Intracellular Calcium Signaling

Calcium signaling is major second messenger involved in a variety of intracellular signaling pathways. Calcium ions are generally held in reserve within the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) until extracellular signaling causes the release of intracellular calcium to be released into the cytosol. The released Ca2+ ion has a multitude of functions that promote gene regulation, proliferation and cell death.

In neurons, calcium signaling is a major second messenger activated by various neurotransmitters, such as dopamine and glutamine. Once bound to its cognate receptor, the neurotransmitter initiates the activation GPCR proteins and PLCγ. A by-product of PLCγ activity is the production of IP3 which binds to receptors on the ER causing release of calcium and activation of PKC family members and CaMKK through binding of calmodulin. Activation of these pathways leads to CREB activation and target gene expression. In T cells, calcium signaling is initiated by stimulation of the TCR pathway and culminates in the activation of the transcription factor NFAT via activation of the calcium responsive phosphatase, calcineurin. Activation of the TCR and calcium promotes T cell mediated immunity.

Sigma-Aldrich offers an assortment of products and resources for the study of calcium signaling. These products include:

  • calcium antagonists that block calcineurin and calmodulin function
  • an assortment of antibodies to proteins that regulate and are regulated by calcium signaling
  • calcium chelators for the control of enzymatic activity of calcium regulated function
  • calcium probes for detection of calcium release induced by GPCR

Search below for the calcium signaling product to fit your research needs.