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Agave (Agave sisalana)


Agave Image
Synonyms / Common Names / Related Terms
Agavaceae, Agave abortiva, Agave abrupta, Agave acicularis, Agave acklinicola, Agave affinis, Agave ajoensis, Agave aktites, Agave albescens, Agave albomarginata, Agave angustiarum, Agave angustifolia, Agave angustissima, Agave anomala, Agave antillarum Agave antillarum var. grammontensis, Agave applanata, Agave arizonica, Agave arubensis, Agave aspera, Agave asperrima, Agave attenuata, Agave aurea, Agave avellanidens, Agave bahamana, Agave bakeri, Agave banlan, Agave barbadensis, Agave baxteri, Agave bergeri, Agave bernhardi, Agave boldinghiana, Agave bollii, Agave botterii, Agave bouchei, Agave bourgaei, Agave bovicornuta, Agave braceana, Agave brachystachys, Agave bracteosa, Agave brandegeei, Agave brauniana, Agave breedlovei, Agave brevipetala, Agave breviscapa, Agave brevispina, Agave brittonia, Agave bromeliaefolia, Agave brunnea, Agave bulbifera, Agave cacozela, Agave cajalbanensis, Agave calderoni, Agave calodonta, Agave campanulata, Agave cantala, Agave capensis, Agave carchariodonta, Agave caribaea, Agave caribiicola, Agave carminis, Agave caroli-schmidtii, Agave celsii, Agave cernua, Agave cerulata, Agave chiapensis, Agave chihuahuana, Agave chinensis, Agave chisosensis, Agave chloracantha, Agave chrysantha, Agave chrysoglossa, Agave coccinea, Agave cocui, Agave coespitosa, Agave colimana, Agave collina, Agave colorata, Agave compacta, Agave complicata, Agave compluviata, Agave concinna, Agave congesta, Agave conjuncta, Agave connochaetodon, Agave consociata, Agave convallis, Agave corderoyi, Agave costaricana, Agave cucullata, Agave cundinamarcensis, Agave cupreata, Agave dasyliriodes, Agave datylio, Agave davilloni, Agave de-meesteriana, Agave dealbata, Agave deamiana, Agave debilis, Agave decaisneana, Agave decipiens, Agave delamateri, Agave densiflora, Agave dentiens, Agave deserti, Agave desmettiana, Agave diacantha, Agave difformis, Agave disceptata, Agave disjuncta, Agave dissimulans, Agave donnell-smithii, Agave durangensis, Agave dussiana, Agave eborispina, Agave eduardi, Agave eggersiana, Agave ehrenbergii, Agave eichlami, Agave ekmani, Agave elizae, Agave ellemeetiana, Agave endlichiana, Agave engelmanni, Agave entea, Agave erosa, Agave evadens, Agave excelsa, Agave expansa, Agave expatriata, Agave falcata, Agave felgeri, Agave felina, Agave fenzliana, Agave ferdinandi-regis, Agave filifera, Agave flaccida, Agave flaccifolia, Agave flavovirens, Agave flexispina, Agave fortiflora, Agave fourcroydes , Agave fragrantissima, Agave franceschiana, Agave franzosini, Agave friderici, Agave funifera, Agave funkiana, Agave galeottei, Agave garciae-mendozae, Agave geminiflora, Agave gentryi, Agave ghiesbrechtii, Agave glabra, Agave glaucescens, Agave goeppertiana, Agave glomeruliflora, Agave gracilipes, Agave gracilis, Agave grandibracteata, Agave granulosa, Agave grenadina, Agave grijalvensis, Agave grisea, Agave guadalajarana, Agave guatemalensis, Agave guedeneyri, Agave guiengola, Agave gutierreziana, Agave guttata, Agave gypsophila, Agave hanburii, Agave harrisii, Agave hartmani, Agave haseloffii, Agave hauniensis, Agave havardiana, Agave haynaldi, Agave henriquesii, Agave hexapetala, Agave hiemiflora, Agave hookeri, Agave horizontalis, Agave horrida, Agave houghii, Agave huachucaensis, Agave huehueteca, Agave humboldtiana, Agave hurteri, Agave impressa, Agave inaequidens, Agave inaguensis, Agave indagatorum, Agave ingens, Agave inopinabilis, Agave integrifolia, Agave intermixta, Agave intrepida, Agave isthmensis, Agave jaiboli, Agave jarucoensis, Agave karatto, Agave kellermaniana, Agave kerchovei, Agave kewensis, Agave kirchneriana, Agave lagunae, Agave langlassei, Agave laticincta, Agave latifolia, Agave laurentiana, Agave laxa, Agave laxifolia, Agave lecheguilla, Agave lemairei, Agave lempana, Agave lespinassei, Agave lindleyi, Agave littaeaoides, Agave longipes, Agave longisepala, Agave lophantha, Agave lurida, Agave macrantha, Agave macroacantha, Agave macroculmis, Agave maculata, Agave madagascariensis, Agave mapisaga, Agave margaritae, Agave marginata, Agave marmorata, Agave martiana, Agave maximiliana, Agave maximowicziana, Agave mayoensis, Agave mckelveyana, Agave medio-picta, Agave medioxima, Agave megalacantha, Agave melanacantha, Agave melliflua, Agave mexicana, Agave micracantha, Agave millspaughii, Agave minarum, Agave mirabilis, Agave missionum, Agave mitis, Agave monostachya, Agave montana, Agave montserratensis, Agave moranii, Agave morrisii, Agave muilmanni, Agave mulfordiana, Agave multifilifera, Agave multiflora, Agave multilineata, Agave murpheyi, Agave oaxacensis, Agave nashii, Agave nayaritensis, Agave neglecta, Agave nelsoni, Agave nevadensis, Agave nevidis, Agave newberyi, Agave nickelsi, Agave nissoni, Agave nizandensis, Agave noli-tangere, Agave obducta, Agave oblongata, Agave obscura, Agave ocahui, Agave offoyana, Agave oligophylla, Agave oliverana, Agave opacidens, Agave orcuttiana, Agave ornithobroma, Agave oroensis, Agave ovatifolia, Agave oweni, Agave pachyacantha, Agave pachycentra, Agave pacifica, Agave pallida, Agave palmaris, Agave palmeri, Agave pampaniniana, Agave panamana, Agave papyriocarpa, Agave parryi, Agave parvidentata, Agave parviflora, Agave patonii, Agave paucifolia, Agave paupera, Agave pavoliniana, Agave peacockii, Agave pedrosana, Agave pedunculifera, Agave pelona, Agave perplexans, Agave pes-mulae, Agave petiolata, Agave petrophila, Agave phillipsiana, Agave picta, Agave planera, Agave polianthiflora, Agave polianthoides, Agave portoricensis, Agave potatorum, Agave potosina, Agave potrerana, Agave prainiana, Agave promontorii, Agave prostrata, Agave protamericana, Agave protuberans, Agave pruinosa, Agave pseudotequilana, Agave pugioniformis, Agave pulcherrima, Agave pulchra, Agave pumila, Agave punctata, Agave purpurea, Agave purpusorum, Agave pygmae, Agave quadrata, Agave quiotifera, Agave ragusae, Agave rasconensis, Agave regia, Agave revoluta, Agave rhodacantha, Agave rigida, Agave roezliana, Agave rudis, Agave rupicola, Agave rutteniae, Agave rzedowskiana, Agave salmdyckii, Agave salmiana, Agave samalana, Agave sartorii, Agave scaphoidea, Agave scaposa, Agave scheuermaniana, Agave schildigera, Agave schneideriana, Agave schottii, Agave scolymus, Agave sebastiana, Agave seemanniana, Agave serrulata, Agave sessiliflora, Agave shafer, Agave shawii, Agave shrevei, Agave sicaefolia, Agave simony, Agave sisalana, Agave sleviniana, Agave smithiana, Agave sobolifera, Agave sobria, Agave sordida, Agave striata, Agave stricta, Agave stringens, Agave subinermis, Agave subsimplex, Agave subtilis, Agave subzonata, Agave sullivani, Agave tecta, Agave tenuifolia, Agave tenuispina, Agave teopiscana, Agave tequilana, Agave terraccianoi, Agave theometel, Agave thomasae, Agave thomsoniana, Agave tigrina, Agave titanota, Agave todaroi, Agave toneliana, Agave tortispina, Agave toumeyana, Agave troubetskoyana, Agave tubulata, Agave underwoodii, Agave unguiculata, Agave utahensis, Agave van-grolae, Agave vandervinneni, Agave ventum-versa, Agave vernae, Agave verschaffeltii, Agave vestita, Agave vicina, Agave victoriae-reginae, Agave vilmoriniana, Agave viridissima, Agave vivipara, Agave vizcainoensis, Agave wallisii, Agave warelliana, Agave washingtonensis, Agave watsoni, Agave weberi, Agave weingartii, Agave wendtii, Agave wercklei, Agave wiesenbergensis, Agave wightii, Agave wildingii, Agave winteriana, Agave wislizeni, Agave wocomahi, Agave woodrowi, Agave wrightii, Agave xylonacantha, Agave yaquiana, Agave yuccaefolia, Agave zapupe, Agave zebra, Agave zonata, Agave zuccarinii, American aloe, Arizona agave, Arizona century plant, bald agave, blue agave, Cantala, century plant, Chisos mountain century plant, coastal agave, corita, cow's horn agave, desert agave, desert century plant, dragon tree agave, drunkard agave, dwarf century plant, dwarf octopus agave, eggers' century plant, chisos agave, false sisal, foxtail agave, golden flowered agave, golden flower century plant, hardy century plant, Havard's century plant, henequen, hohokam agave, ixtle de jaumave, leather agave, Lecheguilla, little princess agave, maguey, Maguey bandeado, Maguey chato, Maguey del Bravo, Maguey de Desierto, Maguey de Havard, Maguey de la India, Maguey de montaña, Maguey de pastizal, Maguey de Sisal, Maguey de tlalcoyote, Maguey diente de tiburn, Maguey Henequen, Maguey lechuguilla, Maguey liso, Maguey mezortillo, Maguey pajarito, Maguey primavera, Maguey spero, Maguey sbari, Mckelvey Agave, McKelvey's century plant, Mescal ceniza, Mescalito, Mexican Sisal, Mezcal azul tequilero, Mezcal yapavai, Murphey Agave, Murphey's century plant, Octopus Agave, Palmer Agave, Palmer century plant, Palmer's century plant, Parry Agave, Parry's Agave, Puerto Rico century plant, Pulque, Queen Victoria's Agave, Rough Century Plant, Smallflower agave, smallflower century Plant, Schott Agave, Schott's Century Plant, Sisal, Sisal Hemp, Shindagger, Smooth Agave, Squid Agave, St. Croix agave, Slimfoot century plant, Swan's Neck Agave, Tequila, Tequila Agave, Thorncrest century plant, Thread-leaf agave, Toumey agave, Toumey's century plant, Utah agave, Weber agave, Weber blue agave, Weber's century plant, wild century plant.


Mechanism of Action
Pharmacology:
  • Steroidal effects: Steroid hormone precursors are obtained from the leaves of agave plants. A new steroidal saponin was isolated from the leaves of Agave attenuata. Its structure was established as (3beta,beta,25S)-spirostan-3-ylO-beta-D-glucopyranosyl-(1 --> 2)-beta-D-glucopyranosyl-(1 -->2)-O-[beta-D-glucopyranosyl-(1 --> 3)]-beta-D-glucopyranosyl-(1 -->4)-beta-D-galactopyranoside.3
  • A new steroidal glycoside, agaveside D, isolated from the fruits of Agave cantala was characterized as 3 beta-(alpha-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1----2),beta-D-glycopyranosyl- (1----3)-beta-D-glucopyranosyl[beta-D-xylopyransoyl-(1----4)-alpha -L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1----2)]-beta-D-glucopyranosyl)-25R-5 alpha-spirostane on the basis of chemical degradation and spectrometry.4
  • The structures of one new monodesmosidic spirostanoside and one new bisdesmosidic furanostanol glycoside isolated from leaves of Agave lophantha Schiede have been determined by means of spectroscopic and chemical methods as (25R)-5 beta-spirostan-3 beta-ol-3-O-(beta-D-apiofuranosyl(1-->4)beta-D -glucopyranosyl(1-->3)[beta-D-glucopyranosyl(1-->2)]beta-D -galactopyranoside) and 26-O-beta-D-glucopyranosyl(25R)-5 beta-furost-20(22)-ene-3 beta, 26-diol-3-O-(beta-D-xylopyranosyl(1-->3)-[beta-D-glucopyranosyl(1--2)] beta-D-galactopyranoside), respectively. The 1H and 13C NMR resonances of the two compounds were assigned by NMR (1H, 13C, HOHAHA, 1H-1H COSY, HMQC, HMBC, NOE difference) studies. The pharmacological activities of the saponin containing fraction are discussed.5
  • Crude extracts of Agave americana contain two utero-active compounds. One of these, tentatively named "Fraction B", has been purified to chromatographic homogeneity. Its pharmacological actions are similar to those of acetylcholine. However its chromatographic and electrophoretic mobilities are different. Some chemical properties of fraction B are compatible with the structure of an acyl derivative of choline different from acetylcholine.6
  • Steroid sapogenins are constituents of Agave utahensis var. nevadensis, A. lophantha A. parasana7 and A. sisalana.8
  • From the leaves of Agave lecheguilla Torrey, two steroidal sapogenin diols have been isolated. Mass spectra, infra-red and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) data of these two compounds showed them to be (25R)-spirost-5-ene-2 alpha, 3 beta-diol (yuccagenin) and (25R)-5 beta-spirostane-3 beta, 6 alpha-diol. The latter is a new compound to which the trivial name ruizgenin has been given.9
  • Barbourgenin is a steroidal sapogenin from Agave sisalana leaves.10
  • A new steroidal saponin was isolated from the leaves of Agave attenuata Salm-Dyck. Its structure was established as (3beta, 5beta, 22alpha, 25S)-26-(beta-D-glucopyranosyloxy)-22-methoxyfurostan -3-yl O-beta-D-glucopyranosyl-(1-->2)-beta-D-glucopyranosyl-(1-->2)-O-[beta-D-gl ucopyranosyl-(1-->3)]-beta-D-glucopyranosyl-(1-->4)-beta-D-galactopyranosi de. The structural identification was performed using detailed analyses of 1H and 13C NMR spectra including 2D NMR spectroscopic techniques (COSY, HETCOR and COLOC) and chemical conversions. The hemolytic potential of the steroidal saponin was evaluated and the anti-inflammatory activity was performed using the capillary permeability assay.11
  • A new steroidal saponin was isolated from the leaves of Agave shrevei Gentry. Its structure was established as 26-(beta-D-glucopyranosyloxy)-22-methoxy-3-(O-beta-D-glucopyranosyl-(1-->2 )O-[O-beta-D-glucopyranosyl-(1-->4)-O-[O-beta-D-glucopyranosyl-(1-->6)]-O- beta-D-glucopyranosyl(1-->4)-beta-D-galactopyranosyl]oxy)-(3beta, 5alpha, 25 R)-furostane. The structural identification was performed using detailed analyses of 1H and 13C NMR spectra including 2D NMR spectroscopic techniques (COSY, HETCOR, and COLOC) and chemical conversions. The steroidal saponin showed absence of haemolytic effects in the in vitro assay, but demonstrated a significant inhibition of the capillary permeability activity.12
  • In a previous paper, the isolation and structure determination of three new steroidal saponins, dongnosides C (3), D (2) and E (1) from the dried fermented residues of leaf-juices of Agave sisalana forma Dong No. 1 was reported. In a continuing study on this plant, two additional new major steroidal saponins, named dongnosides B (4) and A (5), were obtained. Their structures were characterized respectively as tigogenin 3-O-alpha-L-rhamonpyranosyl-(1-->4)-beta-D-glucopyranosyl-(1-->2)- [beta-D- glucopyranosyl-(1-->3)]-beta-D-glucopyranosyl-(1-->4)-beta-D-galactop yranoside and 3-O-alpha-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1-->4)-beta-D-glucopyranosyl-(1-->2)-[beta- D- xylopyranosyl-(1-->3)-beta-D-glucopyranosyl-(1-->3)]-beta-D- glucopyranosyl-(1-->4)-beta-D-galactopyranoside on the basis of chemical and physicochemical evidence.13
  • A new protease was isolated from an extract of leaves of Agave americana variegata. The protease (EC 3.4.-) was purified 565-fold with a yield of 39.5%. The 43.8 mg enzyme had a specific activity of 0.44 units/mg. According to electrophoretic, ultracentrifugal and other physical characterizations the enzyme was homogeneous. The enzyme had a MR of 57000, a S20,W-value of 4.37 S, a D20, W-value of 6.8-7.0 - 10(-7) cm2sec-1, a Stokes radius of 3.18 nm, a partial specific volume of 0.735 cm3g-1, a frictional ration of 1.25, a molecular absorbancy index at 280 nm of 5.773-10(4), an isoelectric point of 5.25 and contained 8-10% carbohydrate. Agave protease could hydrolyze a variety of protein substrates although it did have a restricted specificity. It is not a sulphhydryl protease but seems to be an alkaline "serine" protease with an optimum pH of 7.8-8.0 Agave protease had marked esterolytic activity and with Cbz-Tyr-ONp had an apparent Michaelis constant of 0.0345 -10(-3) M and a V of 1.24 mol substrate/mol enzyme per sec. The enzyme did not need metal ions for optimal activity, monovalent cations did not influence its kinetic parameters, but it was inhibited by cobalt, pC1HgBzO- and TosPheCH2C1. With respect to its primary specificity, as well as its pH-dependence there was a resemblance with chymotrypsin, although the rate of hydrolysis of Agave protease is much lower.14
  • A new bisdesmosidic spirostanol saponin, along with three known saponins, were isolated from Agave americana (Agavaceae). The structure of the new saponin was elucidated as (25R)-3 beta, 6 alpha-dihydroxy-5 alpha-spirostan-12-one 3,6-di-O-beta-D-glucopyranoside. Among the isolated saponins, hecogenin tetraglycoside showed cytotoxic activity against HL-60 human promyelocytic leukemia cells with an IC50 value of 4.3 micrograms/mL.15
  • Sterols, steroidal sapogenins, steroidal alkaloids and alkaloidal amines derived from plant sources provide the starting materials for steroid production. Hecogenin (IV), a saponin (Agave sislana), was manufactured to cortisone by the process of Spensley et al.16
  • The bacterial diversity in pulque, a traditional Mexican alcoholic fermented beverage, was studied in 16S rDNA clone libraries from three pulque samples. Identity of 16S rDNA sequenced clones showed that bacterial diversity present among pulque samples is dominated by Lactobacillus species (80.97%). Seventy-eight clones exhibited less than 95% of relatedness to NCBI database sequences, which may indicate the presence of new species in pulque samples.17
  • Antibacterial: Kassu et al. determined the botanical identity, cytotoxicity, and antibacterial properties of the commonly used toothbrush sticks in Ethiopia.18 The study was performed by purchasing the commonly used toothbrush sticks from street markets in various towns of Ethiopia. Voucher specimens were collected and their botanical identity was determined following floral keys. The toothbrush sticks were ground in a mill and soaked in absolute methanol for 24 hours and filtered. The crude methanol extracts were used to test their antibacterial activity by impregnating into filter paper discs and placing on test plates of Staphylococcus aureus and Bacillus cerues. Their lethality to brine shrimp (Artemia salina) was performed following standard procedures. Crude methanol extracts of only Agave sisalana, Birbira and Hypericum revolutum test concentrations up to 500 micrograms/ml showed weak toxicity to brine shrimp. All the extracts showed antibacterial activity against Staphylococcus aureus and Bacillus cereus by agar diffusion method. Davidson et al. discussed the wound treatment practices of the Aztecs are discussed.19 The use of concentrated maguey sap (Agave ssp.) was widespread and has persisted in folk medicine due to its effectiveness. A possible reason may be that it is effective. Laboratory analysis of maguey syrup indicates that its utilization as a remedy by ancient and modern Mesoamericans could contribute to the healing process of aerobic wound infections. Both pyogenic and enteric bacteria appear to be susceptible to maguey syrup. The traditional addition of salt to the remedy seems to enhance the effectiveness of the material in inhibiting the growth of one of the major causes of pyogenic infective processes, Staphylococcus aureus. This finding is additional proof of the effectiveness of pre-Hispanic medicine, and of the skills of pre-Hispanic physicians.
  • Anti-inflammatory: Agave intermixta Trel. and Cissus sicyoides L. are two tropical plants originating from the Dominican Republic that have shown anti-inflammatory effects from both oral (300 and 500mg/kg (p.o)) and topical (2 and 5mg/mouse ear) application in in vivo models20 Agave extract was able to reduce edema by 50% compared to the control group. No lethal effects were produced after oral administration of the extracts. In homogenated tissue samples from the inflamed areas, a distinct decrease in the level of myeloperoxidase enzyme was noted.20
  • In lyophilized extracts of Agave americana L (Agavaceae) administered by the intraperitoneal route at doses equivalent to 200 and 300mg/kg of fresh plant starting material, showed good anti-inflammatory activity. Doses of genins (total steroidal sapogenins, hecogenin and tigogenin) equivalent to the amount in the lyophilized extracts produced an antiedentatous effect which was much stronger and more efficacious than that obtained with an i.p. administration of 5mg/kg of indomethacin or dexamethasone 21-phosphate at a dose equivalent to the molar content of hecogenin administered. At the doses used to evaluate the anti-inflammatory activity, the genins did not have any harmful effect on the gastric mucous membranes. Lesions occurred when significantly higher doses of hecogenin were given, but gastric damage was still less than that caused by the drugs used for comparative purposes.21
  • Antitumor: Antitumor agents have been extracted from Agave schottii (Amaryllidaceae).22
  • Cytotoxic: A new chlorogenin hexasaccharide (1) was isolated from leaves of Agave fourcroydes (Agavaceae). The structure of the new saponin was elucidated as chlorogenin 3-O-[alpha-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1-->4)-beta-D-glucopyranosyl-(1-->3)-[beta-D -glucopyranosyl-(1-->3)-beta-D-glucopyranosyl-(1-->2)]-beta-D-glucopyranos yl-(1-->4)-beta-D-galactopyranoside] (1) by spectroscopic analysis and the result of acidic hydrolysis. The new saponin (1) as well as known hexasaccharides (3 and 5) isolated here showed cytotoxicity against HeLa cells, and (1) exhibited a cell cycle inhibitory effect at the G2/M stage at the concentration of 7.5 and 10 microg/mL.23
  • The cytostatic activities of Agave intermixta L. (Agavaceae) and Cissus sicyoides L. (Vitaceae) have been determined. In the antimitotic assay, Agave intermixta L. showed complete inhibition of cell division at 24 h of treatment. Both species showed a moderate cytostatic activity against HEp-2 cells, Cissus sicyoides L. being the most active species.24 Cytotoxic saponins can be obtained from Agave.25
  • Other: Agave americana is a cactus growing abundantly in Mexico. Its cooked stem ("quiote") yields by mastication a sweet juice, which is swallowed while the fibers ("bagazo") are spit out. This may account for the rarity of bezoars from this origin.26
  • Contraceptive: Anordin and dinordin, prepared with steroids derived from the sisal plants Agave sisilana and Agave Americana have been used for their antifertility effects. These agents, whose anti-fertility properties have been confirmed by scientists in Sweden and the United States, constitute a new family of contraceptives with the great advantage of having to be taken only once or twice a month instead of the 20 times per month necessary with the ordinary pill.1

Pharmacodynamics/Kinetics:
  • Clearance rate in blood and milk: One study assessed the quantity of ethanol consumed in pulque, a mildly alcoholic beverage from the maguey cactus, and its clearance rate in the blood and milk of 11 rural women in the state of Mexico. They divided lactating mothers into two groups: one ingested a single dose of pulque 0.21 +/- 0.08 g/kg of body weight (group A) and one ingested 0.44 +/- 0.11 g/kg (group B). Maximal concentration of ethanol was reached in milk at 60 minutes and almost equaled that in plasma. Both groups showed a similar clearance pattern regardless of the volume of pulque ingested. Clearance rates between groups were different: ethanol concentration in milk at 60 minutes were 8.4 +/- 3.0 mg/dL for group A and 26.2 +/- 7.0 mg/dL for group B. Two hours later ethanol levels were 3.6 +/- 3.4 mg/dL and 23.3 +/- 9.4 mg/dL respectively. Clearance rates were slower in mothers showing the highest concentration of ethanol in milk. The present data demonstrate that there is no differential elimination of ethanol in maternal blood and milk following ingestion of a moderate amount of pulque during lactation. The amount of ethanol received by infants through milk is relatively low and therefore it is unlikely to have harmful effects on them. Pulque consumption adds about 350 kcal/day to the customary dietary intake of these lactating women.2

References
  1. Crabbe, P. Mexican plants and human fertility. UNESCO Cour. 1979;7:33-34. 12309933
  2. Argote-Espinosa, R. M.; Flores-Huerta, S.; Hernandez-Montes, H. et al. [Plasma clearance of ethanol and its excretion in the milk of rural women who consume pulque]. Rev. Invest. Clin. 1992;44(1):31-36. 1523347
  3. Mendes, T. P.; Silva, G. M.; da Silva, B. P. et al. A new steroidal saponin from Agave attenuata. Nat. Prod. Res. 2004;18(2):183-188. 14984094
  4. Uniyal, G. C.; Agrawal, P. K.; Sati, O. P. et al. A spirostane hexaglycoside from Agave cantala fruits. Phytochemistry 1991;30(12):4187-4189. 1367879
  5. Abdel-Khalik, S. M.; Miyase, T.; Melek, F. R. et al. New steroidal saponins from Agave lophantha Schiede and their pharmacological evaluation. Pharmazie 2002;57(8):562-566. 12227199
  6. Basilio, C. M.; Seyler, L.; Bernstein, J. et al. Isolation and characterization of an utero-active compound from Agave americana. P. R. Health Sci. J. 1989;8(3):295-299. 2640501
  7. Bedour, M. S.; Elgamal, M. H.; El Tawil, B. A. Steroid sapogenins, part XV. The constituents of Agave utahensis var. nevadensis, A. lophantha and A. parasana. Planta Med. 1979;36(2):180-181. 461571
  8. Blunden, G.; Yi, Y.; Jewers, K. A reinvestigation of the steroidal sapogenins of Agave sisalana. Lloydia 1974;37(1):10-16. 4833217
  9. Blunden, G.; Carabot, A.; Cripps, A. L. et al. Ruizgenin, a new steroidal sapogenin diol from Agave lecheguilla. Steroids 1980;35(5):503-510. 7394856
  10. Blunden, G.; Patel, A. V.; Crabb, T. A. Barbourgenin, a new steroidal sapogenin from Agave sisalana leaves. J. Nat. Prod. 1986;49(4):687-689. 3783164
  11. da Silva, B. P.; de Sousa, A. C.; Silva, G. M. et al. A new bioactive steroidal saponin from Agave attenuata. Z. Naturforsch. C. 2002;57(5-6):423-428. 12132678
  12. da Silva, B. P.; Parente, J. P. A new bioactive steroidal saponin from Agave shrevei. Z. Naturforsch. C. 2005;60(1-2):57-62. 15787245
  13. Ding, Y.; Tian R. H.; Yang, C. R. et al. Two new steroidal saponins from dried fermented residues of leaf-juices of Agave sisalana forma Dong No. 1. Chem. Pharm. Bull. (Tokyo) 1993;41(3):557-560. 8477509
  14. Du Toit, P. J. Isolation and partial characterization of a protease from Agave americana variegata. Biochim. Biophys. Acta 1976;429(3):895-911. 5146
  15. Yokosuka, A.; Mimaki, Y.; Kuroda, M. et al. A new steroidal saponin from the leaves of Agave americana. Planta Med. 2000;66(4):393-396. 10865469
  16. Fazli, F. R. Contraceptives and other steroid drugs: their production from steroidal sapogenins. Pak. J. Sci. 1968;20(1 and 2):64-67. 12229321
  17. Escalante, A.; Rodriguez, M. E.; Martinez, A. et al. Characterization of bacterial diversity in pulque, a traditional Mexican alcoholic fermented beverage, as determined by 16S rDNA analysis. FEMS Microbiol. Lett. 2004;235(2):273-279. 15183874
  18. Kassu, A.; Dagne, E.; Abate D. et al. Ethnomedical aspects of the commonly used toothbrush sticks in Ethiopia. East Afr. Med. J. 1999;76(11):651-653. 10734528
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