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The addition of betaine at a final concentration of 0.8-1.6M improves the amplification of DNA by reducing the formation of secondary structure in GC-rich regions. The addition of betaine has been reported to enhance the specificity of the polymerase chain reaction by eliminating the base pair composition dependence of DNA melting.1
Dimethyl sulfoxide (1-10%) has been shown to accelerate strand renaturation and is believed to give the nucleic acid thermal stability against depurination. As a PCR cosolvent, DMSO may help improve yields, especially in long PCR.