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Plant Profiler

Rooibos (Aspalathus linearis)


Aspalathus linearis Image
Synonyms / Common Names / Related Terms
Aspalathin, Aspalathus acuminatus, Aspalathus contaminata, Borbornia pinfolia, chrysoeryol, Fabaceae/Leguminosae (family), hyperoside, isoorientin, isoquercitrin, isovitexin, Kaffree tea, long life tea, luteolin, orientin, Psoralea linearis, quercetin, (R)-eriodictyol-6-C-beta-D-glucopyranoside, red bush tea, Redbush tea, red tea, rutin, (S)-eriodictyol-6-C-beta-D-glucopyranoside, vitexin.






Mechanism of Action
Pharmacology:
  • Constituents: Using HPLC/UV method for analysis of unfermented rooibos, the main compounds determined were aspalathin (49.92 +/- 0.80mg/g), isoorientin (3.57 +/- 0.18mg/g), orientin (2.336 +/- 0. 049mg/g), and rutin (1.69 +/- 0.14mg/g), followed in order by isovitexin, vitexin, isoquercitrin and hyperoside, quercetin, luteolin and chrysoeryol.8
  • Anti-cancer effects: Topical application of the tea fractions prior to the tumor promoter, 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA), on ICR mouse skin initiated with 7,12-dimethylbenz[a]anthracene (DMBA) suppressed skin tumorigenesis significantly (p<0.001) with the processed rooibos E/A fraction exhibiting 75% and unprocessed rooibos 60%.9
  • An abnormally elevated expression of cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) has been implicated in pathogenesis and progression of carcinogenesis.10 Methanol extracts of rooibos tea inhibited 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA)-induced COX-2 expression in human breast epithelial (MCF10A) cells and in mouse skin in vivo.
  • Anti-HIV effects: The alkaline extracts of rooibos tea suppressed the HIV-induced cytopathicity using HIV (HTLV-III) infected MT-4 cells, having extremely low cytotoxicity: Its 50% effective concentration (EC50) was 12-67micrograms/mL, white 50% cytotoxic concentration (CC50) was higher than 1.0mg/mL.3 The active substances were purified with ethanol precipitation. The substances were composed of 27% of reducing sugar, 46% of neutral sugars and 22% of uronic acid. A LD50 of the alkaline extracts from rooibos tea was higher than 1.2g/kg body weight. Acid degradated substances composed of disaccharides and trisaccharides, were also suppressed the HIV-induced cytopathicity. From these results, it is probable that acid polysaccharides from rooibos tea were extremely safe.
  • The anti-HIV activity of the alkaline extract from Aspalathus linearis was recovered mainly in the 25-75% ethanol-precipitated fraction.11 The polysaccharide almost completely inhibited the binding of HIV-1 to MT-4 cells. It is inferred from these results that the polysaccharide from Aspalathus linearis is involved in the mechanism for virus binding to T cells.
  • Polysaccharide that has been extracted with 1% sodium carbonate from rooibos leaves (Aspalathus linearis) showed strong anti-HIV activity.11
  • Anti-mutagenic effects: The antimutagenic and antioxidant potentials of rooibos (Aspalathus linearis) tea samples, collected from each of its major processing stages, were evaluated. Results indicated that the fermented tea had a significantly (p<0.05) lower antimutagenic and antioxidant potential than the unfermented tea.12 Of the different processing stages, the most significant reduction in the antimutagenic and antioxidant property of the tea was found during the "fermentation" step. Sun-drying, sieving, and steam pasteurization also reduced the antimutagenic potential of the tea, although not to the same extent as the first processing step. The hydrogen donating ability was significantly increased after steam pasteurization in comparison to those of fermented and sun-dried tea. Pasteurization did not affect superoxide anion radical scavenging in comparison to fermented tea. Differences seem to exist in the antimutagenicity and antioxidant potencies of the tea sampled at the various stages during processing. A possible role of tea polyphenols in the antimutagenic and antioxidant activities of the tea is suggested as processing caused a significant reduction in the total polyphenolic content.
  • When CHO cells were exposed to rooibos tea extract in the presence of rat liver microsomal enzymes (S9 mix) together with benzo[a]pyrene (B(a)P) or mitomycin C, a decrease in the frequency of chromosome aberrations was observed.13 Rooibos tea also suppressed the induction of chromosome aberrations by mitomycin C in the absence of S9 mix. When cells were treated with tea extract after B(a)P or mitomycin C treatment, rooibos tea suppressed the induction of chromosome aberrations in the presence and absence of S9 mix. Since rooibos tea contains few catechines (well-known antimutagens in tea samples), several unknown antimutagenic components could be responsible for its effect. The antimutagenic effects of tea extracts at concentration levels consumed by humans were examined in mice using micronucleus induction with B(a)P or mitomycin C. When mice received oral gavage of 0.1% rooibos tea at 1.0mL/mouse 6 hours before intraperitoneal injection of mitomycin C, a decrease in the frequency of micronuclei was observed. The induction of micronuclei by B(a)P was suppressed by oral dosage of rooibos tea at 1.0mL/mouse per day for 28 days. This was not due to a delay in the maturation of micronucleated reticulocytes. In conclusion, intake of tea might suppress the mutagenic activity of certain potent mutagens in human beings.
  • Male Fischer rats were given unprocessed (not oxidized) and processed (oxidized) rooibos teas as a sole source of drinking fluid for 10 weeks, and sub cellular liver fractions were prepared.7 Cytosolic fractions of rats consuming the unprocessed rooibos tea significantly (p<0.05) protected against 2-acetylaminofluorene (2-AAF)-induced mutagenesis in the Salmonella mutagenicity test with strain TA 98, using Aroclor 1254-induced microsomes. Marginal or no protection was obtained with the processed rooibos tea. The mutagenic response of aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) against Salmonella strain TA 100 was significantly (p<0.05) inhibited by cytosolic fractions from rats treated with processed and unprocessed rooibos teas. Microsomal fractions prepared from livers of rats treated with both the processed and unprocessed rooibos significantly (p<0.05) reduced the activation of AFB1 while no protection was observed against 2-AAF-induced mutagenesis. None of the tea treatments significantly affected the concentration of the microsomal liver cytochrome P450.
  • The antimutagenic properties of rooibos teas were investigated using the Salmonella typhimurium mutagenicity assay.6 Aqueous extracts of fermented and unfermented rooibos tea (Aspalathus linearis) both possess antimutagenic activity against 2-acetylaminofluorene (2-AAF) and aflatoxin B(1) (AFB(1))-induced mutagenesis using tester strains TA98 and TA100 in the presence of metabolic activation. A far less inhibitory effect was noticed against the direct acting mutagens, methyl methanesulfonate (MMS), cumolhydroperoxide (CHP), and hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2)) using TA102, a strain designed to detect oxidative mutagens and carcinogens. Depending on the mutagen used, the unfermented tea exhibited the highest protective effect. A similar response regarding the protection against mutagenesis was obtained when utilizing different variations of the double layer Salmonella assay. The double layer technique proved to be more effective to detect the protective effect of the different tea preparations against the direct acting mutagens. With respect to indirect mutagens, the highest protection was noticed when the carcinogen was metabolically activated in the presence of the tea extract as compared with when the tea extract was incubated in a separate layer with the bacteria. The current data suggest that two mechanisms seem to be involved in the antimutagenicity of the tea extracts towards carcinogens that require metabolic activation: (i) the tea components may interfere with cytochrome P450-mediated metabolism of these mutagens and (ii) the direct interaction between the tea constituents, presumably the polyphenolic compounds, with the promutagens and/or the active mutagenic metabolites. However, the mild and/or lack of protection and in some cases even enhancement of mutagenesis induced by direct acting or oxidative mutagens, provide new perspectives regarding the role of the polyphenolic compounds known to exhibit antioxidant properties, in the protection against mutagenesis in the Salmonella assay.
  • Oncogenic transformation of mouse C3H10T1/2 cells induced by X-rays was suppressed in the presence of extract of rooibos tea, Aspalathus linealis.14 Transformation was reduced with increased concentration of the extract, so that at an extract concentration of 10%, transformation incidence was similar to the spontaneous level. Suppression was also dependent on treatment time with the extract and was maximal when present during the entire incubation period.
  • Antioxidant effects: The effects of rooibos tea was investigated as a natural source of a wide scale of antioxidants on prevention and treatment of oxidative stress in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats.5 Administration of water and alkaline extracts of rooibos tea and N-acetyl-L-cysteine for comparison to diabetic rats did not affect markers of diabetic status (glucose, glycated hemoglobin and fructosamine). Beside the parameters characterizing hepatotoxic effect of streptozotocin, rooibos tea significantly lowered advanced glycation end-products and malondialdehyde in plasma and in different tissues of diabetic rats, particularly malondialdehyde concentration in lens. From these results, an antioxidant scale of compounds in rooibos tea partially prevents oxidative stress and that is effective in both hydrophobic and hydrophylic biological systems.
  • Evaluation of aqueous extracts and crude polyphenolic fractions of unfermented and fermented rooibos showed anti- and/or pro-oxidant activities, using a linoleic acid-Tween-buffer emulsion for lipid peroxidation and the deoxyribose degradation assay, based on a Fenton reaction model system containing FeCl3-EDTA and H2O2 for the generation of hydroxyl radicals.1 Except for the ethyl acetate fraction, with the highest total polyphenol (TP) content and offering the least protection presumably due to pro-oxidant activity, the inhibition of lipid peroxidation by the samples correlated moderately with their TP content in a linear relationship (r=0.896, p<0.01). Using the deoxyribose degradation assay, the pro-oxidant activity of the aqueous extracts and their crude polymeric fractions (0.1mg/mL in the reaction mixture) was linear with respect to their dihydrochalcone (aspalathin and nothofagin) (r=0.977, p=0.023) and flavonoid (r=0.971, p=0.029) content. Pro-oxidant activity was demonstrated for pure aspalathin. Using the same assay, but with ascorbate added to regenerate Fe3+ to Fe2+, the aqueous extract and crude polymeric fraction of fermented rooibos displayed hydroxyl radical scavenging activity. Fermentation (i.e., oxidation) of rooibos decreased the pro-oxidant activity of aqueous extracts, which was contributed to a decrease in their dihydrochalcone content. The in vitro pro-oxidant activity displayed by flavonoid-enriched fractions of rooibos demonstrates that one must be aware of the potential adverse biological properties of potent antioxidant extracts utilized as dietary supplements.
  • Administration of carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) for 10 weeks decreased liver concentrations of reduced and oxidized forms of coenzyme Q9 (CoQ9H2 and CoQ9), reduced -tocopherol content and simultaneously increased the formation of malondialdehyde as indicator of lipid peroxidation.2 Rooibos tea and N-acetyl-L-cysteine(NAC) administered to CCl4-damaged rats restored liver concentrations of CoQ9H2 and alpha-tocopherol and inhibited the formation of malondialdehyde, all to the values comparable with healthy animals. Rooibos tea did not counteract the decrease in CoQ9, whereas NAC was able to do it. Improved regeneration of coenzyme Q9 redox state and inhibition of oxidative stress in CCl4-damaged livers may explain the beneficial effect of antioxidant therapy.
  • Rooibos tea (Aspalathus linearis) was extracted by refluxing with water and 75% ethanol as a solvent.15 Antioxidant activities such as hydrogen donating capacity and scavenging activity of hydrogen peroxide were higher in 75% ethanol extract than in water extract except the rate constant with hydroxyl radical. Peroxyl radical induced DNA strand scission was prevented by both 75% ethanol and water extract and hydroxyl radical induced DNA strand scission was not. This result indicates that total soluble phenolics, especially flavonoid, of rooibos tea are responsible for several kinds of antioxidant activities and preventive activity on peroxyl radical induced DNA strand scission.
  • Rooibos tea significantly (p<0.05) enhanced the activity of cytosolic glutathione S-transferase alpha.16 A significant (p<0.05) increase in the activity of the microsomal UDP-glucuronosyl transferase was obtained with unprocessed rooibos tea. Oxidized glutathione (GSSG) levels were significantly (p<0.05) reduced in the liver of all tea treated rats while reduced glutathione (GSH) was markedly increased in the liver of the herbal tea treated rats. These changes resulted in a significant (p<0.05) increase in the GSH/GSSG ratio by the unprocessed and processed rooibos teas. Modulation of phase II drug metabolizing enzymes and oxidative status in the liver may be important events in the protection against adverse effects related to mutagenesis and oxidative damage.
  • Hepatoprotective properties of rooibos tea (Aspalathus linearis) were investigated in a rat model of liver injury induced by carbon tetrachloride (CCl(4)).17 Rooibos tea, like N-acetyl-L-cysteine, which was used for the comparison, showed histological regression of steatosis and cirrhosis in the liver tissue with a significant inhibition of the increase of liver tissue concentrations of malondialdehyde, triacylglycerols and cholesterol. Simultaneously, rooibos tea significantly suppressed mainly the increase in plasma activities of aminotransferases (ALT, AST), alkaline phosphatase and billirubin concentrations, which are considered as markers of liver functional state.
  • Chinese hamster lung fibroblasts, genetically engineered for the expression of rat cytochrome P450 dependent monooxygenase 1A2 and rat sulfotransferase 1C1 (V79-rCYP1A2-rSULT1C1 cells), were utilized to check for possible protective effects against genotoxicity induced by 2-acetylaminofluorene (AAF) or 2-amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5-b]pyridine (PhIP).18 Genotoxic activity of PhIP was somewhat reduced in a dose-related manner by rooibos tea. Similarly, genotoxicity of AAF was strongly reduced by rooibos tea. With respect to the possible mechanism(s) of inhibition of genotoxicity, benzo[a]pyrene-7,8-dihydrodiol (BaP-7,8-OH) and N-OH-PhIP were applied as substrates for the CYP1A family and for rSULT 1C1, respectively. Rooibos tea somewhat reduced the genotoxicity of BaP-7,8-OH. Rooibos tea weakly inhibited the genotoxicity of N-OH-PhIP. These results are suggestive for enzyme inhibition as mechanism of protection by complex mixtures of plant origin.
  • The antimutagenic and antioxidant potentials of rooibos (Aspalathus linearis) tea samples, collected from each of its major processing stages, were evaluated. Results indicated that the fermented tea had a significantly (p<0.05) lower antimutagenic and antioxidant potential than the unfermented tea.12 Of the different processing stages, the most significant reduction in the antimutagenic and antioxidant property of the tea was found during the "fermentation" step. Sun-drying, sieving, and steam pasteurization also reduced the antimutagenic potential of the tea, although not to the same extent as the first processing step. The hydrogen donating ability was significantly increased after steam pasteurization in comparison to those of fermented and sun-dried tea. Pasteurization did not affect superoxide anion radical scavenging in comparison to fermented tea. Differences seem to exist in the antimutagenicity and antioxidant potencies of the tea sampled at the various stages during processing. A possible role of tea polyphenols in the antimutagenic and antioxdant activities of the tea is suggested as processing caused a significant reduction in the total polyphenolic content.
  • Radioprotective effects of tea infusions and plant flavonoids were investigated by using the micronucleus test for anticlastogenic activity and the thiobarbituric acid assay for antioxidative activity.19 A single gastric intubation of rooibos tea (Aspalathus linearis) infusion at 1mL per mouse 2 hours prior to gama-ray irradiation (1.5 Gy) reduced the frequency of micronucleated reticulocytes (MNRETs). After the fractionation of rooibos tea infusion, the flavonoid fraction was found to be most anticlastogenic and antioxidative. These results suggest that plant flavonoids, which show antioxidative potency in vitro, work as antioxidants in vivo and their radioprotective effects may be attributed to their scavenging potency towards free radicals such as hydroxyl radicals. Therefore, the flavonoids contained in tea, vegetables and fruits seem to be important as antioxidants in the human diet.
  • Anti-proliferative effects: Presence of 2, 10 and 100% of rooibos tea extract in the culture of primary cells significantly inhibited cell proliferation.20 The inhibition of cell growth reflected on decreased DNA, RNA and protein contents in primary cell culture and fibroblasts and myoblasts. The ability of the primary cells, fibroblasts and myoblasts to synthesize DNA and protein in the presence of rooibos tea extract, measured as an amount of [3H]thymidine and [3H]leucine incorporated into DNA and de novo synthesized protein, corresponded with decreasing DNA and protein contents in all three cell types. The inhibition effect of rooibos tea rose with increasing concentration of the tea extract in the culture medium. Ornithine decarboxylase activity was significantly affected only by 100% rooibos tea extract in every examined cell type. These results suggest that the inhibitory effect of rooibos tea extract on the growth of primary cells, fibroblasts and myoblasts is due to the potent scavenging activity of the rooibos tea extract.
  • Immunnomodulating effects: In this study, we examined the effects of rooibos tea extract on antigen-specific antibody production and cytokine generation in vitro and in vivo.4 The primary in vitro anti-ovalbumin (anti-OVA) or sheep red blood cell (SRBC) antibody production in murine splenocytes was markedly stimulated by the addition of the tea extract at concentrations of 1-100microg/mL. On the other hand, a nonspecific antibody response elicited with lipopolysaccharide (LPS) in purified splenic B-cells was not modified by the extract. Rooibos tea extract caused an increase in the generation of interleukin 2 (IL-2) both in OVA- and anti-CD3-primed splenocytes at concentrations ranging from 10microg/mL to 1000microg/mL. In contrast, this tea extract suppressed the generation of interleukin 4 (IL-4) in OVA-primed splenocytes. Moreover, the reduction of OVA-induced antibody production in serum of the cyclosporin A (CyA) -treated rats can be significantly restored and the IL-2 generation in murine splenocytes was stimulated, following oral administrations of rooibos tea extract. Thus, rooibos tea extract may facilitate the antigen-specific antibody production through selective augmentation of IL-2 generation both in vitro and in vivo.
  • Long-term consumption of rooibos tea did not change the erythrocyte fragility to either peroxide or hypotonia induced hemolysis. However, rooibos tea decreased peroxide induced hemolysis of erythrocytes incubated with it, but not hemolysis induced by hypotonic NaCl solution. Stronger inhibition of hemolysis has been obtained when a boiled water extract of rooibos tea was used for the inhibition. The degree of inhibition was comparable with the effect of ascorbic acid.21
  • Iron-absorbing effects: A 1979 research article found that in contrast to ordinary tea, rooibos tea did not affect iron absorption significantly.22
  • Neurological effects: The protective effects of rooibos tea, Aspalathus linearis, against damage to the central nervous system (CNS) accompanying aging were examined by both the thiobarbituric acid reaction and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) methods in brains of chronically rooibos tea-treated rats.23 Ad libitum administration of rooibos tea was begun with 3-month-old Wistar female rats and continued for 21 months. The contents of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances in the frontal cortex, occipital cortex, hippocampus and cerebellum in 24-month-old rats after administration with water were significantly higher than those in young rats (5 weeks old). However, no significant increase of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances was observed in rooibos tea -administered aged rats. When MR images of the brains of 24-month-old rats with and without rooibos tea as well as 5-week-old rats were taken, a decrease of the signal intensity was observed in the cerebral cortex, hippocampus and cerebellum in MR images of aged rats without rooibos tea, whereas little change of the signal intensity was observed in MR images of the same regions of 24-month-old rats treated with rooibos tea, whose images were similar to those of young rats. These observations suggested that (1) the age-related accumulation of lipid peroxides in the brain was closely related to the morphological changes observed by MRI, and (2) chronic rooibos tea -administration prevented age-related accumulation of lipid peroxides in several regions of rat brain.

Pharmacodynamics/Kinetics:
  • The alkaline extracts of rooibos tea suppressed the HIV-induced cytopathicity using HIV (HTLV-III) infected MT-4 cells, having extremely low cytotoxicity: Its 50% effective concentration (EC50) was 12-67micrograms/mL, white 50% cytotoxic concentration (CC50) was higher than 1.0mg/mL.3 A LD50 of the alkaline extracts from rooibos tea was higher than 1.2g/kg body weight.

References
  1. Joubert E, Winterton P, Britz TJ, et al. Antioxidant and pro-oxidant activities of aqueous extracts and crude polyphenolic fractions of rooibos (Aspalathus linearis). J. Agric. Food Chem. 2005;53(26):10260-10267. 16366725
  2. Kucharska J, Ulicna O, Gvozdjakova A, et al. Regeneration of coenzyme Q9 redox state and inhibition of oxidative stress by Rooibos tea (Aspalathus linearis) administration in carbon tetrachloride liver damage. Physiol. Res. 2004;53(5):515-521. 15479130
  3. Nakano M, Nakashima H, Itoh Y. Anti-human immunodeficiency virus activity of oligosaccharides from rooibos tea (Aspalathus linearis) extracts in vitro. Leukemia 1997;11 Suppl 3:128-130. 9209319
  4. Kunishiro K, Tai A, Yamamoto I. Effects of rooibos tea extract on antigen-specific antibody production and cytokine generation in vitro and in vivo. Biosci. Biotechnol. Biochem. 2001;65(10):2137-2145. 11758901
  5. Ulicna O, Vancova O, Bozek P, et al. Rooibos tea (Aspalathus linearis) partially prevents oxidative stress in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. Physiol. Res. 2005;15910170
  6. Marnewick JL, Gelderblom WC, Joubert E. An investigation on the antimutagenic properties of South African herbal teas. Mutat. Res. 2000;471(1-2):157-166. 11080671
  7. Marnewick JL, Batenburg W, Swart P, et al. Ex vivo modulation of chemical-induced mutagenesis by subcellular liver fractions of rats treated with rooibos (Aspalathus linearis) tea, honeybush (Cyclopia intermedia) tea, as well as green and black (Camellia sinensis) teas. Mutat. Res. 2004;558(1-2):145-154. 15036128
  8. Bramati L, Aquilano F, Pietta P. Unfermented rooibos tea: quantitative characterization of flavonoids by HPLC-UV and determination of the total antioxidant activity. J. Agric. Food Chem. 2003;51(25):7472-7474. 14640601
  9. Marnewick J, Joubert E, Joseph S, et al. Inhibition of tumour promotion in mouse skin by extracts of rooibos (Aspalathus linearis) and honeybush (Cyclopia intermedia), unique South African herbal teas. Cancer Lett. 2005;224(2):193-202. 15914270
  10. Na HK, Mossanda KS, Lee JY, et al. Inhibition of phorbol ester-induced COX-2 expression by some edible African plants. Biofactors 2004;21(1-4):149-153. 15630188
  11. Nakano M, Itoh Y, Mizuno T, et al. Polysaccharide from Aspalathus linearis with strong anti-HIV activity. Biosci. Biotechnol. Biochem. 1997;61(2):267-271. 9058964
  12. Standley L, Winterton P, Marnewick JL, et al. Influence of processing stages on antimutagenic and antioxidant potentials of rooibos tea. J. Agric. Food Chem. 2001;49(1):114-117. 11170567
  13. Sasaki YF, Yamada H, Shimoi K, et al. The clastogen-suppressing effects of green tea, Po-lei tea and Rooibos tea in CHO cells and mice. Mutat. Res. 1993;286(2):221-232. 7681534
  14. Komatsu K, Kator K, Mitsuda Y, et al. Inhibitory effects of Rooibos tea, Aspalathus linealis, on X-ray-induced C3H10T1/2 cell transformation. Cancer Lett. 1994;77(1):33-38. 8162560
  15. Lee EJ, Jang HD. Antioxidant activity and protective effect on DNA strand scission of Rooibos tea (Aspalathus linearis). Biofactors 2004;21(1-4):285-292. 15630213
  16. Marnewick JL, Joubert E, Swart P, et al. Modulation of hepatic drug metabolizing enzymes and oxidative status by rooibos (Aspalathus linearis) and Honeybush (Cyclopia intermedia), green and black (Camellia sinensis) teas in rats. J. Agric. Food Chem. 2003;51(27):8113-8119. 14690405
  17. Ulicna O, Greksak M, Vancova O, et al. Hepatoprotective effect of rooibos tea (Aspalathus linearis) on CCl4-induced liver damage in rats. Physiol. Res. 2003;52(4):461-466. 12899659
  18. Edenharder R, Sager JW, Glatt H, et al. Protection by beverages, fruits, vegetables, herbs, and flavonoids against genotoxicity of 2-acetylaminofluorene and 2-amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5-b]pyridine (PhIP) in metabolically competent V79 cells. Mutat. Res. 2002;521(1-2):57-72. 12438004
  19. Shimoi K, Masuda S, Shen B, et al. Radioprotective effects of antioxidative plant flavonoids in mice. Mutat. Res. 1996;350(1):153-161. 8657176
  20. Lamosova D, Jurani M, Greksak M, et al. Effect of Rooibos tea (Aspalathus linearis) on chick skeletal muscle cell growth in culture. Comp. Biochem. Physiol. C Pharmacol. Toxicol. Endocrinol. 1997;116(1):39-45. 9080671
  21. Simon M, Horovska L, Greksak M, et al. Antihemolytic effect of Rooibos tea (Aspalathus linearis) on red blood cells of Japanese quails. Gen. Physiol. Biophys. 2000;19(4):365-371. 11409839
  22. Hesseling PB, Klopper JF, van Heerden PD. [The effect of rooibos tea on iron absorption]. S. Afr. Med. J. 1979;55(16):631-632. 462276
  23. Inanami O, Asanuma T, Inukai N, et al. The suppression of age-related accumulation of lipid peroxides in rat brain by administration of Rooibos tea (Aspalathus linearis). Neurosci. Lett. 1995;196(1-2):85-88. 7501264




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