Adenylyl Cyclase (or Adenylate Cyclase) is an enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of adenosine triphosphate (ATP) to cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP). It therefore has diverse roles in cell regulation and activity. Adenylyl Cyclase is located in the plasma membrane, where it responds to the presence of hormones and chemical signals outside of the cell by triggering the conversion of ATP to cAMP. This cAMP is a secondary messenger, and an important component of signal transduction cascades within the cell, which subsequently activate other kinases to open ion channels or expose the active sites of other proteins. In neurons, calcium-sensitive Adenylyl Cyclases located next to calcium ion channels may play an important role in learning processes. Adenylyl Cyclase can be activated or inhibited by numerous agents, affecting the intracellular concentrations of cAMP. Sigma-Aldrich has numerous various agents that inhibit Adenylyl Cyclase, which in turn decreases intercellular cAMP levels and second messenger activity.