide is a second generation glucocorticoid with low systemic absorption. It is used as an anti-inflammatory agent in the treatment of asthma, rhinitis, and inflammatory bowel disease. It inhibits the expression of chemokine mRNA and production of eotaxin and RANTES protein in primary human bronchial epithelial cells. Budesonide is currently in clinical trials for the prevention of lung cancer. It shows inhibitory effects on benzo[a]pyrene-induced carcinogenesis of the lung in mice.
SML1662 Buparvaquone ≥98% (HPLC) Buparvaquone is a second-generation hydroxynaphthoquinone antiprotozoal drug related to parvaquone and atovaquone. Buparvaquone is indicated for the therapy and prophylaxis of all forms of Theileriosis and found to have an anti-Leishmanial activity.
SML1663 Butoconazole nitrate ≥90% (HPLC) Butoconazole is an imidazole derivative with in vitro antifungal activity against Candida spp. In addition, Butoconazole is clinically effective against vaginal infections. The exact mechanism for its activity is unknown. However, Butoconazole was found to interfere with the biosynthesis of lipid and ergosterol.
SML1205 BVT.2733 ≥98% (HPLC) BVT.2733 is a potent and selective inhibitor of 11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 (11β-HSD1) that protects osteoblasts against endogenous glucocorticoid induced dysfunction. BVT.2733 lowers blood glucose levels in in hyperglycaemic mice.
C6374 Caerulomycin A from Streptomyces caeruleus, ≥98% (HPLC) Caerulomycins produced by Streptomyces caeruleus are bipyridinic molecules endowed with antibiotic properties. Caerulomycin A was found to have a strong anti-fungal and anti-amoebic activity, and a mild antibacterial activity.
SML1281 Capecitabine Ready Made Solution 10 mg/mL in DMSO Capecitabine is a fluoropyrimidine carbamate that undergoes preferential conversion to 5-fluorouracil in cancerous tissues.
Capecitabine is an anti-cancer drug, a prodrug of doxifluridine, metabolized to 5-fluorouracil at the tumor site. The activation of capecitabine follows a pathway with three enzymatic steps and two intermediary metabolites, 5′-Deoxy-5-fluorocytidine (5′-DFCR) and 5′-Deoxy-5-fluorouridine (5′-DFUR), to form 5-fluorouracil.
CS1130 Carboxypeptidase A Assay Kit sufficient for 200 assays (96-well plates), sufficient for 40 assays (1 mL cuvettes)  
C4866 Cardiogenol C hydrochloride ≥97% (HPLC), solid Cardiogenol C hydrochloride is a cardiomyogenesis inducer in embryonic stem cells.
SML1713 Carprofen ≥97% (HPLC) Carprofen is a non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) that has been found to have antimicrobial activity. Carprofen is primarily used as a veterinary analgesic and anti-inflammatory for arthritis and pain. Its anti-inflammatory activity is due to cyclooxygenase inihbition with selectivity for COX-2 inhibition, while its antimicrobial activity is less certain. Carprofen can kill B. subtilis by permeabilizing its membrane. Other studies have shown carprofen can target the Escherichia coli DNA polymerase III β subunit.
SML0425 Caspofungin diacetate ≥97% (HPLC) Caspofungin is an echinocandin antifungal that inhibits 1,3-β-D-glucan synthase, which is required for cell wall synthesis, thereby disturbing the integrity of the fungal cell wall.
C6830 Cecropin A ≥97% (HPLC), powder Antibacterial peptide originally identified in moths (Hyalophora cecropia) and later in pig intestine.
C1796 Cecropin B ≥97% (HPLC), powder Antibacterial peptide originally identified in moths (Hyalophora cecropia) and later in pig intestine.
C7927 Cecropin P1 Porcine ≥95% (HPLC), powder Antibacterial peptide originally identified in moths (Hyalophora cecropia) and later in pig intestine.
SML1631 Cefodizime Sodium ≥96% (HPLC) Cefodizime is a third generation cephalosporin with a broad spectrum of antibacterial activity. Cefodizime was demonstrated to be effective against upper and lower respiratory tract infections, urinary tract infections, and gonorrhea. Cefodizime regulates the cytokines expression of neutrophils through toll-like receptor 4 (TLR-4) stimulated by Klebsiella pneumonie.
SML0056 Cefotiam dihydrochloride hydrate ≥98% (HPLC) Cefotiam is a second generation cephalosporin antibiotic which has been used as a prophylatic antibiotic for MRSA.
Cefotiam, a derivative of cephalosporin, exhibits broad-spectrum anti-bacterial activity. It inhibits the cross-linking stage of peptidoglycan and blocks the synthesis of bacterial cell wall. It is resistant to β-lactamases.
SML1632 Ceftezole Sodium ≥90% (HPLC) Ceftezole is a first generation cephalosporin with antibacterial activity. Ceftezole binds to and inactivates penicillin-binding proteins (PBPs) located on the inner membrane of the bacterial cell wall. Inactivation of PBPs interferes with the cross-linkage of peptidoglycan chains necessary for bacterial cell wall strength and rigidity causing bacterial cell lysis.
SML0037 Ceftibuten hydrate ≥98% (HPLC) Ceftibuten is a third generation cephalosporin antibiotic
SML1232 cGAMP sodium salt ≥98% (HPLC) Cyclic AMP-GMP (cGAMP) is one of several naturally occurring cyclic dinucleotides that act as a bacterial second messengers to regulate important signaling mechanisms in prokaryotes that control bacterial survival, adhesion, colonization, biofilm formation, and virulence factors production. In cholera c-AMP-GMP promotes intestinal colonization by down-regulating chemotaxis. During infections bacterial cGAMP is bound by host STING (stimulator of interferon genes) activating innate immune responses leading to expression of interferon genes.
SML1229 2′,3′-cGAMP sodium salt ≥98% (HPLC) 2′,3′-cGAMP (cyclic [G(2’,5’)pA(3’,5’)p]) is the natural agonist for the STING (STimulator of INterferon Genes) pathway, recently discovered to be a pathway for antiviral innate immunity. 2’3’-cGAMP is a second messenger produced in mammalian cells by the cytosolic DNA sensor cGAS (cGAMP synthase) to activate innate immune responses by binding to STING and initiating an interferon response. The affinity of 2′3′-cGAMP for human STING is much higher than that of the bacterial 3′3′-cyclic dinucleotides (CDNs), with a Kd of 4.59 nM compared to >1 μM for bacterial 3′3′-CDNs.
C8118 Chymase human recombinant, expressed in Pichia pastoris The enzyme rapidly converts angiotensin I to angiotensin II. Optimum pH for the enzyme activity is between 7.5 and 9.0. Enzyme activity is inhibited by soybean trypsin inhibitor, phenylmethylsulfonyl fluoride and chymostatin.
CS1140 Chymase Activity Assay Kit sufficient for 150 assays (100 μL), sufficient for 30 assays (1 mL)  
SML1283 Cilastatin sodium Ready Made Solution 50 mg/mL in H2O Cilastatin sodium is an inhibitor of the renal enzyme dehydropeptidase I and some bacterial zinc-containing β-lactamases. By this action, cilastatin suppresses both host and target metabolism of the broad-spectrum antibiotic imipenem, improving its efficacy.
C0399 Cromolyn sodium salt ≥95% Cromolyn blocks the release of histamine and other pro-inflammatory mediators from mast cells.
SML0722 CU-CPT22 ≥98% (HPLC) CU-CPT22 is the first probe for the complex between toll-like receptors TLR1 and TLR2. CU-CPT22 binds at the interface of TLR1 and TLR2.
C7821 Curdlan from Alcaligenes faecalis Curdlan is a (1,3)-β-glucan. It is a pathogen-associated molecular-pattern (PAMP) recognized by the receptor dectin-1. Activation of dectin-1, together with TLR2/TLR6, promotes signaling resulting in the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines, thus inducing inflammation.
SML1228 Cyclic-di-GMP sodium salt ≥98% (HPLC) Cyclic-di-GMP is a naturally occurring small molecule that acts as a bacterial second messenger to regulate important signaling mechanisms in prokaryotes that control bacterial survival, adhesion, colonization, biofilm formation, and virulence factors production. During infections Cyclic-di-GMP is bound by host STING (stimulator of interferon genes) leading to expression of interferon genes, activating innate immune responses. Recently c-di-GMP has been found in eukarotic systems acting not only in immune response, but as an inhibitor of the pacemaker I(f) current in the heart.
C3662 Cyclosporin A from Tolypocladium inflatum, ≥95% (HPLC), solid A fungal metabolite possessing potent immunosuppressive properties. It inhibits the T-cell receptor signal transduction pathway via the formation of cyclosporin A−cyclophilin complex that inhibits calcineurin (protein phosphatase 2B). Inhibits nitric oxide synthesis induced by interleukin 1α, lipopolysaccharides and TNFα. Can block cytochrome c release from mitochondria.
C1832 Cyclosporin A from Tolypocladium inflatum, BioReagent, for molecular biology, ≥95% A fungal metabolite possessing potent immunosuppressive properties. It inhibits the T-cell receptor signal transduction pathway via the formation of cyclosporin A−cyclophilin complex that inhibits calcineurin (protein phosphatase 2B). Inhibits nitric oxide synthesis induced by interleukin 1α, lipopolysaccharides and TNFα. Can block cytochrome c release from mitochondria.
Cyclosporin A has been shown to inhibit the functioning of several nuclear proteins involved in T-cell activation at the level of mRNA transcription. It forms a complex with its intracellular receptor cyclophilin, which can then bind to calcineurin, a Ca2+ - and calmodulin-dependent protein phosphatase, inhibiting its enzymatic activity. It was found to suppress the replication of hepatitis C virus genome in cultured hepatocytes.
SML0192 Cyclosporin C ≥95% (HPLC), from Acremonium luzulae Cyclosporins are a family of neutral, highly lipophilic, cyclic undecapeptides containing some unusual amino acids. Cyclosporin A (CsA) is the main representative of cyclosporins. It has antifungal activity and is the strongest immunosuppressive compound discovered so far. Cyclosporin C has the same activity with reduced potency. CsA has potent anti-Hepatitis C Virus (HCV) activity towards both HCV replicons. Cyclophilins are intracellular proteins, highly conserved, involved in cis-trans isomerization of peptidyl-prolyl bonds and protein folding which bind cyclosporins and as a complex inhibit the activity of calcineurin, a phosphatase necessary for T-cell activation. Cyclosporin is therefore used for treating autoimmune disorders such as rheumatoid arthritis, systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), and psoriasis.
SML1575 Cyclosporin H ≥97% (HPLC) Cyclosporin H is a selective inhibitor of formyl peptide receptor-1 (FPR-1) and formyl peptide-induced superoxide formation in neutrophils. Cyclosporin H does not bind cyclophilin or evoke an immunosuppressant response. Cyclosporin H has been reported to inhibit tumor promoting phorbol ester TPA/PMA in mouse skin cells and to inhibit calcium/calmodulin-dependent EF-2 phosphorylation.
SML1018 Cyclosporin A, Ready Made Solution 1 mg/mL in DMSO (0.2 μm-filtered) Cyclosporin A is a non-polar cyclic oligopeptide produced by the fungus Tolypocladium inflatum. It is a potent immunosuppressive agent, affecting primarily T-lymphocytes. It has been shown to inhibit the functioning of several nuclear proteins involved in T-cell activation at the level of mRNA transcription. It forms a complex with its intracellular receptor cyclophilin, which can then bind to calcineurin, a Ca2+- and calmodulin-dependent protein phosphatase, inhibiting its enzymatic activity. CsA was found to suppress the replication of hepatitis C virus genome in cultured hepatocytes. At concentrations >10 nM, CsA protected isolated hepatocytes against the action of phalloidin. CsA can inhibit IL2 production resulting from T cell activation via Calcineurin inhibition.
An extensive list of references has been reported, including a comprehensive review of analytical properties.
SML0515 DCAP ≥95% (HPLC) DCAP is a potent broad-spectrum antibiotic that specifically targets the membranes of both Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. It reduces the transmembrane potential, kills stationary-phase cells and sterilizes bacterial biofilms. DCAP has no effect on red blood cell membranes at levels toxic to bacteria.
D9565 β-Defensin 1 human ≥98% (HPLC and SDS-PAGE), recombinant, expressed in E. coli, lyophilized powder (from 10 mM acetic acid) A small cationic peptide which demonstrates anti-microbial activity. Originally isolated from human plasma, this substance is constitutively expressed in mucosal membrane epithelium.
D9690 β-Defensin 2 human recombinant, expressed in E. coli, lyophilized powder (from 10 mM acetic acid) A small cationic peptide which demonstrates anti-microbial activity and is expressed in keratinocytes and the epithelia of many organs.
D2043 Defensin HNP-1 human ≥80% (HPLC) This is an endogenous antibiotic peptide and monocyte chemotactic peptide produced by human neutrophils. Defensins are a family of 3-4 kDa (29-34 amino acids) peptides found in the granules of mammalian phagocytes. The members of this family are variably arginine-rich and share six conserved cysteine residues that participate in intramolecular disulfide bonds.
D6790 Defensin HNP-2 human ≥95% (HPLC) This is an endogenous antibiotic peptide and monocyte chemotactic peptide produced by human neutrophils. Defensins are a family of 3-4 kDa (29-34 amino acids) peptides found in the granules of mammalian phagocytes. The members of this famuly are variably arginine-rich and all share 6 conserved cysteine residues that participate in intramolecular disulfide bonds.
D4196 Dehydroleucodine ≥98% (HPLC) Dehydroleucodine is a sesquiterpene lactone isolated from Artemisia douglasiana Besser; mast cell stabilizers. An extract from the plant is widely used in Cuyo region (Argentina) as folk medicine for the treatment of gastric ailments. The compound prevents gastric and duodenal damages in response to necrosis-inducing agents. Stabilization of mast cells may be a key mechanism to protect the gastrointestinal tract from injury and ulceration. Recently, it was established that dehydroleucodine and xanthatin inhibit mast cell degranulation induced by compound 48/80.
SML1869 Delafloxacin ≥98% (HPLC) New Delafloxacin is a fluoroquinolone antibiotic active against both Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria such as MRSA. Delafloxacin targets both DNA gyrase and topoisomerase IV, inhibiting DNA synthesis. Unlike most fluoroquinolones, delafloxacin is weakly acidic, which increases its potency in an acidic environments such as those existing in inflammatory cells and in skin and soft tissue infections. Delafloxacin shows good activity against most fluoroquinolone-resistant strains.
D6140 Demeclocycline hydrochloride ≥90% (HPLC), powder Demeclocycline hydrochloride is a tetracycline antibiotic derived from a strain of Streptomyces aureofaciens. DMC protects neurons from glutamate induced toxicity by suppressing calpain I and II activities.
SML1664 Deoxynivalenol Ready Made Solution 1 mg/mL Deoxynivalenol (DON) is a trichothecene mycotoxin that inhibits the synthesis of DNA and RNA as well as protein synthesis at the ribosomal level. DON induces IL-6 mediated serum hyperelevation of IgA, as well as phosphorylation of extracellular signal regulated protein kinases 1 and 2 (ERK 1,2) and c-Jun N-terminal kinases 1 and 2 (JNK 1,2) in mice. An in vitro study with porcine ovarian granulosa cells suggests a dose dependent association of DON on porcine ovarian functions. It was also shown that LPS and its downstream mediators can interact with DON to modulate proliferative, cytotoxic and apoptotic outcomes in leukocytes in a tissue specific manner.
D1756 Dexamethasone ≥98% (HPLC), powder Glucocorticoid anti-inflammatory agent. Regulates T cell survival, growth, and differentiation. Inhibits the induction of nitric oxide synthase.
D4902 Dexamethasone powder, BioReagent, suitable for cell culture, ≥97% Glucocorticoid anti-inflammatory agent. Regulates T cell survival, growth, and differentiation. Inhibits the induction of nitric oxide synthase.
It is poorly metabolized in the body and has great affinity and bioavailability.
D8893 Dexamethasone powder, γ-irradiated, BioXtra, suitable for cell culture, ≥80% (HPLC) Glucocorticoid anti-inflammatory agent. Regulates T cell survival, growth, and differentiation. Inhibits the induction of nitric oxide synthase.
D1881 Dexamethasone 21-acetate ≥99% An anti-inflammatory glucocorticoid.
D1159 Dexamethasone 21-phosphate disodium salt ≥98% An anti-inflammatory glucocorticoid, a pro-drug that is converted to dexamethasone in vivo; stimulates glutamine uptake in the cerebral cortex
D2915 Dexamethasone-Water Soluble suitable for cell culture, BioReagent  
P4394 cis-Diammineplatinum(II) dichloride crystalline Potent chemoimmunotherapeutic drug; stimulates the immune responses by activating macrophages and other cells of the immune system. Cisplatin-treated macrophages show increased antigen presentation function in vitro. Treatment increased cellular NF-κB content and translocation in macrophages. Cisplatin effects are regulated by kinases, phosphatases, and Ca2+/calmodulin. Forms cytotoxic adducts with the DNA dinucleotide d(pGpG), inducing intrastrand crosslinks.
Potent platinum-based antineoplastic agent. Forms cytotoxic adducts with the DNA dinucleotide d(pGpG), inducing intrastrand cross-links.
SML1231 c-di-AMP sodium salt ≥98% (HPLC) c-di-AMP is a bacterial secondary messenger. c-di-AMP acts as a potent mucosal adjuvant stimulating both humoral and cellular responses.
SML0541 7α,25-Dihydroxycholesterol ≥98% (HPLC) 7α,25-Dihydroxycholesterol (7α,25-OHC) is a potent and selective endogenous ligand for the orphan GPCR receptor EBI2 (GPR183) with an EC50 value in the picomolar range. The newly discovered EBI2–oxysterol signalling pathway has been shown to have an important role in the adaptive immune response, including a role in driving immune cell migration. In vitro and in vivo studies showed that 7,25-OHC can serve as a chemokine directing migration of B cells, T cells and dendritic cells.
SML0986 Divin ≥98% (HPLC) Divin (DIVision Inhibitor) is an inhibitor of bacterial division with a novel mechanism of action. During bacterial division, more than a dozen different proteins assemble at the division site in a specific order to form a complex called the divisome, with the first protein, FtsZ , followed by ‘early’ or ‘late’ proteins based on their temporal localization. Divin blocks cell division by disrupting the spatial and temporal localization of the late division proteins, disrupting their assembly and preventing compartmentalization of the cytoplasm. Divin has been found to be a potent bacteriostatic agent against clinical pathogens with low toxicity against mammalian cells.
SML1220 Doripenem hydrate ≥98% (HPLC) Doripenem is an ultra-broad spectrum carbopenem antibiotic. Doripenem is active against both gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria.
SML0477 Echinomycin ≥98% (HPLC) Echinomycin is an antitumor antibiotic and potent hypoxia inducible factor 1α (HIF-1α) inhibitor. It binds to DNA via bifunctional intercalation, blocking the binding of HIF-1α, a transcription factor important in tumor growth. Echinomycin selectively eliminated cancer stem cells in a study with mouse lymphoma and human AML xenogeneic models, eradicating the lymphomas. Recently, echinomycin was also found to act as an antibiotic adjuvant having synergistic effects with novobiocin in gram negative bacteria.
SML1284 Efavirenz Ready Made Solution 10 mg/mL in DMSO Efavirenz is a nonnucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NNRTI). Efavirenz is an anti-HIV drug, commonly used in combination therapy for AIDs treatment. Efavirenz is part of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) for the treatment of a human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) type 1.
The plasma levels of this drug can determine the failure of treatment and CNS (central nervous system) side-effects in patients infected with HIV (human immunodeficiency virus).
E3285 EIINFEKL trifluoroacetate salt ≥95% (HPLC) EIINFEKL is an antagonist variant of SIINFEKL [OVA (257-264)] [it induces positive selection T-cells].
SML1039 ENMD-1068 hydrochloride ≥97% (HPLC) ENMD-1068 is an antagonist of protease-activated receptor 2 (PAR2). The compound blocks TNFα production in synovial explants from patients with arthritis, and inhibits mast cell tryptase-induced recruitment of eosinophils into the pleural cavity of mice.
SML0013 Epinecidine-1 trifluoroacetate salt ≥98% (HPLC) Epinecidin-1 is an antimicrobial peptide (AMP) with antitumor and antiviral activity, which was cloned from orange-spotted grouper (Epinephelus coioides). Apparently epinecidin-1 binds to microbial surface and next destroys microbial membrane. Epinecidin-1 was effective in protecting grouper larvae from nervous necrosis viral (NNV) disease.
SML1238 Ertapenem sodium ≥90% (HPLC) Ertapenem is a broad spectrum carbopenem antibiotic. Ertapenem is active against both gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria. Ertapenem shows an extended duration of action in vivo due to its reversible binding to serum protein.
E6376 Erythromycin potency: ≥850 μg per mg Mode of Action: Erythromycin acts by inhibiting elongation at the transpeptidation step, specifically aminoacyl translocation from the A-site to P-site by binding to the 50s subunit of the bacterial 70s rRNA complex.

Antimicrobial Spectrum: This product acts against both gram-negative and gram-positive bacteria.
SML1330 Extracellular Death Factor trifluoroacetate salt ≥95% (HPLC) Extracellular Death Factor (EDF) is a bacterial quorum sensing pentapeptide that activates a cell death pathway. EDF is required for mazEF-mediated toxin-antitoxin system of cell death in Escherichia coli.
F8182 Faropenem sodium hydrate ≥98% (HPLC) Faropenem sodium is an ultra-broad spectrum, β-lactamase resistant, β-lactam antibiotic active against both Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria.
SML1389 Farrerol ≥98% (HPLC) Farrerol is major bioactive component from Rhododendron dauricum L. (Man-Shan-Hong). Farrerol exhibits numerous activities including antibechic, anti-bacterial, anti-inflammatory and inhibition of vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMC) proliferation. Recent study shows that Farrerol regulates occludin expression by preventing H2O2-induced activation ERK 1/2 in human endothelium-derived EA.hy926 cells.
SML0681 Febrifugine dihydrochloride ≥95% (HPLC) Febrifugine is an antimalarial, the active component of the Chinese herb Chang Shan. Recent studies indicate that its mechanism of action is as an inhibitor of prolyl-transfer RNA synthetase (ProRS).
SML1285 Febuxostat ≥98% (HPLC) Febuxostat is a potent non-purine xanithine oxidase inhibitor. Febuxostat is used in urate lowering therapies (ULTs) for the treatment of gout.
F6145 Fenspiride hydrochloride analytical standard, for drug analysis Bronchodilator with anti-inflammatory properties. Inhibits mucus secretion and reduces the release of tachykinins at a prejunctional level by its anti-muscarinic action. It also may be an antagonist at α adrenergic and H1 histamine receptors.
SML1750 Fidaxomicin ≥98% (HPLC) Fidaxomicin is a first-in-class macrocyclic antibacterial agent for gram positive bacteria treatment, notably Clostridium difficile infections. Fidaxomicin produces its antibacterial effects by inhibiting bacterial RNA polymerase at transcription initiation. Furthermore, Fidaxomicin is an inhibitor of bacterial transcription. Fidaxomicin acts at an earlier step in the transcription initiation pathway. Specifically, Fidaxomicin binds to the DNA template-RNA polymerase complex and prevents the initial separation of DNA strands, which precedes messenger RNA synthesis by inhibiting the s subunit. Fidaxomicin′s unique target site may explain its limited spectrum of antimicrobial activity because s subunits differ among bacterial species.
SML0876 Filastatin ≥98% (HPLC) Filastatin blocks the ability of Candida albicans, and other Candida sp. to bind to polystyrene, and human A549 cell monolayers. Filastatin also blocks biofilm formation and yeast-to-hyphal morphologic transition through inhibition of the hyphal-specific promoter HWP1.
SML1023 Flucloxacillin sodium ≥95% (HPLC) Flucloxacillin is a narrow-spectrum β-lactam antibiotic used to treat Gram-positive bacterial infections. Flucloxacillin induces cholestatic liver damage.
F8929 Fluconazole ≥98% (HPLC), powder Fluconazole is an antifungal agent. It is highly selective inhibitor of fungal cytochrome P-450 sterol C-14 α-demethyllation. Fluconazole is a potent inhibitor of CYP2C9. Fluconazole interferes with fungal ergosterol synthesis and downregulates the metallothionein gene.
F5021 Flunisolide ≥97%  
F3506 N-Formyl-Met-Leu-Phe ≥97% (HPLC) N-Formyl-Met-Leu-Phe induced chemotaxis in phosphoinositide 3-kinase γ (PI3K)γ-/- neutrophils, and promotes adhesion, polymerization of F-actin, Fcγ receptor-mediated phagocytosis and intracellular Ca2+ release. It acts as an inflammatory agent and activates polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMNs) without the formation of 5-hydroxyicosatetraenoic acid (5-HETE) and leukotriene B4 (LTB4). Its effects on neutrophils and the inhibition of adenylate cyclase are inhibited by pertussis toxin.
Potent chemotactic peptide. Induces a metabolic burst in macrophages accompanied by an increase in respiratory rate, secretion of lysosomal enzymes, and production of superoxide anion.
Potent inducer of leucocyte chemotaxis and macrophage activator. Receptors that bind formylpeptides are found on phagocytic neutrophils and have recently been identified on cells of the intestinal mucosa.
F0808 Frondoside A hydrate ≥96% (HPLC) Frondoside A is a bioactive triterpenoid saponin from sea cucumber; and an immunostimulant. Frondoside A is an extremely potent inducer of apoptosis, and although it does activate caspaces, it can induce apoptosis in HL-60 cells through a mechanism distinct from extrinsic and intrinsic apoptosis pathways. It potentially valuable for cancers that are resistent to other apoptosis inducers, such as pancreatic cancer.
SML1420 FSL-1 ≥80% (HPLC) FSL-1 (Pam2CGDPKHPKSF) is a synthetic lipoprotein that acts as a Toll-like Receptor 2/6 (TLR2/6) agonist and activator of nuclear transcription factor NF-KB. FSL-1 is based on the N-terminal part of the 44-kDa lipoprotein LP44 of Mycoplasma salivarium. FSL-1 showed higher stimulatory activity than MALP-2 in its ability to induce TNF-α production in macrophages and NF-κB in TLR2/TLR6 transfected HEK293 cells.
SML0700 FTY720 ≥98% (HPLC) FTY720 is an immunomodulating drug and sphingosine 1-phosphate (S1P) receptor modulator. Phosphorylation of FTY270 by sphingosine kinase causes S1P1R internalization, which sequesters lymphocytes in lymph nodes, preventing them from taking part in an autoimmune response. Clinically, it has been approved for the treatment of multiple sclerosis (MS). It has also been shown to block and reverse paclitaxel-induced chemotherapy induced peripheral neuropathy (CIPN) through S1PR inhibition as well as inhibit the activity of histone deacetylases in the hippocampus of mouse brains, thereby modulating memory.
SML0377 (S)-FTY720 phosphate ≥94% (HPLC) FTY20 phosphate (FTY720-P) is a sphingosine 1-phosphate (S1PR) receptor agonist and immunomodulatory agent, the active metabolite of FTY720. FTY720P acts as a potent agonist at four of the sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P) receptors (S1P1, S1P3, S1P4, and S1P5), with IC50 values of 0.2-6 nM.
SML1286 Fumonisin B1 Ready Made Solution (Fusarium moniliforme), 1 mg/mL in DMSO Fumonisin B1 is a fungal metabolite that acts as a hepatocarcinogen and causes hepatotoxicity in rats. In horses, Fumonisin B1 causes leukoencephalitis, and in pigs, it causes pulmonary edema syndrome. In China and southern parts of Africa, Fumonisin B1 is linked with high incidence of esophageal cancer in humans. Fumonisin B1 acts as an inhibitor of sphingosine N-acyltransferase enzyme.
F9130 Furaltadone  
F9380 Furaltadone (+)-tartrate salt  
F3681 2-Furoyl-LIGRLO-amide trifluoroacetate salt ≥97% (HPLC) 2-Furoyl-LIGRLO-amide is a potent and selective protease-activated receptor 2 (PAR2) agonist. PAR-2 activation is associated with increases in cAMP and intracellular Ca(2+). Immunoblot analysis revealed increases in phosphorylation of epidermal growth factor (EGF) receptor (EGFR) tyrosine kinase, Src, Pyk2, cRaf, and ERK1/2 in response to PAR-2 activation. 2-Furoyl-LIGRLO-amide is nearly 100-fold more potent than SLIGRL-NH2 (Cat. No. S9317). 2-Furoyl-LIGRLO-amide caused both an endothelium-dependent relaxation and an endothelium-independent contraction. It produced delayed (6 hours later) facilitation of capsaicin-evoked visceral nociception, an effect being much more potent than SLIGRL-NH2. Such effects were mimicked by i.col. trypsin. 2-f-LIGRL-NH2, coadministered repeatedly with caerulein six times in total, abolished the caerulein-evoked abdominal hyperalgesia/allodynia in WT, but not PAR2-KO, mice. Repeated doses of 2-f-LIGRL-NH2 moderately attenuated the severity of caerulein-induced pancreatitis in WT animals. It induced a similar dose-dependent increase in Ca2 levels in the presence and absence of b-arrestins.
2-Furoyl-LIGRLO-amide trifluoroacetate salt is a highly potent agonist of proteinase-activated receptor-2 (PAR2). In KNRK cells with high number of PAR2 receptors, this agonist causes elevation of intracellular Ca2+ levels. Studies on rat show that it causes the relaxation of aorta rings in an endothelium-dependent manner.
SML0877 Gardiquimod ≥98% (HPLC) Gardiquimod is a potent and specific agonist for human or mouse Toll-like receptor 7 (TLR7). Also, at high concentration gardiquimod activates TLR8. Similarly to imiquimod, gardiquimod could mimic the effects of viral nucleic acids on the immune system.
SML1618 Garenoxacin mesylate monohydrate ≥98% (HPLC) Garenoxacin is a broad spectrum fluoroquinolone antibiotic suitable for treatment of gram-positive and gram-negative bacterial infections. Garenoxacin has a low mutant prevention concentration and a narrow mutant selection window. Data shows that garenoxacin has anti-inflammatory properties. It significantly alleviates LPS-induced IL-8 production through the negative regulation of the ERK1/2 pathway both in the human airway epithelial cell line A549 and the monocyte cell line THP-1.
SML1625 Gemifloxacin mesylate ≥98% (HPLC) Gemifloxacin is a broad-spectrum quinolone antibacterial. Fluoroquinolones stabilize DNA strand breaks created by DNA gyrase and topoisomerase IV by binding to the enzyme-DNA complex generating persistent, covalent enzyme–DNA adducts, inhibiting DNA synthesis. Gemifloxacin is used in the treatment of acute bacterial exacerbation of chronic bronchitis and mild-to-moderate pneumonia. Gemifloxacin has also been found to inhibit migration and invasion of human colon cancer cells.
SML1572 Gentiopicroside ≥98% (HPLC) Gentiopicroside is an important active component of secoiridoid glycosides from Gentiana macrophylla Pall that exhibit anti-inflammatory, antibacterial and liver protecting activities. Gentiopicroside protects chondrocytes from IL-1β-induced inflammation response.
G9893 Gliotoxin from Gliocladium fimbriatum An antiphagocytic and immunomodulating agent that acts by blocking membrane thiol groups.
SML0761 Gossypin ≥90% (HPLC) Gossypin is an anti-inflammatory pentahydroxyflavone glucoside isolated from Hibiscus vitifolius that is used as an herbal remedy for diabetes, jaundice, and inflammation. Gossypin potently inhibits human cancer cell proliferation, including melanoma and glioma cells. Gossypin directly binds and inhibits BRAFV600E and CDK4 kinases, and also regulates Chk1 and Cdc25C in U251 glioma cells.
G9423 GYPGQV trifluoroacetate salt ≥98% (HPLC), powder Protease-activated receptor-4 (PAR4) agonist
SML1256 Gyramide A hydrochloride ≥98% (HPLC) Gyramide A is a selective bacterial DNA gyrase inhibitor and bacteriostatic agent with an IC50 of 3.3 ± 1.0 μM. Gyramide A competitively inhibits the ATPase activity of Escherichia coli gyrase resulting in supercoiled DNA and stopping DNA replication. Unlike other DNA gyrase inhibitors ciprofloxacin and novobiocin, Gyramide A targets only DNA gyrase without inhibiting the closely related topoisomerase IV. Gyramide A is not as potent an antibiotic, but should be a more useful tool for studying bacterial gyrase.
SML1666 4-Hydroxytamoxifen Ready Made Solution 5 mg/mL in ethanol: isopropanol (95:5) 4-Hydroxytamoxifen is an active metabolite of Tamoxifen. 4-Hydroxytamoxifen is formed by cytochrome P450 2D6 in human liver and is a potent and selective estrogen receptor antagonist. 4-Hydroxytamoxifen has been used to stimulate LC3 lipidation and to form autophagic vesicles in a superoxide-dependent manner. Tamoxifen and 4-Hydroxytamoxifen markedly induce cytochrome P450 3A4 (a major drug-metabolizing enzyme) in primary cultures of human hepatocytes. 4-Hydroxytamoxifen undergoes a cis-trans (E-Z) isomerization, a process that occurs in all common laboratory solvents.
H8409 Hymenistatin I >99% (HPLC) Exerts an immunosuppressive effect on humoral and cellular immune responses similar to cyclosporin A.
H1667 Hypothemycin from Hypomyces trichothecoides, ≥98% (HPLC) Hypothemycin, one of the highly oxygenated analogues in the group of 14-membered resorcylic acid lactones (RAL), has minor antifungal and cytotoxic activity and exhibits an in vitro anti-malarial activity with an IC50 of 2.2 μg/mL. Hypothemycin is also reported to selectively and irreversibly inhibit protein kinases that contain a conserved cysteine residue (Cys166) that is located within the ATP-binding domain. Though this group accounts for less then 10% of all identified kinases, there are several targets implicated in aberrant cellular proliferation such as ERKs, MEK, FMS-like tyrosine kinase protein (FLT), and platelet-derived growth factor receptors (PDGFR). In cell culture, hypothemycin displays potent cytotoxicity against cancer cell lines that are dependent on certain activating kinase mutations. Additionally, hypothemycin demonstrates significant tumor growth inhibition in at least three separate murine xenograft models. Hypothemycin also inhibits the production of several cytokines such as IL2, IL6, IFNγ, and TNFα.
I6409 IDR-1 ≥95% (HPLC) IDR-1 is an anti-infective peptide that acts on the host to stimulate the innate immune response. IDR-1 is believed to act by enhancing monocyte chemokines, while reducing pro-inflammatory cytokines (decreased TNF and IL-6 and increased IL-10).
SML1622 iKIX1 ≥98% (HPLC) iKIX1 is an antifungal agent that can re-sensitize drug-resistant Candida glabrata to azole antifungals. C. glabrata fungal infections that are resistant to azoles are an increasing problem. Drug-resistant C. glabrata most commonly contain point mutations in Pdr1 that render it active. iKIX1 acts by inhibiting the protein–protein interaction between the fungal transcription factor Pdr1 and the KIX domain of the MED15 subunit of the co-activator Mediator, thus inhibiting Pdr1-dependent gene activation of key regulators of the multidrug resistance pathway. iKIX1 reduced efflux pump gene expression and restored azole-sensitivity to PDR1 gain-of-function mutant Candida glabrata strains in plate assays. In mouse assays, combination treatment with iKIX1 and fluconazole showed significant reduction of fungal burden in mice injected with two different azole-resistant C. glabrata strains.
PZ0329 ILS-920 ≥98% (HPLC) ILS-920 is a rapamycin derivative with reduced immunosuppressive activity and enhanced neuroprotective activities including efficacy in vivo stroke model. ILS-920 predominantly binds to FKBP52 with a 972-fold higher selectivity for FKBP52 vs. FKBP12 than that of rapamycin, and also binds to the β-subunit of L-type voltage dependent Ca2+ channels. This dual functionality may contribute to the compound’s efficacy in stroke models.
I0160 Imipenem monohydrate ≥98% (HPLC) Imipenem monohydrate is a broad spectrum B-lactam antibiotic. It is a member of the carbapenem class of "magic bullet" antibiotics for severe infections.
SML1850 Inz-1 ≥98% (HPLC) Inz-1 is a potent and selective inhibitor of yeast mitochondrial cytochrome bc1 that reverses resistance to triazole antifungals in the pathogenic fungus Candida albicans.
SML0523 ISPA-28 ≥98% (HPLC) ISPA-28 is an inhibitor of the plasmodial surface anion channel (PSAC). ISPA-28 is 800 fold more potent against PSAC expressed by the P. falciparum strain Dd2 over PSAC expressed by the HB23 strain. PSAC is incorporated into the membranes of Plasmodium-infected red blood cells, resulting in increased permeability to nutrients required for pathogen growth.
SML0193 JFD01307SC ≥95% (HPLC) JFD01307SC is a glutamine synthetase inhibitor and anti-tuberculosis agent. It is believed to act as a mimic of L-Glutamate and thus target enzymes involved in glutamine biosynthesis. JFD01307SC showed activity against M. tuberculosis with MIC in the range of 8 to 16 μg/ml.
K1003 Ketoconazole ≥98% (HPLC) Antifungal agent
Ketoconazole interacts with 14-α demethylase, a cytochrome P-450 enzyme that is necessary for the conversion of lanosterol to ergosterol. This interaction inhibits ergosterol synthesis and results in increased fungal cellular permeability. Other possible mechanisms of action are the inhibition of endogenous respiration, interaction with membrane phospholipids, inhibition of yeast transformation to mycelial forms, inhibition of purine uptake, and impairment of triglyceride and/or phospholipid biosynthesis. Ketoconazole inhibits the synthesis of thromboxane and sterols such as aldosterone, cortisol, and testosterone .
SML0960 KKL-35 ≥98% (HPLC) KKL-35 is a small molecule that blocks bacterial trans-translation, a proof-reading mechanism that eliminates mRNAs lacking stop codons from translation complexes. KKL-35 inhibits trans-translation, and subsequent cell growth in a broad spectrum of bacterial strains.
K3519 KRM-III ≥98% (HPLC) KRM-III is an inhibitor of T cell antigen receptor (TCR), an inhibitor of phorbol myristate acetate (PMA) /ionomycin-induced nuclear factor of activated T cells (NFAT) activation and T cell proliferation.
SML1443 L48H37 ≥98% (HPLC) L48H37 is a potent and chemically stable anti-inflammatory curcumin analog that inhibits LPS-induced inflammation through the myeloid differentiation 2 (MD-2) and toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) complex. L48H37 is a potent MD2 inhibitor that binds to the hydrophobic region of MD-2 and blocks the interaction between MD2 and LPS. L48H37 significantly improves survival and protected lung injury in LPS-induced septic mice.
L1290 Lactoferricin B, fragment 4-14 trifluoroacetate salt ≥95% (HPLC) Antibiotic peptide in colostrum and milk that protects from bacterial infection at mucosal surfaces.
Lactoferricin B also suppresses liver and lung metastasis in murine melanomas and lymphomas. In addition, it causes cell death in human leukemic and carcinoma cell lines. It is effective against Escherichia coli, Salmonella enteritidis, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Proteus vulgaris, Yersinia enterocolitica, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Campylobacter jejuni, Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus mutans, Corynebacterium diphtheriae, Listeria monocytogenes and Clostridium perfringens.
L5025 Leflunomide Immunosuppressant Immunosuppressive; inhibits T and B cell proliferation. Activity is attributed mainly to its metabolite, a malononitrile derivative, which is believed to inhibit dihydroorotate dehydrogenase (in the de novo pyrimidine synthesis pathway) as well as several protein tyrosine kinases.
SML1566 Leucinostatin A+B mixture ≥95% (mixture of Leucinostatin A+B, HPLC), (Paecilomyces lilacinus) Leucinostatins A and B are the major components of an atypical nonapeptide complex produced by Paecilomyces lilacinus. Leucinostatins display broad bio-activity against gram-positive bacteria, fungi, plants and tumor cell lines. They play a role as uncouplers in the inner mitochondria membrane and inhibit mitochondrial ATP synthesis. Recently, interest in Leucinostatins has focused on other aspects such as understanding their activity: insulin-like growth factor I regulators, ionophore, inhibitors of cell surface expression of viral glycoproteins and their potent in vitro and in vivo anti-trypanosomal activity.
PZ0014 Linezolid ≥98% (HPLC) Linezolid is an oxazolidinone antimicrobial. It binds to a site on the bacterial 23S ribosomal RNA of the 50S subunit and prevents the formation of a functional 70S initiation complex, thus inhibiting bacterial mRNA translation. Linezolid is also a weak, reversible, nonselective inhibitor of monoamine oxidase.
L4391 Lipopolysaccharides from Escherichia coli O111:B4 γ-irradiated, BioXtra, suitable for cell culture LPS is a major constituent of the cell wall of most gram negative bacteria. It is a highly immunogenic antigen with the ability to enhance immune responses to soluble antigens. LPS also acts as a specific mitogen for bone marrow derived B lymphocytes from mice, rabbits, chickens, cows, hamsters, and humans.
L4516 Lipopolysaccharides from Escherichia coli O127:B8 BioXtra, suitable for cell culture, γ-irradiated Lipopolysaccharides (LPSs) are characteristic components of the cell wall of Gram-negative bacteria. LPS and its lipid A moiety stimulate cells of the innate immune system by the Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4). Being an immunogenic antigen, it enhances immune responses to soluble antigens.
L2654 Lipopolysaccharides from Escherichia coli O26:B6 γ-irradiated, BioXtra, suitable for cell culture LPS is a major constituent of the cell wall of most gram negative bacteria. It is a highly immunogenic antigen with the ability to enhance immune responses to soluble antigens. LPS also acts as a specific mitogen for bone marrow derived B lymphocytes from mice, rabbits, chickens, cows, hamsters, and humans.
L6529 Lipopolysaccharides from Escherichia coli O55:B5 γ-irradiated, BioXtra, suitable for cell culture LPS (lipopolysaccharide) is a major constituent of the outer membrane of most gram negative bacteria. It is a highly immunogenic antigen with the ability to enhance immune responses to soluble antigens. The LPS confers antigenic and endotoxic characters to the bacteria. They are also important in resistance to infection by phages.
L6143 Lipopolysaccharides from Salmonella enterica serotype typhimurium BioXtra, suitable for cell culture, γ-irradiated LPS is a major constituent of the cell wall of most gram negative bacteria. It is a highly immunogenic antigen with the ability to enhance immune responses to soluble antigens. LPS also acts as a specific mitogen for bone marrow derived B lymphocytes from mice, rabbits, chickens, cows, hamsters, and humans.
SML1595 Luliconazole ≥98% (HPLC) Luliconazole is an imidazole antifungal. Its mechanism of action involves inhibition of ergosterol biosynthesis by inhibition of sterol 14α-demethylase.
L5420 Lumefantrine Lumefantrine is is an antimalarial for the treatment of multi-drug resistant strains of falciparum malaria.
M7152 Magainin I ≥97% (HPLC) Antibiotic peptide. Thought to preferentially bind to anionic phospholipids abundant in bacterial membranes with the formation of dynamic peptide-lipid supramolecular pore and cell permeabilization, magainins are positively charged and amphiphatic. Binding to artificial neutral membranes has also been demonstrated.
M7402 Magainin II ≥97% (HPLC) Antibiotic peptide. Magainins are positively charged and amphiphatic. Thought to preferentially bind to anionic phospholipids abundant in bacterial membranes with the formation of dynamic peptide-lipid supramolecular pore and cell permeabilization. Binding to artificial neutral membranes has also been demonstrated.
SML1533 (±)-Marinopyrrole A ≥95% (HPLC) Marinopyrrole A (Maritoclax) is a potent and selective inhibitor of Bcl-2 family member Mcl-1, originally isolated from marine streptomycetes for its antimicrobial activity against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus. Marinopyrrole A directly binds to Mcl-1 and targets it for proteasomal degradation. Marinopyrrole A induced apoptosis in Mcl-1-dependent cancer cells and sensitized cancer cells to ABT-737.
M2574 Meropenem trihydrate ≥98% (HPLC) Meropenem trihydrate is an ultra-broad spectrum beta-lactam antibiotic active against both Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria.
SML0195 Mifamurtide ≥98% (HPLC) Mifamurtide (Muramyl tripeptide phosphatidylethanolamine; MTP-cephalin; MTP-PE) is a synthetic, lipophilic analog of muramyl dipeptide. It acts as an immunostimulant promoting cancer cell destruction via in vivo macrophage activation.
Mifamurtide is an immunomodulator and regulates the activation of monocytes and macrophages. Mifamurtide upregulates the secretion of pro-inflammatory cytokines such as TNF-α, IL-1, IL-8, nitric oxide and prostaglandins E2 and D2. It has anti-tumor effects in children and young adults with high-grade osteosarcoma.
SML1204 ML318 ≥98% (HPLC) ML318 is an inhibitor of the siderophore PvdQ (pyoverdine Q), a peptide iron scavenger found in bacteria. ML318 inhibits the biosynthesis of one step in the pyoverdine biosynthesis with an IC50 of 20 nM, and is active in cells.
SML1185 ML338 ≥98% (HPLC) ML338 is a selective inhibitor of non-replicating Mycobacterium tuberculosis bacilli.
SML1407 ML406 ≥98% (HPLC) ML406 is an iInhibitor of aminotranferase BioA, the enzyme that catalyzes the second-to-last step of biotin synthesis in Mycobacterium tuberculosis (TB). ML406 has an IC50 of 155 nM and an EC50 of 9.3 μM with best cellular activity tested in a TB strain with limited biotin formation relative to wild type confirming mechanism of action.
SML1581 Moxifloxacin hydrochloride ≥98% (HPLC) Moxifloxacin is a fourth-generation synthetic fluoroquinolone antibacterial. Fluoroquinolones stabilize DNA strand breaks created by DNA gyrase and topoisomerase IV by binding to the enzyme-DNA complex. Compared to mammalian DNA gyrase, moxifloxacin has 100 times higher affinity for bacterial DNA gyrase. Moxifloxacin is an antibiotic and works against both Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. Moxifloxacin is being investigated for the treatment of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis.
SML0284 Mycophenolate mofetil ≥98% (HPLC) Mycophenolate mofetil is a prodrug of mycophenolic acid (Cat. # M5255) that is cleaved by nonspecific esterases in vivo to produce the parent compound. Mycophenolic acid blocks inosine monophosphate dehydrogenase and is a potent immunosuppresive agent.
M5255 Mycophenolic acid ≥98% Mode of Action: This product acts by suppressing the cytokine-induced nitric oxide production, inhibiting early stage biosynthesis of purine nucleotides and as a specific inhibitor of IMP dehydrogenase.
M3536 Mycophenolic acid powder, BioReagent, suitable for cell culture, ≥98% Mode of Action: This product acts by suppressing the cytokine-induced nitric oxide production, inhibiting early stage biosynthesis of purine nucleotides and as a specific inhibitor of IMP dehydrogenase.
N0289 Nafamostat mesylate ≥98% (HPLC) Nafamostat mesylate is a broad spectrum serine protease inhibitor, kallikrein inhibitor, and inhibits blood coagulation. It is also a possible complement inhibitor.
SML1749 Narasin Ready Made Solution 1 mg/ml in DMSO Narasin is a growth-promoting ionophoric antibacterial agent for Enterococci, specifically Enterococcus faecium and Enterococcus faecalis. Narasin inhibits coccidial infection in poultry and mammals and is used in studies involving sodium calcium ion exchange.

In addition, Narasin inhibits Dengue virus (DENV) at the post-entry stage of viral replication during DENV infection. The inhibition of DENV involves a non-cytotoxic mechanism, therefore, Narasin can be possibly considered as therapeutic agent against DENV infection. A dose dependent curve (0.01-5 μM) showed that Narasin has 50% inhibitory concentration at less than 1 μM against all four serotypes of DENV. The IC50 (μM) of Narasin against four different DENV serotypes was 0.05-0.65 μM.
SML1178 NDMC101 ≥98% (HPLC) NDMC101 (HS Cm) is a potent dipeptidyl peptidase-IV (DPPIV) inhibitor in T cells with low cytotoxicity. NDMC101 is a potent immunomodulator that inhibits production of IL-2, TNF-α and IFN-γ. NDMC101 inhibits osteoclastogenesis in experimental model of arthritis.
SML0841 Nedocromil ≥98% (HPLC) Nedocromil is a mast cell stabilizer and anti-inflammatory and anti-allergic drug. Nedocromil inhibits the degranulation of mast cells and prevents the activation of and mediates release from a variety of inflammatory cell types. Nedocromil inhibits release of histamine, leukotriene C4, and prostaglandin D2, but has no antihistamine, bronchodilator, or corticosteroid activity itself.
SML1101 Nedocromil sodium ≥98% (HPLC) Nedocromil is a mast cell stabilizer and anti-inflammatory and anti-allergic drug. Nedocromil inhibits the degranulation of mast cells, and prevents the activation of and mediator release from a variety of inflammatory cell types. Nedocromil inhibits release of histamine, leukotriene C4, and prostaglandin D2, but has no antihistamine, bronchodilator, or corticosteroid activity itself.
SML1686 Neoseptin-3 ≥98% (HPLC) Neoseptin-3 is a highly efficacious and specific agonist of the mouse TLR4 (mTLR4)/myeloid differentiation factor 2 (MD-2) complex. Neoseptin-3 binds to MD2, changes the conformation of MD-2 and facilitates active TLR4/MD-2 dimer formation. Neoseptin-3 exhibits no structural similarity to lipid A.
SML1779 Nigericin sodium salt Ready Made Solution 5 mg/mL (DMSO:ethanol 1:1) Nigericin is a polyether ionophore which catalyzes the electroneutral exchange of alkali metal (K+) for H+ (antiport). Nigericin transports monovalent cations across membranes with the following specificity: K+ >Rb+ >Cs+ >>Na+ and thus, disrupts membrane potential and stimulates ATPase activity in mitochondria.
Nigericin kills bacteria by facilitating the diffusion of ions across membranes.
Low concentration (0.5 μM) of Nigericin rapidly decreases pHi, causing stimulation of PG production 1.5- to 2-fold in cerebral microvascular endothelial cells and arresting of DNA synthesis in Erlich acites carcinoma cells. Treatment of Hela cells, after entry of poliovirus, with nigericin, prevents the inhibition of host protein synthesis by poliovirus. Nigericin is also widely used in studies of the consequences of changes in membrane potential in variable systems.
N0290 Nitazoxanide ≥98% (HPLC) Nitazoxanide is an inhibitor of pyruvate-ferredoxin oxidoreductase (PFOR); Antimicrobial recently found to kill both non-replicating and replicating mycobacteria. FDA approved anti-parasitic drug (2002). Recent work (C & EN Sept. 14, 2009, p. 28) highlights that NTZ kills non-replicating and replicating TB bacteria and no apparent resistance is detected.
SML1665 Nocodazole Ready Made Solution 5 mg/mL, DMSO solution Nocodazole is an anticancer drug that has been shown to interfere with the structure and function of microtubules in interphase and mitotic cells. Malignant cells may be more susceptible to the antimicrotubular effect of nocodazole than nonmalignant cells. Mammalian cells cultured in vitro can be treated with 0.04-10 μg/mL doses for cell synchronization experiments. Prolonged arrest of cells in mitosis due to nocodazole treatment typically results in cell death by apoptosis. Higher concentrations could not be used because of insolubility. High specificity of action may explain low toxicity to bone marrow cells and lack of neurotoxicity. Nocodazole is thought to bind directly to tubulin causing conformational changes resulting in increased exposure of some sulfhydryl and possibly tyrosine residues. Nocodazole′s apparent synergism with cytosine arabinofuranoside has been demonstrated on L1210 leukemic cells.
SML0379 Nodinitib-1 ≥98% (HPLC) Nodinitib-1 (ML130) is a selectiove inhibitor of of the nucleotide oligomerization domain (NOD)-1 receptor, which is involved in innate immune response and has been associated with several inflammatory diseases. NOD1 and NOD2 recognize distinct structures derived from bacterial peptidoglycans and directly activate NF-?B pathway, which controls the production of proinflammatory molecules. Nodinitib-1 has 40:1 selectivity for NOD1 over NOD2.
SRP3126 NP-1 human recombinant, expressed in E. coli, ≥98% (SDS-PAGE), ≥98% (HPLC), cell culture tested Neutrophil peptide-1 (NP-1) exhibits antimicrobial activity. It also has a chemotactic function in dendritic cells. It has a role in the growth and metastasis of cancer cells. The protein acts as multifunctional co-receptor and interacts with various signaling cascades. NP-1 associates with epithelial growth factor (EGF) and its receptor (EGFR). It also interacts with hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) and its receptor c-Met.
SML0922 NSC130813 ≥98% (HPLC) NSC130813 blocks protein-protein interactions between XPF and ERCC1, two proteins involved in nucleotide excision repair (NER). The compound, NSC130813, blocks repair of DNA damage induced by platinum-based ctyotoxic drugs and DNA alkylating agents. NSC130813 synergistically potentiates cell death in cancer cell lines treated with cisplatin or mitomycin C.
SML1846 Ochratoxin A Ready Made Solution 1 mg/mL in DMSO, from Petromyces albertensis Ochratoxin A (OTA) is a mycotoxin derived from Aspergillus ochraceus, Petromyces albertensis, Penicillium verrucosum, and others. Ochratoxin A was found in numerous food sources including cereals, dog food, beer and wine. Several studies suggest that Ochratoxin A toxicity may result in nephropathies, carcinogenicity, and teratogenicity.
O8757 Ofloxacin fluoroquinolone antibiotic Ofloxacin inhibits bacterial DNA gyrase and topoisomerase IV, which haults DNA replication and cell division. Ofloxacin has been shown to convert LytA from the inactive E-form to the active C-form. It is a chiral molecule that inhibits pneumococcal cell wall-degrading virulence factors.
SML1586 Oritavancin diphosphate ≥97% (HPLC) Oritavancin is a lipoglycopeptide vancomycin analog with broad spectrum activity against gram-positive pathogens, including methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and organisms resistant to vancomycin and other antibiotics such as linezolid and daptomycin. Oritavancin has multiple mechanisms of action, including inhibition of transglycosylation, inhibition of transpeptidation, and cell membrane interaction/disruption. Oritavancin also has a long half-life, allowing for a single intravenous dose of rather than the standard vacomycin treatment of twice-daily infusions for ten days.
O9637 Oxaprozin solid  
O9387 Oxatomide ≥99% Oxatomide is an anti-allergy compound, H1 receptor antagonist. Oxatomide suppresses PAF-induced bronchoconstriction; inhibits leukotriene production.
SML1474 Oxiconazole nitrate ≥98% (HPLC) Oxiconazole is a broad-spectrum antifungal agent that inhibits ergosterol biosynthesis. Oxiconazole destabilizes Lanosterol 14-α demethylase (fungal cyctochrome P450 51).
SML0540 Oxyphenbutazone ≥98% (HPLC) Oxyphenbutazone is an NSAID that has been shown to preferentially kill non-replicating Mycobaterium tuberculosis maintained in media that simulates the mildly acidic, in vivo conditions where drug-resistant, non replicating subpopulations of the bacteria reside in hosts. The compound has little or no affect on replication M. tuberculosis grown in normal liquid cultures.
SML1290 PA-824 ≥98% (HPLC) PA-824 is an anti-tuberculosis drug that exhibits multiple mechanism of action including both cell wall inhibition and respiratory poisoning.
PA-824 is an anti-tuberculosis drug that exhibits multiple mechanism of action, including both cell wall inhibition and respiratory poisoning.
PZ0182 Pactamycin ≥95% (HPLC) Pactamycin is a potent protein synthesis inhibitor, inhibiting protein synthesis at the translocation step on the 70S ribosome. It has activity against Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria, and broad antitumor, antiviral, and antiplasmodial activity. Cytotoxicity limits it clinical use.
S9317 PAR-2 (1-6) amide (mouse, rat) trifluoroacetate salt ≥97% (HPLC) Selective proteinase-activated receptor 2 (PAR2) peptide agonist.
P2742 PD 404,182 ≥98% (HPLC) Potential antibiotic of gram negative bacteria. KDO-8-P synthase inhibitor.
SML0508 Pentostatin ≥95% (HPLC) Pentostatin is a ring-expanded nucleoside (REN) that potently inhibits adenosine deaminase, which leads to lymphocyte toxicity. Pentostatin is used as anticancer agent to treat leukemia (hairy cell leukemia and chronic lymphocytic leukemia) and is investigated as an agent to treat graft-versus-host disease (GVHD).
PZ0284 PF-04753299 ≥98% PF-04753299 is a potent and selective inhibitor of LpxC (UDP-3-O-(R-3-hydroxymyristol)-N-acetylglucosamine deacetylase) that is effective in a murine of gram-negative bacteria infection model.
PZ0194 PF-5081090 ≥98% (HPLC) PF-5081090 is a potent inhibitor of LpxC, a metalloenzyme required for the synthesis of lipid A, an essential component of the outer membrane of Gram-negative bacteria. The IC50 for enzyme inhibition is 1.1 nM and the minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) for inhibiting growth of Pseudomonas aeruginosa growth is 0.008 mg/mL.
SML1335 Pidotimod ≥98% (HPLC) Pidotimod is a dipeptide immunostimulant with biological activity on both the adaptive and the innate immune responses. Pidotimod has been reported to modulate airway epithelial cells functions involved in host-virus interaction possibly through NF-kB activation, promote functional maturation of dendritic cells, and facilitate M2 macrophage polarization and function. Pidotimod has been investigated for use to increase response to recurrent respiratory infections primarily in children.
SML1437 Pimecrolimus ≥97% (HPLC) Pimecrolimus, also known as Picrolimus, is a macrolactam ascomycin derivative that acts as an immune suppressant. It binds with high affinity to macrophilin-12 (FKBP-12) and inhibits calcineurin, a calcium-dependent phosphatase. Pimecrolimus inhibits production of pro-inflammatory cytokines by T cells and mast cells and prevents the release of inflammatory cytokines and mediators from mast cells. It has been used clinically as a treatment for eczema.
C7874 Piperaquine tetraphosphate tetrahydrate ≥98% (HPLC) Piperaquine tetraphosphate tetrahydrate is an antimalarial agent highly active against chloroquine-resistant Plasmodium falciparum and Plasmodium vivax.
P2116 Pirfenidone ≥97% (HPLC) Pirfenidone inhibits collagen production and fibroblast proliferation. It has shown antifibrotic and anti-inflammatory properties in variety of animal models of pulmonary fibrosis, and in clinical trials.
SML0817 Pivmecillinam ≥98% (HPLC) Pivmecillinam is a gram negative antibiotic, and inhibitor of penicillin-binding protein 2 (PBP2). Pivmecillinam has been shown to have synergistic effects with several antibiotics including novobiocin and rifampin in gram negative bacteria.
SML0285 Pleuromutilin ≥95% Pleuromutilin is an antibiotic natural product that inhibits bacterial protein synthesis by binding to bacterial ribosomes in the peptidyl transferase center and inhibiting peptide bond formation.
G7048 Proguanil hydrochloride ≥95% (HPLC) Chlorguanide (proguanil) is combined with atovaquone for malaria prophylaxis. The two compounds act synergistically to inhibit the plasmodial dihydrofolate reductase (DHFR) and interrupt the electron transport chain. Mutations in DHFR account for the development of resistant strains.
SML1502 Pyrazofurin ≥98% (HPLC) Pyrazofurin is an orotidine-5’-monophosphate decarboxylase (ODCase, OMP decarboxylase) inhibitor that exhibit potent antiviral, anti-malarial and anti-trypanosomes activities.
R0395 Rapamycin from Streptomyces hygroscopicus ≥95% (HPLC), powder A macrocyclic triene antibiotic that binds to and inhibits the molecular target of rapamycin (mTOR). It forms a complex with FKBP12 that binds to and inhibits the molecular target of rapamycin (mTOR). Rapamycin is a potent immunosuppressant and has anticancer activity.
SML1216 Ravuconazole ≥97% (NMR) Ravuconazole (BMS-207147) is a potent and broad spectrum triazole antifungal. Ravuconazole is an inhibitor of sterol biosynthesis by inhibition of cytochrome P450 14α-demethylase, an enzyme in the sterol biosynthesis pathway that leads from lanosterol to ergosterol.
R7269 Rhein Constituent that is enriched in rhubarb with anti-inflammatory, anti-osteoarthritic, and anti-cancer activity. It reduces IL-1β production and secretion, caspase-3 activity, inducible nitric oxide synthase activity, and phosphorylation of c-Jun and c-Jun NH2-terminal kinase (JNK).
SML1685 Ribocil-C ≥98% (HPLC) Ribocil-C is a potent inhibitor of bacterial riboflavin riboswitches. Riboswitches are cis regulatory elements present in non-coding RNA that specifically bind to natural ligands to regulate gene expression. Ribocil-C blocks the flavin mononucleotide riboswitch-mediated expression of the ribB gene, which is required for riboflavin biosynthesis, with an IC50 value of 23 nM. Ribocil-C inhibited bacterial cell growth of E. coli MB5746 and bacterial burden in a mouse E. coli septicaemia model of infection.
R3530 Rifabutin >98% (HPLC), powder Rifabutin is an antibiotic; antitumor. Rifabutin interferes with HSP-90 molecular chaperone, enhances ubiquitination and protein degradation, and inactivates bacterial RNA polymerase.
SML1200 RO8191 ≥98% (HPLC) RO8191 is an orally available, potent and specific type I interferon receptor agonist that directly binds to IFN-α receptor 2 (IFNAR2). RO8191 suppresses HCV replication without inducing host cell toxicity.
SML1583 Roseoflavin ≥95% (HPLC) Roseoflavin is an analog of flavin mononucleotide (FMN) and riboflavin with antimicrobial activity. Roseoflavin is converted to the flavin mononucleotide (FMN) analog roseoflavin mononucleotide (RoFMN) by flavokinase and to the flavin adenine dinucleotide (FAD) analog roseoflavin adenine dinucleotide (RoFAD) by FAD synthetase, and acts as a riboflavin antagonist. Roseoflavin is an inhibitor of bacterial riboflavin riboswitches, cis regulatory elements present in non-coding RNA that specifically bind to natural ligands to regulate gene expression. Roseoflavin, converted to RoFMN, blocks the flavin mononucleotide riboswitch-mediated expression of the ribB gene, which is required for riboflavin biosynthesis.
SML1718 RS09 trifluoroacetate salt ≥98% (HPLC) RS09 is a potent and specific toll like receptor 4 (TLR-4) agonist that mimic LPS by interacting with TLR-4. RS09 causes NF-KB nuclear translocation and induces inflammatory cytokine secretion in RAW264.7 macrophages in vitro. RS09 function as an adjuvant in vivo when administered with X-15-KLH in mice.
SML1577 Rubrofusarin ≥98% (HPLC) Rubrofusarin is an orange polyketide pigment produced by Fusarium graminearum and other fungal species that exhibit potent anti-cancer and anti-mycobacterial activities. Rubrofusarin is a mycotoxin that inhibits human DNA topoisomerase II-α.. Additionally, Rubrofusarin shows a significant anti-estrogenic activity.
SML1192 SB290157 trifluoroacetate salt ≥97% (HPLC) SB290157 is a selective antagonist of complement anaphylatoxin C3a receptor, a 74 amino acid proinflammatory peptide that is a potent chemotaxin for eosinophils, macrophages and mast cells, and has recently been found to be involved in nonimmunological roles in osteoblast differentiation, angiogenesis, and lipid metabolism. SB290157 is selective for C3aR over C5aR or other chemotactic GPCRs with an IC50 of 200 nM. It effectively blocks C3aR in humans, rat, guinea pig, and mouse.SB290157 was found to inhibit diet-induced obesity, metabolic dysfunction, and adipocyte signaling, in addition to inhibiting macrophage signaling.
SRP3148 sCD100 human recombinant, expressed in CHO cells, ≥97% (SDS-PAGE), ≥97% (HPLC), cell culture tested Studies have shown that cluster of differentiation 100 (CD100) can induce monocyte migration, T-cell activation, and B-cell survival, as well as T/B cell and T/DC "cooperation". CD100 inhibits the functions of osteoblasts and influences bone homeostasis in favor of resorption. The protein is overexpressed in epithelial malignancies and breast cancer.

S9192 Ser-Leu-Ile-Gly-Lys-Val-amide ≥95% (HPLC), solid Proteinase-activated receptor-2 (PAR2)-activating peptide.
S1820 Ser-Phe-Leu-Leu-Arg-Asn-amide trifluoroacetate salt ≥98% (HPLC), film Thrombin receptor activating peptide (TRAP).
SML0888 Sertaconazole nitrate ≥98% (HPLC) Sertaconazole nitrate is an imidazole antifungal. Like other imidazole antifungals, sertaconazole blocks the synthesis of ergosterol, an essential component of the fungal cell membrane, by inhibiting the P450 enzyme 14α-demethylase that converts lanosterol to ergosterol.
S5071 SFK1 ≥98% (HPLC), solid SFK1 interacts directly with yeast mitochodria. Induces cell death in low salt conditions and suppresses the ability of FK506 to inhibit cell growth in the presence of high levels of NaCl.
S8701 SFLLR-NH2 trifluoroacetate salt ≥95% (HPLC), powder SFLLR-NH2 is a PAR-1 (Protease-Activated Receptor) selective activating peptide, also known as Thrombin Receptor Activating Peptide 5 (TRAP-5). Protease-activated receptors (PARs) are present on various organs including, platelets, mast cell, gallblader, oesophagus etc, and regulate various physiological processes including human platelet aggregation, vascular contraction/relaxation, and an increase in endothelial permeability. Recent papers indicated that PAR′s are also involved in sensory processing and proliferation of astrocytes.
SML0562 Shiga Toxin 1, B subunit recombinant, expressed in E. coli, ≥95% (SDS-PAGE) The Shiga toxins are a family of related protein toxins secreted by certain types of bacteria. Shiga toxin (Stx) is produced by Shigella dysenteriae, whereas the Shiga-like toxins, Stx1 and Stx2, with a few known isoforms, are secreted by specific strains of Escherichia coli named Shiga-toxin-producing E. coli (STEC) such as E. coli O157:H7, which causes bloody diarrhea and hemorrhagic colitis in humans, sometimes resulting in fatal systemic complications.

Stx1 is identical to Stx, while the Stx2 isoforms share less sequence similarity with Stx (~60%) and are immunologically distinct. In spite of the differences in their amino acid sequence, all Stx isoforms share the same overall toxin structure and mechanism of action.

Shiga toxins consist of two polypeptides: An A chain and a B chain non-covalently associated with an apparent stoichiometry of one A and five B chains, to form the holotoxin. The catalytic A subunit has a RNA N-glycosidase activity that inhibits eukaryotic protein synthesis. The B subunits form a pentamer that recognizes and binds to the functional cell-surface receptor globotriaosylceramide [Gb3; Gala(1-4)-Galb(1-4)-Glcb1-ceramide]. Gb3 is overexpressed in membranes of numerous tumor cells, therefore STxB binding to Gb3 receptors may be useful for cell-specific vectorization, labeling and imaging purposes.
SML0655 Shiga toxin 1, B subunit, HIS-tagged recombinant, expressed in E. coli, ≥95% (SDS-PAGE) The Shiga toxins are a family of related protein toxins secreted by certain types of bacteria. Shiga toxin (Stx) is produced by Shigella dysenteriae; whereas, the Shiga-like toxins, Stx1 and Stx2, with a few known isoforms, are secreted by specific strains of Escherichia coli named Shiga-toxin-producing E. coli (STEC), such as E. coli O157:H7, which causes bloody diarrhea and hemorrhagic colitis in humans, sometimes resulting in fatal systemic complications.

Stx1 is identical to Stx, while the Stx2 isoforms share less sequence similarity with Stx (∼60%) and are immunologically distinct. In spite of the differences in their amino acid sequence, all Stx isoforms share the same overall toxin structure and mechanism of action.

Shiga toxins consists of two polypeptides. An A chain and a B chain non-covalently associate with an apparent stoichiometry of one A and five B chains to form the holotoxin. The catalytic A subunit has
RNA N-glycosidase activity that inhibits eukaryotic protein synthesis. The B subunits form a pentamer, which recognizes and binds to the functional cell-surface receptor globotriaosylceramide [Gb3; Gala(1-4)-Galb(1-4)-Glcb1-ceramide]. Gb3 is overexpressed in membranes of numerous tumor cells, therefore STxB binding to Gb3 receptors may be useful for cell-specific vectorization, labeling, and imaging purposes.
SML1542 Sitamaquine tosylate ≥98% (HPLC) Sitamaquine is an orally active 8-aminoquinoline analog that exhibit antiplasmodial and antileishmanial activities. Sitamaquine accumulates in Leishmania parasites. Sitamaquine potently inhibits respiratory chain complex II (succinate dehydrogenase), which leads to an apoptosis-like death of Leishmania parasites.
S8076 SJ000025081 ≥98% (HPLC) SJ000025081 is a dihydropyridine effective against Plasmodium yoelii.1,2
SJ000025081 is an antimalarial compound that inhibit the growth of asexual blood-stage P. falciparum in cultured red blood cells.
SML1767 Sparstolonin B ≥98% (HPLC) Sparstolonin B (SsnB), an isocoumarin isolated from Sparganium stoloniferum and Scirpus yagara, is a potent TLR2 and TLR4 antagonist that exhibits anti-inflammatory and anti-viral (anti-HIV) properties. Sparstolonin B inhibits LPS induced inflammation in 3T3- L1 adipocytes, and reduces the body weight of rats fed with high fat diet. Sparstolonin B mitigates inflammation in nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) in mice model.
S5822 Spergualin trihydrochloride >95% (HPLC and TLC), from Bacillus laterosporus Spergualin is an antibiotic isolated from Bacillus laterosporus that has antibacterial, antitumor, and strong immunosuppressive properties. Spergualin exhibits antitumor activity against transplantable leukemias in mice such as lymphatic leukemia L1210, monocytic leukemia P388, mastocytoma P815, or thymoma EL-4. Spergualin was found effective in inhibiting skin graft rejection, preventing GVHD (Graft-Versus-Host-Disease) in mice recipients of allogeneic bone marrow and spleen cells, and modulating other immunologic diseases.
SML1309 SQ109 ≥98% (HPLC) SQ109 is an antitubercular developed for the treatment of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB). SQ109 inhibits the activity of MmpL3, a mycolic acid transporter required for incorporation of mycolic acid into the Mycobacterium tuberculosis cell wall.
SML0840 Staphyloccocus UPPS Inhibitor methanesulfonate ≥98% (HPLC) Staphyloccocus UPPS Inhibitor methanesulfonate is a potent inhibitor of the bacteria enzyme undecaprenyl diphosphate synthase (UPPS). Staphyloccocus UPPS Inhibitor kills both wild type and methicillin-resitant strains of Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). Staphyloccocus UPPS Inhibitor protects mice from death after infection with MRSA.
S0130 Streptozocin ≥75% α-anomer basis, ≥98% (HPLC), powder An N-nitroso-containing compound that acts as a nitric oxide donor in pancreatic islets; induces death of insulin-secreting cells, producing an animal model of diabetes. Potent DNA methylating agent that induces chromosomal breakage. Cytotoxic to neuroendocrine tumor cell lines that express the GLUT2 glucose transporter.
Clinically, the chemical is used for the treatment of pancreatic β cell carcinoma.
S9701 Sulbactam  
S4701 Suplatast tosylate ≥98% (HPLC) Suplatast tosylate is a dimethylsulfonium compound downregulates the expression of histamine H1 receptor gene, suppresses the activity of histidine decarboxylase and regulates IL-4 mRNA. It inhibits the release of histamines and regulates the production of IgE.1,2 Suplatast tosylate is effective in the treatment of mild-to-moderate persistent asthma in children.3
Suplatast tosylate is an anti-allergy, cytokine modulator.
PZ0035 Sutezolid ≥98% (HPLC) Sutezolid (PNU 100480) is an oxazolidinone antimicrobial. Sutezolid inhibits protein synthesis by inhibiting bacterial mRNA translation. Sutezolid is being investigated for the treatment of multiple drug–resistant and extensively drug-resistant tuberculosis. The compound is a less toxic and more potent derivative of linezolid.
S6946 Syringomycin E from Pseudomonas syringae B-301D, >95% (HPLC), solution Syringomycin E (SR-E) is a phytotoxin of the cyclic lipodepsinonapeptides class composed of a 3-hydroxy fatty acid tail attached to a polar peptide head that contains nine amino acid residues. SR-E is a potent biosurfactant, which is toxic to many plants and fungi and is implicated as a virulence factor in several major plant diseases such as holcus spot disease of maize and bacterial canker of stone fruits. Syringomycin E inhibits the growth of several yeast strains including Rhodotorula pilimanae and Saccharomyces cerevisiae and is also effective against human pathogenic fungi. Syringomycin E targets the plant and fungal plasma membrane altering several of its functions such as membrane potential, protein phosphorylation, H+-ATPase activity, and ion fluxes. All of these effects are related to SR-E pore formation in the host membrane. At least six molecules of syringomycin E compose a channel with a radius of ~1 nm and individual channels can become aggregated into clusters that exhibit synchronous opening and closing. Remarkably, the host membrane composition influences the sensitivity to syringomycin E and membrane lipids directly participate in the channel gating. Syringomycin E is reported to cause lysis of erythrocytes of different origin.
SML0396 Tafenoquine succinate ≥95% (HPLC) Tafenoquine is an antimalarial primaquine analog being investigated to treat and prevent Plasmodium vivax infections. It can eliminate both blood and liver stages of Plasmodium vivax. Tafenoquine has also been tested as a therapy for leishmaniasis.
SML1227 Tavaborole ≥95% (HPLC) Tavaborole (AN2690) is a potent antifungal that targets the post-transfer editing site of leucyl-tRNA synthetase (LeuRS). Tavaborole forms a covalent adduct with the 3′ adenosine of tRNA(leu) at the editing site of fungal, but not bacterial LeuRS, locking the enzyme in an inactive conformation. Tavaborole was recently approved for the treatment of onychomycosis of the toenail in adults.
SML0936 Teriflunomide ≥98% (HPLC) Teriflunomide is an orally available anti-inflammatory immunomodulator. It blocks the activity of dihydroorotate dehydrogenase, preventing pyrimidine synthesis and T and B cell proliferation and function. Teriflunomide has been used to treat rheumatoid arthritis and was recently approved for multiple sclerosis.
T5705 Terrein from Aspergillus terreus, ≥98% (HPLC) Terrein is a bioactive fungal metabolite that has plant growth inhibition and antibacterial activities. Terrein reduces melanin levels in a dose-dependent manner as well as tyrosinase protein production. In mammals, there are three melanocyte-specific enzymes: tyrosinase, tyrosinase-related protein-1 (TRP-1), and TRP-2 that are involved in tyrosine conversion into melanin (melanogenesis). Terrein inhibits melanin synthesis by reducing tyrosinase production via extracellular signal-regulated protein kinase (ERK) activation. ERK activation is followed by microphthalmia-associated transcription factor (MITF) down regulation, which is required for tyrosinase expression.
T7830 TFLLR-NH2 trifluoroacetate salt >98% (HPLC) TFLLR-NH2 is a protease-activated receptor (PARs) agonist which is more selective to PAR-1 than SFLLRN-NH2. Protease-activated receptors (PARs) are present on various organs including, plateles, mast cell, gallblader, oesophagus etc, and regulate various physiological processes including human platelet aggregation, vascular contraction/relaxation, and an increase in endothelial permeability. Recent papers indicated that PAR′s are also involved in sensory processing. Specificly PAR ligands enhance glutamatergic excitatory transmission in substantia gelatinosa (SG) neurons of adult rat spinal cord slices.
SML1741 TH1020 ≥95% (HPLC) TH1020 is a non-cytotoxic non-cytotoxic toll-like receptor 5 (TLR5)/flagellin complex inhibitor. TH1020 selectively prevents flagellin-induced TLR5 signaling without affecting ligands-induced activation of TLR2, TLR3, TLR4, TLR7 or TLR8.
SML1120 Thiophene-2 ≥98% (HPLC) Thiophene-2 (TP2) is an inhibitor of polyketide synthase 13 (Pks13), which plays a critical role in the biosynthesis of mycolic acid, an essential component of the cell wall in M. tuberculosis, and is a potential new target for tuberculosis treatment. TP2 inhibits FadD32-dependent loading of the mycolic acid precursor meromycoloyl chain onto acyl carrier protein (ACP) domains located at the N terminus of Pks13, preventing synthesis of mycolic acid and resulting in mycobacterial cell death. TP2 bacteriosidal activity is equivalent to treatment with the first-line drug isoniazid, and enhances its activity, but is less likely to cause resistance. The minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) values of TP2 against drug-susceptible multidrug-resistant M. tuberculosis strains is approximately 1 μM.
SML1151 Thiophene-4 ≥98% (HPLC) Thiophene-4 (TP4) is an inhibitor of polyketide synthase 13 (Pks13), which plays a critical role in the biosynthesis of mycolic acid, an essential component of the cell wall in M. tuberculosis, and is a potential new target for tuberculosis treatment. TP4 inhibits FadD32-dependent loading of the mycolic acid precursor meromycoloyl chain onto acyl carrier protein (ACP) domains located at the N terminus of Pks13, preventing synthesis of mycolic acid and resulting in mycobacterial cell death. TP4 bacteriosidal activity is equivalent to treatment with the first-line drug isoniazid, and enhances its activity, but is less likely to cause resistance. The minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) values of TP4 against drug-susceptible multidrug-resistant M. tuberculosis strains is approximately 500 nM.
T1573 Thrombin Receptor Activator Peptide 6 >95% (HPLC) Hexapeptide fragment of the thrombin receptor (residues 42-47). Shown to activate the thrombin receptor and cause platelet aggregation (EC50 = 0.8 μM).
PZ0021 Tigecycline hydrate ≥98% (HPLC) Tigecycline is a broad spectrum glycylcycline antibiotic. Tigecycline is bacteriostatic, that inhibits protein synthesis by binding to the 30S ribosomal subunit of bacteria and thereby blocking entry of Aminoacyl-tRNA into the A site of the ribosome during prokaryotic translation. Tigecycline is active against resistant strains of gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria, avoiding the two most common mechanisms of resistance to the tetracycline antimicrobials: tetracycline efflux pump proteins and ribosomal protection proteins.
SML0832 TLR4-IN-C34 ≥98% (HPLC) TLR4-IN-C34 is a potent and specific inhibitor of toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4), which inhibits TLR4 signaling in vivo and in vitro. TLR4-IN-C34, also known as C34, is an aminomonosaccharide that inhibits TLR4 signaling by docking with the hydrophobic pocket of the TLR4 co-receptor, myeloid differentiation protein-2 (MD-2). C34 has been shown to diminish the severity of experimental necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC).
T6376 Triamcinolone Triamcinolone is a synthetic glucocorticoid agonist; induces gene expression and apoptosis; inhibits prostaglandin synthesis; impairs tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α-induced degradation of κB-α; potentiates the differentiation-inducing effects of bone morphogenetic proteins (BMP-2, -4, -6).
T3652 Triptolide from Tripterygium wilfordii, ≥98% (HPLC), solid Triptolide is a diterpene triepoxide, the principal active ingredient in extracts from the Chinese herb Tripterygium wilfordii hook (TwHF). It is a potent immunosuppressant and anti-inflammatory. Triptolide has been shown to inhibit the expression of IL-2 in activated T cells at the level of purine-box/nuclear factor and NF-κB mediated transcription activation. It synergizes with cyclosporin A in promoting graft survival in animal models and in suppression of graft versus host disease in allogeneic bone marrow transplants. In addition, it induces apoptosis in tumor cells and potentiates tumor necrosis factor (TNFα) induction of apoptosis in part through the suppression of c-IAP2 and c-IAP1 induction.
SML0735 Tropodithietic acid ≥98% (HPLC) Tropodithietic acid is a broad spectrum tropolone antibiotic with activity against both Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria.
PZ0015 Trovafloxacin mesylate >98% (HPLC) Trovafloxacin mesylate is a broad spectrum antibiotic. Trovafloxacin mesylate blocks the activity of DNA gyrase and topoisomerase IV, enzymes essential in the repliction, transcription, and repair of bacterial DNA.
SML1287 Tunicamycin Ready Made Solution 5 mg/mL in DMSO, from Streptomyces sp. Tunicamycin is an antibacterial and antifungal. Tunicamycin blocks the formation of protein N-glycosidic linkages by inhibiting the transfer of N-acetylglucosamine 1-phosphate to dolichol monophosphate. Tunicamycin inhibits bacterial and eukaryote N-acetylglucosamine transferases and prevents formation of N-acetylglucosamine lipid intermediates.
U6883 cis-Urocanic acid ≥98% (HPLC), solid (fluffy) cis-Urocanic acid, a 5-HT agonist, is a product of uv isomerization of trans-urocanic acid in skin, which leads to immunosuppression via activation of 5-HT2A receptor.
SRP3295 VAP-1 human recombinant, expressed in CHO cells, ≥95% (SDS-PAGE), ≥95% (HPLC) The protein VAP-1 (vascular adhesion protein-1) belongs to the group of semicarbazide sensitive amine oxidases (SSAO) that catalyze the formation of reactive oxygen species. It is a unique adhesion molecule that participates in inflammatory leukocyte recruitment in blood vessels. It functions in leukocyte extravasation to inflamed tissues. In the human eye, it has been associated with ocular inflammatory diseases, such as uveitis, age-related macular degeneration, and diabetic retinopathy. Its expression has been observed to be altered in several diseases, such as rheumatoid arthritis, diabetes, and atherosclerosis.
PZ0005 Voriconazole ≥98% (HPLC) Voriconazole is an antifungal used to treat serious fungal infections. Voriconazole inhibits ergosterol synthesis by inhibiting CYP450-dependent 14-α sterol demethylase resulting in a depletion of ergosterol in fungal cell membranes.
SML0894 VU0420373 ≥98% (HPLC) VU0420373 is an activator of the heme sensor system (HssRS) in Staphylococcus aureus. The compound VU0420373 induces heme biosynthesis, and is toxic to fermenting S. aureus. VU0420373 reduces the number of liver abscesses, and tissue damage in S. aureus infected mice.
W3020 WKYMVdM trifluoroacetate salt ≥98% (HPLC), powder WKYMVm is a very potent agonist of formyl peptide receptor members FPR1/FPR2 (EC50 1 nM) and FPRL1/FPRL2 (75 pM and 3 nM, respectively). WKYMVm stimulation of leukocytes has been shown to elevate intracellular calcium, induce chemotaxis, superoxide generation, cell killing and phagocytosis.
W4270 WKYMVM trifluoroacetate salt ≥98% (HPLC) WKYMVM is a peptide agonist of formyl peptide receptors. WKYMVM binds to and stimulates FPRL family members 1, 2 with EC50 values of 2 and 80 nM, respectively. The peptide is a potent activator of neutrophils.
WKYMVM is an agonist and potent activator of Formyl peptide receptor like-1 (FPRL1). WKYMVM stimulates FPRL1 and hence attenuates the function of the chemokine receptors CCR5 and CXCR4. WKYMVM activates human eosinophils to induce superoxide production through Phosphoinositide 3-Kinase-Mediated ERK1/2 pathway.
C9359 Z-Ala-Ser-Thr-Asp(OMe)-fluoromethyl ketone ≥90% (TLC), solid Cell-permeable inhibitor of endothelial monocyte-activating polypeptide II (EMAP-II).