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Ash (Fraxinus excelsior)


Ash (Flaxinus excelsior) Image
Synonyms / Common Names / Related Terms
Ash wood dust, flavonoids, Fraxini cortex, Fraxinus americana, Fraxinus elatior, Fraxinus excelsior, Fraxinus excelsior L., Fraxinus ornus L., hydroxycoumarins, Oleaceae (family), phenylethanoids, secoiridoid glucosides, white ash.
Note: This monograph does not include other unrelated species with the common name ash, such as Mountain ash (Sorbus spp.) or Prickly ash (Zanthoxylum spp.).




Mechanism of Action

Pharmacology:

  • Constituents: Ash has been shown to contain flavonoids, hydroxycoumarins, phenylethanoids, and secoiridoid glucosides.2
  • Analgesic properties: The analgesic properties of ash (Fraxini cortex) have been demonstrated with combination products containing Fraxini cortex, Populi cortex/folia (Aspen), and Solidaginis herba (Goldenrod) in clinical studies of rheumatoid arthritis and osteoarthritis.1 The combination product is reported to be similar in efficacy to non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAID), but with half as many adverse effects.1
  • Anti-inflammatory effects: The anti-inflammatory properties of ash (Fraxini cortex) have been demonstrated with combination products containing Fraxini cortex, Populi cortex/folia (aspen), and Solidaginis herba (goldenrod) in clinical studies of rheumatoid arthritis and osteoarthritis.1 The combination product is reported to be similar in efficacy to non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAID), but with half as many adverse effects.1 The potential anti-inflammatory properties of ash bark (Fraxinus ornus) are thought to be due to the presence of hydroxycoumarins, secoiridoid glucosides, phenylethanoids, and flavonoids.2 Anti-inflammatory properties may be related to coumarins' potential inhibition of both T-cell activation and the arachidonic acid cascade.3
  • Antimicrobial effects: According to a review, biological studies have indicated that ash bark, leaves, and flowers (Fraxinus ornus) may possess significant antimicrobial activity thought to be due to the presence of hydroxycoumarins, secoiridoid glucosides, phenylethanoids, and flavonoids.2
  • Antioxidative effects: According to a review, biological studies have indicated that ash bark, leaves, and flowers (Fraxinus ornus) may possess significant antioxidant activities thought to be due to the presence of hydroxycoumarins, secoiridoid glucosides, phenylethanoids, and flavonoids.2
  • Antiviral effects: According to a review, biological studies have indicated that ash bark, leaves, and flowers (Fraxinus ornus) may possess significant antiviral activity thought to be due to the presence of hydroxycoumarins, secoiridoid glucosides, phenylethanoids, and flavonoids.2
  • Immunomodulatory effects: According to a review, biological studies have indicated that ash bark, leaves, and flowers (Fraxinus ornus) may possess significant immunomodulatory activities thought to be due to the presence of hydroxycoumarins, secoiridoid glucosides, phenylethanoids, and flavonoids.2 The immunomodulatory effects of ash may be related to the presence of coumarins, which may inhibit both T-cell activation and the arachidonic acid cascade.3
  • Photodynamic damage prevention: According to a review, biological studies have indicated that ash bark, leaves, and flowers (Fraxinus ormus) may have the ability to prevent photodynamic damage, thought to be a result of hydroxycoumarins, secoiridoid glucosides, phenylethanoids, and flavonoids present in ash.2
  • Wound healing: According to a review, biological studies have indicated that ash bark, leaves, and flowers (Fraxinus ormus) may have wound healing properties, which may be due to the presence of hydroxycoumarins, secoiridoid glucosides, phenylethanoids, and flavonoids.2

Pharmacodynamics/Kinetics:

  • Insufficient available evidence.

References

  1. Klein-Galczinsky, C. [Pharmacological and clinical effectiveness of a fixed phytogenic combination trembling poplar (Populus tremula), true goldenrod (Solidago virgaurea) and ash (Fraxinus excelsior) in mild to moderate rheumatic complaints]. Wien Med Wochenschr 1999;149(8-10):248-253. 10483692
  2. Kostova, I. Fraxinus ornus L. Fitoterapia 2001;72(5):471-480. 11429238
  3. von Kruedener, S., Schneider, W., and Elstner, E. F. A combination of Populus tremula, Solidago virgaurea and Fraxinus excelsior as an anti-inflammatory and antirheumatic drug. A short review. Arzneimittelforschung 1995;45(2):169-171. 7710441




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