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Plant Profiler

Betony (Stachys betonica)


Betony (SStachys betonica) Image
Synonyms / Common Names / Related Terms
Alkaloids, Betoine (French), betonica (Spanish, Italian), Betonica officinalis, betonicolide, betonicosides A-D, Betonien (German), betulinic acid, bishopswort, bishop wort, D-camphor, delphinidin, diterpenoid, glycosides, heal-all, hedgenettle, hedge nettles, hyperoside, Labiatae (family), Lamiaceae (family), lousewort, manganese, oleanolic acid, purple betony, rosmarininc acid, rutin, self-heal, stachydrine, Stachys atherocalyx C., Stachys betonica, Stachys bombycina, Stachys byzanthina C. Koch., Stachys byzantina, Stachys candida, Stachys chrysantha, Stachys grandidentata, Stachys inflata, Stachys lavandulifolia, Stachys officinalis, Stachys palustris L., Stachys parviflora, Stachys persica Gmel., Stachys plumose, Stachys recta, Stachys riederi, Stachys sieboldii, Stachys sieboldii (Miq.), tannins, ursolic acid, wood betony, woundwort.

Note: The term "betony" is frequently used for many species of Stachys, and this monograph does not identify any one species of Stachys as betony.

Note: Betony should not be confused with Canada lousewort (Pedicularis canadensis), which is also called wood betony.

Mechanism of Action

Pharmacology:

  • Constituents: Limited research exists pertaining to the active constituents of betony. Tannins and glycosides have been reported to be the active components of betony. Other reported constituents include betulinic acid, D-camphor, delphinidin, hyperoside, manganese, oleanolic acid, rosmarininc acid, rutin, ursolic acid, and stachydrine. Two phenethyl alcohol glycosides have been identified from the whole plant of Stachys parviflora: parviflorosides A and B; 2-(3,4-dihydroxyphenyl)-ethyl-O-alpha-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1 -->2)-4-O-E-caffeoyl-beta-D-glucopyranoside (1) and 2-(3,4-dihydroxyphenyl)-ethyl-O-alpha-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1 -->2)-6-O-E-caffeoyl-beta-D-glucopyranoside (2).3
  • Anxiolytic effects: An extract of Stachys lavandulifolia was shown to have anxiolytic effects in rats, based on performance on the elevated plus-maze model of anxiety.2
  • Antibacterial effects: Extracts of eight Stachys species were found to have antibacterial properties, including Stachys alopecuros (L.) Bentham., Stachys scardica (Griseb.) Hayek, Stachys cretica (L) ssp. cretica, Stachys germanica (L.) ssp. heldreichii (Boiss.) Hayek, Stachys recta (L.), Stachys spinulosa (L.), Stachys euboica Rech., and Stachys menthifolia Vis.1
  • Antifungal effects: Extracts of eight Stachys species were found to have antifungal properties, including Stachys alopecuros (L.) Bentham., Stachys scardica (Griseb.) Hayek, Stachys cretica (L) ssp. cretica, Stachys germanica (L.) ssp. heldreichii (Boiss.) Hayek, Stachys recta (L.), Stachys spinulosa (L.), Stachys euboica Rech., and Stachys menthifolia Vis.1
  • Anti-inflammatory effects: In laboratory studies, extracts of Stachys chrysantha and Stachys candida have been shown to inhibit leukotriene C4, selectively inhibit TX-synthase enzyme, inhibit histamine release, and inhibit the secretion of tumor necrosis factor alpha and interleukin 6.4,5

Pharmacodynamics/Kinetics:

  • Insufficient available evidence

References

  1. Skaltsa, H. D., Demetzos, C., Lazari, D., and Sokovic, M. Essential oil analysis and antimicrobial activity of eight Stachys species from Greece. Phytochemistry 2003;64(3):743-752. 13679097
  2. Rabbani, M., Sajjadi, S. E., and Zarei, H. R. Anxiolytic effects of Stachys lavandulifolia Vahl on the elevated plus-maze model of anxiety in mice. J Ethnopharmacol  2003;89(2-3):271-276. 14611891
  3. Ahmad, V. U., Arshad, S., Bader, S., Ahmed, A., Iqbal, S., and Tareen, R. B. New phenethyl alcohol glycosides from Stachys parviflora. J Asian Nat Prod Res 2006;8(1-2):105-111. 16753790
  4. Skaltsa, H., Bermejo, P., Lazari, D., Silvan, A. M., Skaltsounis, A. L., Sanz, A., and Abad, M. J. Inhibition of prostaglandin E2 and leukotriene C4 in mouse peritoneal macrophages and thromboxane B2 production in human platelets by flavonoids from Stachys chrysantha and Stachys candida. Biol Pharm Bull 2000;23(1):47-53. 10706410
  5. Shin, T. Y. Stachys riederi inhibits mast cell-mediated acute and chronic allergic reactions. Immunopharmacol Immunotoxicol  2004;26(4):621-630. 15658610




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