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Signaling by Inositol Phospholipids
When bound by nerve growth factor (NGF), the high affinity NGF receptor, TrkA, autophosphorylates tyrosine residues in its cytoplasmic domain. The activated receptor binds to and activates phospholipase C-γ (PLC-γ), which cleaves membrane-bound phosphatidylinositol-bisphosphate (PIP2) to generate D-myo-inositol-1,4,5-trisphosphate (IP3) and diacylglycerol (DAG). IP3 diffuses from the plasma membrane to its receptor on the surface of the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) that is coupled to a Ca2+-release channel in the ER membrane. There it stimulates the release of Ca2+ from ER stores resulting in an increase in the cytosolic concentration of Ca2+. Cytosolic Ca2+ is then available for binding to calmodulin or to various Ca2+-binding cytoskeletal proteins involved in microtubule and intermediate filament formation. Many of the enzymatic effects of the released Ca2+ are mediated through protein phosphorylations catalyzed by a family of Ca2+/calmodulin dependent protein kinases (CaMK-II/IV).
Carpenter, G., and Ji, Q.S., Phospholipase C-gamma as a signal-transducing element. Exp. Cell Res. 253, 15-24 (1999).
Patel, S., et al., Molecular properties of inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate receptors. Cell Calcium 25, 247-264 (1999).
Takei, K., et al., Regulation of nerve growth mediated by inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate receptors in growth cones. Science 282, 1705-1708 (1998).

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P6641 1,2-Diacyl-sn-glycero-3-phospho-L-serine solution ≥97%, from bovine brain, chloroform:methanol solution A slowly metabolized structural phospholipid found mainly in gray matter.
P7769 1,2-Diacyl-sn-glycero-3-phospho-L-serine ≥97% (TLC), from bovine brain, amorphous powder A slowly metabolized structural phospholipid found mainly in gray matter.
P3716 1,2-Didecanoyl-sn-glycerol 3-phosphate sodium salt ≥99% (TLC)   178603-81-1
P2663 1,2-Dimyristoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine ≥99%   18194-24-6
P3591 1,2-Dioctanoyl-sn-glycerol 3-phosphate sodium salt ≥99%   178603-80-0
P4329 1,2-Dipalmitoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine ≥99% (TLC)   63-89-8
P6517 1,2-Distearoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine ≥99% (TLC)   816-94-4
O9262 1-O-Octadecyl-2-O-methyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphorylcholine ≥99% (TLC), waxy solid Phosphoinositide-specific phospholipase C (PI-PLC) inhibitor.
P7693 3-sn-Phosphatidylethanolamine from bovine brain Type I, ≥98% (TLC), lyophilized powder The major structural phospholipid in brain, comprising 20-25% of total lipid; primarily localized to gray matter.
P9511 3-sn-Phosphatidic acid sodium salt from egg yolk lecithin ≥98%    
P5660 3-sn-Phosphatidyl-L-serine sodium salt from bovine brain ≥95% (TLC) A slowly metabolized structural phospholipid found mainly in gray matter.
L1381 L-α-Lysophosphatidylcholine from bovine brain ≥99%, Type V Lysophosphatidylcholine is a major component of oxidized low density lipoproteins, and has been implicated in various inflammatory reactions, including atherosclerosis. It is a degradation product of phosphatidylcholine by phospholipase A and has cytolytic properties. The product is used to demyelinate spinal neurons and study the processes underlying remyelination. It activates protein kinase C, p38 MAP kinase, p42 MAP Kinase, and the jun kinase (JNK) pathway, and stimulates transcription of c-jun. Lysophosphatidylcholine accumulates during cardiac ischemia and may induce arrhythmias by uncoupling gap junction communication, and increase ischemic damage by enhancing Na+ loading in cardiac myocytes. It also activates TREK1, TREK2 and TRAAK K+ channels.
P8443 L-α-Phosphatidylinositol ammonium salt from bovine liver >98% (TLC), lyophilized powder Phospholipid membrane component, precursor of inositol phosphates.
P2517 L-α-Phosphatidylinositol ammonium salt solution from bovine liver 10 mg/mL in chloroform, ≥98% (TLC) Phospholipid membrane component, precursor of inositol phosphates.
BM0029 AM095 ≥98% (HPLC) AM095 is a potent and selective, orally bioavailable antagonist of lysophosphatidic acid receptor1 (LPA1). AM095 inhibited LPA-driven chemotaxis of CHO cells overexpressing mouse LPA1 and human A2058 melanoma cells. LPA1 has been shown to be involved in neuropathic pain. AM095 inhibition of LPA1 after spinal cord injury resulted in reduced demyelination and improvement in locomotor recovery.
C1649 Cardiolipin solution from bovine heart 4.7-5.3 mg/mL in ethanol, ≥97% (TLC) Cardiolipin is a mitochondrial phospholipid that is found in mammalian tissues in low concentrations. It is often a membrane component. Inhibits cell attachment of fibronectin, vitronectin and Type I collagen.
SML0332 Edelfosine ≥95% (HPLC) Edelfosine is a synthetic alkyl-lisophospholipid with anti-tumor activity. The compound induces apoptosis in a variety of cancer cells. Edelfosine accumulates in the cell membrane, where it alters lipid composition and induces the co-clustering of lipid rafts and Fas/CD95 death receptor.
SML0544 GRI977143 ≥98% (HPLC) GRI977143 is a potent, specific LPA2 receptor agonist with no affinity for other LPA receptors. GRI977143 inhibits the initiation of apoptosis induced by adriamycin or serum withdrawal in MEFs derived from LPA2 knock-out mice transfected with an LPA2 expression vector, but has no affect in non-transfected cells.
SML0989 H2L5186303 ≥98% (HPLC) H2L5186303 is specific antagonist of the lysophosphatidic acid receptor LPA2 (Ki = 7.2 nM). The compound H2L5186303 displays 40- to 1800-fold selectivity over other LPA receptors.
I141 Intralipid 20%, emulsion   68890-65-3
SML0971 Ki 16425 ≥98% (HPLC) Ki16452 is a potent antagonist of the lysophosphatidic acid receptors LPA1 and LPA3, with greater than 30-fold selectivity for LPA1 over LPA2. The Ki values for LPA1 and LPA3 are 250 nM and 360 nM, respectively.
M9198 Miltefosine hydrate ≥98% (HPLC) Miltefosine induces apoptosis of triple-negative (TN) breast cancer cells by activation of p38 MAPK pathway and differential down regulation of Akt signaling. Miltefosine is an effective anti-tumor treatment of cutaneous lymphoma, cutaneous metastatic melanoma, squamous cell carcinoma, and cutaneous metastases of breast cancer. It also shows remarkable effectiveness against visceral leishmaniasis. Both the anti-tumor and the antiprotozoal activities appear to be exerted first by insertion of the molecule into the plasma membrane where it interferes with phospholipid metabolism.
Miltefosine or HePC induces death of triple-negative (TN) breast cancer cells. Miltefosine exerts various modes of action leading to different cell death processes, i.e. apoptosis or non-apoptosis, depending on TN breast cancer cell types. These processes involve the activation of p38 MAPK pathway and differential down regulation of Akt signaling. Miltefosine has been used for breast cancer skin metastases, and is an efficient topical anti-tumoral treatment in patients with cutaneous lymphoma, cutaneous metastases of melanoma and squamous cell carcinoma.
L7260 Oleoyl-L-α-lysophosphatidic acid sodium salt ≥98%, solid Endogenous agonist for LPA1 and LPA2 receptors. LPA does not induce angiogenesis, but has effects on endothelial cell physiology that are similar to those of sphingosine 1-phosphate. Induces cell migration of cancer and non-cancer cells.