Plant Profiler

Cat's claw (Uncaria tomentosa)


Cat's claw (Uncaria tomentosa) Image
Synonyms / Common Names / Related Terms
Ammonia treated quinic acid (QAA), ancajsillo, ancayacu, aublet, auri huasca, bejuco de agua, cat's claw inner bark extract, cell line green Uth-3, C-Med-100®, deixa paraguayo, gambir, garabato, garabato amarillo, garabato blanco, garbato casha, garbato colorado, garbato gavilán, garra gavilán, geissoschizine methyl ether, Gou-Teng, griffe du chat, hawk's claw, jijyuwamyúho, jipotatsa, Krallendorn®, kugkuukjagki, life-giving vine of Peru, mitraphylline, misho-mentis, nature's aspirin, Nauclea oculeata, Nauclea tomentosa, Ourouparia guianensis, Ourouparia tomentosa, paotati-mosha, paraguaya, Peruvian cat's claw, pole catechu, popokainangra, quinic acid (QA), radix Uncariae tomentosae (Willd.), rangayo, Rubiaceae (family), samento, saventaro, tambor hausca, tomcat's claw, torõn, tsachik, tua juncara, uña de gato, uña de gato de altura, uña de gato del bajo, uña de gavilan, una huasca, Uncaria guianensis, Uncaria tomentosa, unganangi, unganangui, UT extract, UTE, vegicaps.

There are 34 Uncaria species other than Uncaria tomentosa. Other species are also referred to as uña de gato: Anadenanthera flava, Bauhinia aculeata, Berberis goudotii, Byttneri hirsuta, Caesalpinia sepiara, Celtis uguanae, Clerodendrum aculeatum, Doxantha ungis catti, Macfadyena undis catti, Mimosa albida, Mimosa acantholoba, Mimosa montana, Mimosa pigra, Pipradenia colubrina, Piptadenia flava, Pisonia aculeate, Pithecellobium unguis catti, Rubus urticaefolius, Smilax species, Xanthoxylum rigidumm, and Zanthozylum panamensis.

Mechanism of Action

Pharmacology:

  • Constituents: Most commercial preparations of cat's claw contain the plant species Uncaria tomentosa. Cat's claw is found in nature in two different chemotypes producing different alkaloidal constituents. Pentacyclic oxindoles are found in the roots of one type, while the tetracyclic oxindoles are present in the second type.31 Uncarine C and uncarine E are two stereoisomers of the pentacyclic oxindoles.32 Other alkaloids of the tetracyclic oxindoles found in cat's claw include mitraphylline, rhynchophylline, and isorhynchophylline.29
  • Cat's claw also contains 3,4-dehydro-5-carboxystrictosidine33 and seven quinovic acid glycosides34,6.
  • Cat's claw bark has been found to contain ursolic acid, oleanolic acid34, beta-sitosterol, stigmasterol, campesterol35, and three polyhydroxylated triterpenes36. The C-8-(S) isomer of deoxyloganic acid (7-deoxyloganic acid), together with beta-sitosteryl glucoside, five known stereoisomeric pentacyclic oxindole alkaloids, and the tetracyclic oxindole isorhyncophylline, have been isolated from the inner bark of Uncaria tomentosa.32
  • Rotundifoline and isorotundifolune15, quinovic acid glycoside 1-7, flavonoids, and coumarins37,34 have all been isolated from Uncaria tomentosa.
  • Cat's claw vine accumulates nearly 80% palmitoleic acid (16:1Delta9) plus cis-vaccenic acid (18:1Delta11) in its seed oil. Acyl-acyl carrier protein (acyl-ACP) desaturases were isolated from developing cat's claw seeds. Upon expression in Escherichia coli, the cat's claw polypeptide functioned as a Delta9 acyl-ACP desaturase and displayed distinct substrate specificity for palmitate (16:0)-ACP.38
  • Antibacterial effects: In a laboratory study, micropulverized Uncaria tomentosa showed antimicrobial activity on Enterobacteriaceae, Streptococcus mutans, and Staphylococcus spp.3
  • Anti-inflammatory effects: According to in vitro and clinical studies, the anti-inflammatory properties of Uncaria guianensis and Uncaria tomentosa may result from their ability to inhibit TNF-alpha and to a lesser extent PGE2 production.20,1,17,10 An in vitro analysis corroborates this mechanism of action theory in finding that cat's claw is a remarkably potent inhibitor of TNF-alpha production.17
  • Another in vitro study characterized the antioxidative and anti-inflammatory properties of Uncaria tomentosa and Uncaria guianensis.39 The plants contain alkaloids and flavanols, and both species showed effective antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities, although Uncaria guianensis was shown to be more potent. The authors concluded that the presence of oxindole or pentacyclic alkaloids in these species did not influence their antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties.
  • In an animal study, Uncaria tomentosa extract protected mice against ozone-induced lung inflammation.40
  • An in vivo study compared the effectiveness of a spray-dried hydroalcoholic extract against an aqueous freeze-dried extract in mice.41 Results showed that the anti-inflammatory activity was significantly higher using the hydroalcoholic compared with the aqueous extract (p<0.05). The extracts also showed little inhibitory activity on cyclooxygenase -1 and -2. It cannot be excluded that the slight inhibitory activity on DNA binding of nuclear factor kappaB (NF-kappaB) is due to cytotoxic effects.
  • In animal studies, extracts and fractions of Uncaria tomentosa had anti-inflammatory activity in various percentages when tested in rat-paw edema. When the isolated compounds in those fractions were tested, they had very little anti-inflammatory activity.19,34 In preliminary pharmacological investigations by Senatore et al., sterols (beta-sitosterol, stigmasterol, and campesterol) in Uncaria tomentosa seemed to contribute to anti-inflammatory activity.35
  • In animal research, alkaloids of Uncaria tomentosa quinovic acid glycosides have also demonstrated anti-inflammatory properties.34
  • Antioxidant effects: In an in vitro study, decoctions prepared from the bark of Uncaria tomentosa had a high antioxidant capacity indicated by its free radical diphenylpicrylhydrazyl capcity, trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity, peroxyl radical-trapping capacity, and superoxide radical scavenging activity. The decoctions reacted with superoxide anion, peroxyl and hydroxyl radicals, as well as with the oxidant species hydrogen peroxide and hypochlorous acid.4,5 It also protected membrane lipids against peroxidation induced by the iron/ascorbate system, as evaluated by the formation of thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances (TBARs). The decoction phenolic profile revealed essentially the presence of proanthocyanidins (oligomeric procyanidins) and phenolic acids, mainly caffeic acid.
  • According to an in vitro study, Uncaria tomentosa had antioxidant properties when incubated with oxidant-induced stressed macrophages.52 Antioxidant properties were also shown in another in vitro study where Uncaria tomentosa showed to be cytoprotective against DPPH and UV irradiation.39,17
  • A later in vitro study also found that cat's claw can limit epithelial cell death in response to oxidant stress.42 Because cat's claw's cytoprotective response exceeds its inherent ability to interact with the injurious oxidant, it may act on intracellular pathways regulating cell death.
  • Other in vitro studies have also noted that cat's claw protects cells against oxidative stress and negated the activation of NF-kappaB.43,17
  • Antinociceptive effects: In an animal study, Uncaria tomentosa produced dose-related antinociception in several models of chemical and thermal pain through mechanisms that involve an interaction with 5-HT2 receptors.12
  • Antitumor effects: Quinic acid is a biologically active component of the bark of Uncaria tomentosa hot water extract C-Med-100.23,44 According to an in vitro study, C-Med-100 inhibits tumor cell proliferation and inflammatory responses.22 However, the extract does not interfere with IL-2 production or IL-2 receptor signaling.
  • According to animal research, C-Med-100 induces prolonged lymphocyte half life and increased spleen cell number in mice dosed with this extract in their drinking water.23 Additionally, the extract induced cell proliferation arrest and inhibited activation of the transcriptional regulator NF-kappaB in vitro.
  • According to an in vitro study, cat's claw extracts and fractions have exerted direct antiproliferative activity on several cell lines, including MCF7 breast cancer, glioma, neuroblastoma, premyelocytic leukemia, and acute lymphoblastic leukaemia.24,14,11,25,26
  • In an in vitro study, cat's claw extracts and fractions show no mutagenic effect in different strains of Salmonella typhimurium with and without metabolic activation.19 However, the plant extracts and fractions show a protective antimutagenic effect in vitro against photomutagenesis induced by 8-methoxy-psoralen (8-MOP) plus UVA in S. typhimurium TA 102. A decoction of Uncaria tomentosa ingested daily for 15 days by a smoker decreased the mutagenicity induced in S. typhimurium TA98 and TA100 by the subject's urine.
  • Antiviral effects: In an in vitro study, quinovic acid glycosides from Uncaria tomentosa exhibited antiviral properties when tested against two RNA viruses, vesicular stomatitis virus, and rhinovirus 1B.6 The quinovic acid glycosides were active against vesicular stomatitis virus, but only two were active against rhinovirus 1B.
  • Chondroprotective activity: In in vitro study using human cartilage, co-administration of extracts from Uncaria guianensis and Lepidium meyenii enhanced IGF-1 mRNA levels in human chondrocytes by 3.8-fold (p<0.05) and partially attenuated nitric oxide production.21
  • Immunomodulation effects: In an in vitro study, the pentacyclic oxindole alkaloids enhanced the cellular immune system, but tetracyclic oxindole alkaloids inhibited immunostimulation of the pentacyclic oxindole alkaloids.18
  • In an animal study, Uncaria tomentosa extracts indirectly modulated immune activity and induced a higher reserve of myeloid progenitors in the bone marrow in consequence of biologically active cytokine release (CSFs, IL-1 and IL-6).30
  • According to an in vitro study, various cat's claw extracts and mixtures of alkaloids modulated the immunobiochemical pathways induced by interferon-gamma.45
  • Animal studies employing mice given C-Med-100 in their drinking water found a dose-dependent increase in spleen cell numbers in the mice treated with the extract, but the proportions of B cells, T cells, NK cells, granulocytes, and memory lymphocytes remained normal.46 Additionally, there were no detectable changes of the lymphoid structure of the spleen even after prolonged treatment. Furthermore, when the treatment with the C-Med-100 extract was interrupted, the cellular components returned to normal levels within one month.
  • In vitro research indicates that Uncaria tomentosa extracts inhibit the MAP kinase signaling pathway and alter cytokine expression, particularly in the human acute monocytic leukemia cell line THP-1.47,48
  • Cardiovascular effects: In an in vitro study, hirsutine from Uncaria rhynchophylla reduced intracellular calcium levels in rat aortas through the inhibition of calcium cannels and by effecting calcium stores16. In other in vitro studies, hirsutine has had vasodilative, antiarrhythmic, and negative chronotropic activity.7,8,9
  • Tetracyclic alkaloids (rhynchophylline, isorhynchophylline, corynoxeine, isocorynoxiene) are reported to act as Ca2+ channel blockers, causing hypotension, and may influence the central nervous system, according to a private correspondence with the manufacturer of Krallendorn®, Immodal Pharmaka in Austria (July 11, 2001).
  • Cholinergic effects: According to animal research, pteropodine and isopteropodine are heteroyohimbine-type oxindole alkaloid components of Uncaria tomentosa, which act as positive modulators of muscarinic receptors.29
  • In an in vitro study, hirsutine from Uncaria non-competitively antagonized the nicotinic receptor release of dopamine in rat pheochromocytoma cells.49
  • CNS effects: The tetracyclic oxindole alkaloids reportedly affect the central nervous system. An animal study showed that the total alkaloid of Uncaria tomentosa antagonized the amnesic effect produced by scopolamine in mice.29 It was also shown that the oxindole alkaloids uncarine E, uncarine C, mitraphylline, rhynchophylline, and isorhynchophylline isolated from Uncaria tomentosa might partly contribute to the effect.
  • In an animal study, hirsutine and hirsuteine displayed anticonvulsant properties in mice.2
  • Sterol metabolism effects: In preliminary laboratory research, Senatore et al. found sterols (beta-sitosterol, stigmasterol, and campesterol) in cat's claw that seemed to be anti-inflammatory.35
  • In an in vitro study, pectin administered to Uncaria tomentosa cell suspension cultures increased the production of triterpene acids (ursolic and oleanolic acid); however, neither growth nor sterol accumulation were affected.50 The addition of terbinafine, an inhibitor of squalene epoxidase, inhibited sterol accumulation while triterpene production was not inhibited. These results suggest that in Uncaria tomentosa cells, both the previously mentioned enzymes and those involved in squalene 2,3-oxide formation play an important regulatory role in the biosynthesis of sterols and triterpenes. Catechin tannins and flavonoids have been reported anecdotally to be constituents of Uncaria tomentosa and may contribute to the potential beneficial actions of cat's claw, but this remains unclear.
  • UV absorption properties: Skin cultures treated with 5mg/mL cat's claw water extract (C-Med-100) and irradiated with 0-100mJ/cm2 UVB had reduced skin cell death compared to cells not treated with C-Med-100.13
  • Vasorelaxant effects: Geissoschizine methyl ether, an indole alkaloid extracted from Uncariae Ramulus et Uncus, is a potent vasorelaxant of isolated rat aorta.28 It has been suggested that the vasorelaxant effect of geissoschizine methyl ether is composed of two different mechanisms: endothelial dependency with nitric oxide and endothelial independency with voltage-dependent Ca(2+)-channel blocking.

Pharmacodynamics/Kinetics:

  • Mitraphylline extracted from Uncaria tomentosa inner bark extract inhibited the growth of glioma GAMG and neuroblastoma SKN-BE(2) cell lines.14 The IC50 for SKN-BE(2) value was 12.3mcM (30 hours) and 20mcM (48 hours) for GAMG.
  • Uncaria tomentosa inhibited the cytochrome P450 3A4 pathway with IC50 values reported at <1% full strength.27
  • Binding: Mitraphylline isolated from Uncaria tomentosa showed significant binding with beta-amyloid 1-40, with a binding constant of K=9.95 x 105/M, as determined by the Hummel-Dreyer method and Scatchard analysis.51

References

  1. Piscoya, J., Rodriguez, Z., Bustamante, S. A., Okuhama, N. N., Miller, M. J., and Sandoval, M. Efficacy and safety of freeze-dried cat's claw in osteoarthritis of the knee: mechanisms of action of the species Uncaria guianensis. Inflamm Res 2001;50(9):442-448. 11603848
  2. Mimaki, Y., Toshimizu, N., Yamada, K., and Sashida, Y. [Anti-convulsion effects of choto-san and chotoko (Uncariae Uncis cam Ramlus) in mice, and identification of the active principles]. Yakugaku Zasshi 1997;117(12):1011-1021. 9437908
  3. Ccahuana-Vasquez, R. A., Santos, S. S., Koga-Ito, C. Y., and Jorge, A. O. Antimicrobial activity of Uncaria tomentosa against oral human pathogens. Braz Oral Res 2007;21(1):46-50. 17426895
  4. Goncalves, C., Dinis, T., and Batista, M. T. Antioxidant properties of proanthocyanidins of Uncaria tomentosa bark decoction: a mechanism for anti-inflammatory activity. Phytochemistry 2005;66(1):89-98. 15649515
  5. Pilarski, R., Zielinski, H., Ciesiolka, D., and Gulewicz, K. Antioxidant activity of ethanolic and aqueous extracts of Uncaria tomentosa (Willd.) DC. J Ethnopharmacol 3-8-2006;104(1-2):18-23. 16202551
  6. Aquino, R., De Simone, F., Pizza, C., Conti, C., and Stein, M. L. Plant metabolites. Structure and in vitro antiviral activity of quinovic acid glycosides from Uncaria tomentosa and Guettarda platypoda. J Nat Prod 1989;52(4):679-685. 2553871
  7. Masumiya, H., Saitoh, T., Tanaka, Y., Horie, S., Aimi, N., Takayama, H., Tanaka, H., and Shigenobu, K. Effects of hirsutine and dihydrocorynantheine on the action potentials of sino-atrial node, atrium and ventricle. Life Sci 1999;65(22):2333-2341. 10597888
  8. Ozaki, Y. [Vasodilative effects of indole alkaloids obtained from domestic plants, Uncaria rhynchophylla Miq. and Amsonia elliptica Roem. et Schult]. Nippon Yakurigaku Zasshi 1990;95(2):47-54. 2328929
  9. Ozaki, Y. [Pharmacological studies of indole alkaloids obtained from domestic plants, Uncaria rhynchophylla Miq. and Amsonia elliptica Roem. et Schult]. Nippon Yakurigaku Zasshi 1989;94(1):17-26. 2792960
  10. Hardin, S. R. Cat's claw: an Amazonian vine decreases inflammation in osteoarthritis. Complement Ther Clin Pract 2007;13(1):25-28. 17210508
  11. De Martino, L., Martinot, J. L., Franceschelli, S., Leone, A., Pizza, C., and De, Feo, V. Proapoptotic effect of Uncaria tomentosa extracts. J Ethnopharmacol 8-11-2006;107(1):91-94. 16569487
  12. Jurgensen, S., Dalbo, S., Angers, P., Santos, A. R., and Ribeiro-do-Valle, R. M. Involvement of 5-HT2 receptors in the antinociceptive effect of Uncaria tomentosa. Pharmacol Biochem Behav 2005;81(3):466-477. 15907989
  13. Mammone, T., Akesson, C., Gan, D., Giampapa, V., and Pero, R. W. A water soluble extract from Uncaria tomentosa (Cat's Claw) is a potent enhancer of DNA repair in primary organ cultures of human skin. Phytother Res 2006;20(3):178-183. 16521105
  14. Garcia Prado, E., Garcia Gimenez, M. D., De la Puerta, V., Espartero Sanchez, J. L., and Saenz Rodriguez, M. T. Antiproliferative effects of mitraphylline, a pentacyclic oxindole alkaloid of Uncaria tomentosa on human glioma and neuroblastoma cell lines. Phytomedicine 2007;14(4):280-284. 17296291
  15. Hemingway, S. R. and Phillipson, J. D. Proceedings: Alkaloids from S. American species of Uncaria (Rubiaceae). J Pharm Pharmacol 1974;26 Suppl:113P. 4156706
  16. Horie, S., Yano, S., Aimi, N., Sakai, S., and Watanabe, K. Effects of hirsutine, an antihypertensive indole alkaloid from Uncaria rhynchophylla, on intracellular calcium in rat thoracic aorta. Life Sci 1992;50(7):491-498. 1311793
  17. Sandoval, M., Charbonnet, R. M., Okuhama, N. N., Roberts, J., Krenova, Z., Trentacosti, A. M., and Miller, M. J. Cat's claw inhibits TNFalpha production and scavenges free radicals: role in cytoprotection. Free Radic Biol Med 7-1-2000;29(1):71-78. 10962207
  18. Wurm, M., Kacani, L., Laus, G., Keplinger, K., and Dierich, M. P. Pentacyclic oxindole alkaloids from Uncaria tomentosa induce human endothelial cells to release a lymphocyte-proliferation-regulating factor. Planta Med 1998;64(8):701-704. 9933988
  19. Rizzi, R., Re, F., Bianchi, A., De, Feo, V, De Simone, F., Bianchi, L., and Stivala, L. A. Mutagenic and antimutagenic activities of Uncaria tomentosa and its extracts. J Ethnopharmacol 1993;38(1):63-77. 8479203
  20. Setty, A. R. and Sigal, L. H. Herbal medications commonly used in the practice of rheumatology: mechanisms of action, efficacy, and side effects. Semin Arthritis Rheum 2005;34(6):773-784. 15942912
  21. Miller, M. J., Ahmed, S., Bobrowski, P., and Haqqi, T. M. The chrondoprotective actions of a natural product are associated with the activation of IGF-1 production by human chondrocytes despite the presence of IL-1beta. BMC Complement Altern Med 2006;6:13. 16603065
  22. Akesson, C., Lindgren, H., Pero, R. W., Leanderson, T., and Ivars, F. An extract of Uncaria tomentosa inhibiting cell division and NF-kappa B activity without inducing cell death. Int Immunopharmacol 2003;3(13-14):1889-1900. 14636838
  23. Akesson, C., Lindgren, H., Pero, R. W., Leanderson, T., and Ivars, F. Quinic acid is a biologically active component of the Uncaria tomentosa extract C-Med 100(R). Int Immunopharmacol 2005;5(1):219-229. 15589483
  24. Riva, L., Coradini, D., Di Fronzo, G., De, Feo, V, De Tommasi, N., De Simone, F., and Pizza, C. The antiproliferative effects of Uncaria tomentosa extracts and fractions on the growth of breast cancer cell line. Anticancer Res 2001;21(4A):2457-2461. 11724307
  25. Bacher, N., Tiefenthaler, M., Sturm, S., Stuppner, H., Ausserlechner, M. J., Kofler, R., and Konwalinka, G. Oxindole alkaloids from Uncaria tomentosa induce apoptosis in proliferating, G0/G1-arrested and bcl-2-expressing acute lymphoblastic leukaemia cells. Br J Haematol 2006;132(5):615-622. 16445836
  26. Cheng, A. C., Jian, C. B., Huang, Y. T., Lai, C. S., Hsu, P. C., and Pan, M. H. Induction of apoptosis by Uncaria tomentosa through reactive oxygen species production, cytochrome c release, and caspases activation in human leukemia cells. Food Chem Toxicol 2007;45(11):2206-2218. 17619071
  27. Budzinski, J. W., Foster, B. C., Vandenhoek, S., and Arnason, J. T. An in vitro evaluation of human cytochrome P450 3A4 inhibition by selected commercial herbal extracts and tinctures. Phytomedicine 2000;7(4):273-282. 10969720
  28. Yuzurihara, M., Ikarashi, Y., Goto, K., Sakakibara, I., Hayakawa, T., and Sasaki, H. Geissoschizine methyl ether, an indole alkaloid extracted from Uncariae Ramulus et Uncus, is a potent vasorelaxant of isolated rat aorta. Eur J Pharmacol 5-31-2002;444(3):183-189. 12063078
  29. Mohamed, A. F., Matsumoto, K., Tabata, K., Takayama, H., Kitajima, M., and Watanabe, H. Effects of Uncaria tomentosa total alkaloid and its components on experimental amnesia in mice: elucidation using the passive avoidance test. J Pharm Pharmacol 2000;52(12):1553-1561. 11197086
  30. Eberlin, S., dos Santos, L. M., and Queiroz, M. L. Uncaria tomentosa extract increases the number of myeloid progenitor cells in the bone marrow of mice infected with Listeria monocytogenes. Int Immunopharmacol 2005;5(7-8):1235-1246. 15914328
  31. Reinhard, K. H. Uncaria tomentosa (Willd.) D.C.: cat's claw, una de gato, or saventaro. J Altern Complement Med 1999;5(2):143-151. 15914328
  32. Muhammad, I., Khan, I. A., Fischer, N. H., and Fronczek, F. R. Two stereoisomeric pentacyclic oxindole alkaloids from Uncaria tomentosa: uncarine C and uncarine E. Acta Crystallogr C 2001;57(Pt 4):480-482. 11313600
  33. Kitajima, M., Hashimoto, K., Yokoya, M., Takayama, H., Aimi, N., and Sakai, S. I. A new gluco indole alkaloid, 3, 4-dehydro-5-carboxystrictosidine, from Peruvian Una de Gato (Uncaria tomentosa). Chem Pharm Bull (Tokyo) 2000;48(10):1410-1412. 11045440
  34. Aquino, R., De Feo, V, De Simone, F., Pizza, C., and Cirino, G. Plant metabolites. New compounds and anti-inflammatory activity of Uncaria tomentosa. J Nat Prod 1991;54(2):453-459. 1919590
  35. Senatore, A., Cataldo, A., Iaccarino, F. P., and Elberti, M. G. [Phytochemical and biological study of Uncaria tomentosa]. Boll Soc Ital Biol Sper 1989;65(6):517-520. 2611012
  36. Aquino, R., De Simone, F., Vincieri, F. F., Pizza, C., and Gacs-Baitz, E. New polyhydroxylated triterpenes from Uncaria tomentosa. J Nat Prod 1990;53(3):559-564. 2213029
  37. Heitzman, M. E., Neto, C. C., Winiarz, E., Vaisberg, A. J., and Hammond, G. B. Ethnobotany, phytochemistry and pharmacology of Uncaria (Rubiaceae). Phytochemistry 2005;66(1):5-29. 15649507
  38. Cahoon, E. B., Shah, S., Shanklin, J., and Browse, J. A determinant of substrate specificity predicted from the acyl-acyl carrier protein desaturase of developing cat's claw seed. Plant Physiol 1998;117(2):593-598. 9625712
  39. Sandoval, M., Okuhama, N. N., Zhang, X. J., Condezo, L. A., Lao, J., Angeles', F. M., Musah, R. A., Bobrowski, P., and Miller, M. J. Anti-inflammatory and antioxidant activities of cat's claw (Uncaria tomentosa and Uncaria guianensis) are independent of their alkaloid content. Phytomedicine 2002;9(4):325-337. 12120814
  40. Cisneros, F. J., Jayo, M., and Niedziela, L. An Uncaria tomentosa (cat's claw) extract protects mice against ozone-induced lung inflammation. J Ethnopharmacol 1-15-2005;96(3):355-364. 15619552
  41. Aguilar, J. L., Rojas, P., Marcelo, A., Plaza, A., Bauer, R., Reininger, E., Klaas, C. A., and Merfort, I. Anti-inflammatory activity of two different extracts of Uncaria tomentosa (Rubiaceae). J Ethnopharmacol 2002;81(2):271-276. 12065162
  42. Miller, M. J., Angeles, F. M., Reuter, B. K., Bobrowski, P., and Sandoval, M. Dietary antioxidants protect gut epithelial cells from oxidant-induced apoptosis. BMC Complement Altern Med 2001;1:11. 11749672
  43. Sandoval-Chacon, M., Thompson, J. H., Zhang, X. J., Liu, X., Mannick, E. E., Sadowska-Krowicka, H., Charbonnet, R. M., Clark, D. A., and Miller, M. J. Antiinflammatory actions of cat's claw: the role of NF-kappaB. Aliment Pharmacol Ther 1998;12(12):1279-1289. 9882039
  44. Sheng, Y., Akesson, C., Holmgren, K., Bryngelsson, C., Giamapa, V., and Pero, R. W. An active ingredient of Cat's Claw water extracts Identification and efficacy of quinic acid. J Ethnopharmacol 1-15-2005;96(3):577-584. 15619581
  45. Winkler, C., Wirleitner, B., Schroecksnadel, K., Schennach, H., Mur, E., and Fuchs, D. In vitro effects of two extracts and two pure alkaloid preparations of Uncaria tomentosa on peripheral blood mononuclear cells. Planta Med 2004;70(3):205-210. 15114496
  46. Akesson, Ch, Pero, R. W., and Ivars, F. C-Med 100, a hot water extract of Uncaria tomentosa, prolongs lymphocyte survival in vivo. Phytomedicine 2003;10(1):23-33. 12622460
  47. Allen-Hall, L., Cano, P., Arnason, J. T., Rojas, R., Lock, O., and Lafrenie, R. M. Treatment of THP-1 cells with Uncaria tomentosa extracts differentially regulates the expression if IL-1beta and TNF-alpha. J Ethnopharmacol 1-19-2007;109(2):312-317. 16959454
  48. Spelman, K., Burns, J., Nichols, D., Winters, N., Ottersberg, S., and Tenborg, M. Modulation of cytokine expression by traditional medicines: a review of herbal immunomodulators. Altern Med Rev 2006;11(2):128-150. 16813462
  49. Watano, T., Nakazawa, K., Obama, T., Mori, M., Inoue, K., Fujimori, K., and Takanaka, A. Non-competitive antagonism by hirsuteine of nicotinic receptor-mediated dopamine release from rat pheochromocytoma cells. Jpn J Pharmacol 1993;61(4):351-356. 8320880
  50. Flores-Sanchez, I. J., Ortega-Lopez, J., Carmen Montes-Horcasitas, M., and Ramos-Valdivia, A. C. Biosynthesis of sterols and triterpenes in cell suspension cultures of Uncaria tomentosa. Plant Cell Physiol 2002;43(12):1502-1509. 12514247
  51. Frackowiak, T., Baczek, T., Roman, K., Zbikowska, B., Glensk, M., Fecka, I., and Cisowski, W. Binding of an oxindole alkaloid from Uncaria tomentosa to amyloid protein (Abeta1-40). Z Naturforsch [C] 2006;61(11-12):821-826. 17294693
  52. Miller, M. J., Mehta, K., Kunte, S., Raut, V., Gala, J., Dhumale, R., Shukla, A., Tupalli, H., Parikh, H., Bobrowski, P., and Chaudhary, J. Early relief of osteoarthritis symptoms with a natural mineral supplement and a herbomineral combination: a randomized controlled trial [ISRCTN38432711]. J Inflamm (Lond) 10-21-2005;2:11. 16242032




Licensed by Natural Standard Copyright © 2010 by Natural Standard Corporation. All Rights Reserved.

back to Plant Profiler
back to top